Home Home | About Us | Sitemap | Contact  
  • Info For
  • Professionals
  • Students
  • Educators
  • Media
  • Search
    Powered By Google

Affirmative Action: A Review of Psychological and Behavioral Research

David A. Kravitz, Rice University

David A. Harrison, University of Texas at Arlington

Marlene E. Turner, San Jose State University

Edward L. Levine, University of South Florida

Wanda Chaves, University of South Florida

Michael T. Brannick, University of South Florida

Donna L. Denning, City of Los Angeles

Craig J. Russell, Louisiana State University

Maureen A. Conard, HRStrategies

A monograph published by The Society for Industrial & Organizational Psychology, Inc.
P.O. Box 87
Bowling Green, OH 43402-0087

Copyright 1997

 

Due to the length of this report (60+ pages) and in consideration of the speed of our members' Internet connections, we have divided the Web version into sections to make it more accessible. Alternately, you can download a copy of the entire report in RTF format or as a Word for Windows '95 document. A detailed summary of the report is also available for viewing on the Web.

 

 

Table of Contents

I. INTRODUCTION

II. BACKGROUND

  • A. Brief History of Legislative and Case Law
  • B. Equal Employment Opportunity Versus Affirmative Action
  • C. Affirmative Action Required by EO11246 Versus Other Affirmative Action
  • D. Need to Address the Controversy

III. EVALUATIONS OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION AND AAPs

  • A. The Nature of Affirmative Action Attitudes
  • B. Structural Influences
  • 1. Qualifications of Selected Candidate
  • 2. Structure of the AAP (Weighting of Demographic Status)
  • a. Conceptualizations
  • b. Empirical Research
  • (1) Knowledge of Affirmative Action
    (2) Opinion Polls

    (3) Experimental Research
    (4) Conclusions c. Possible Mediators of Effect of AAP Structure on Attitudes
    (1) Perceived Fairness
    (a) Introduction
    (b) Qualitative Research on Fairness Perceptions
    (c) Research on the Relation Between Attitudes and Perceptions of Fairness
    (d) Discussion
    (2) Implications for Personal and Collective Self-interest
  • d. Conclusions
  • 3. Attempts to Influence Evaluations
  • a. Providing Information About AAP Details
  • b. Justifying the AAP
  • c. Conclusions
  • 4. Identity of Target Group
  • 5. Setting
  • 6. Need for Affirmative Action
  • 7. Conclusions
  • C. Individual Differences Bases (Respondent Dimensions)
  • 1. Respondent Role
  • a. Decision Makers Versus Others
  • b. Target Group Members Versus Non-members
  • 2. Demographic Variables
  • a. Gender and Race/Ethnicity
  • b. Other Demographic Variables
  • (1) Surveys of the General Public
  • (2) Surveys of Specific Populations
  • (3) Summary
  • 3. Self-Efficacy
  • 4. Opinion Variables
  • a. Prejudice (Racism and Sexism)
  • b. Relative Deprivation
  • (1) Relative Deprivation on Behalf of Others
  • (2) Collective Relative Deprivation
  • c. Political Perspective
  • 5. Personal Experiences
  • 6. Conclusions

IV. EFFECTS OF AAP ON NON-TARGET GROUP MEMBERS' PERCEPTIONS OF TARGET GROUP MEMBERS, AND ON RELATIONS BETWEEN PARTIES

  • A. Evaluations of Females
  • B. Evaluations of Blacks and Other Minorities
  • C. Summary
  • D. Effects on Relations Among Parties

V. PSYCHOLOGICAL AND BEHAVIORAL EFFECTS OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION ON TARGET GROUP MEMBERS

  • A. Measures of Motivation, Interest, Commitment, and Choice
  • B. Selfevaluations of Ability and Performance
  • C. Performance
  • D. Theoretical Perspectives on Recipient Reactions to Affirmative Action
  • E. Summary

VI. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION ON TARGET GROUPS

  • A. Employment of Women and Minorities in Organizations
  • B. Income Attainment
  • C. Promotional and Occupational Status
  • D. Summary

VII. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF AFFIRMATIVE ACTION ON ORGANIZATIONS

  • A. Organizational Effectiveness
  • B. Stock Prices
  • C. Summary

VIII. CONCLUSIONS, LIMITATIONS OF CURRENT KNOWLEDGE, AND NEEDED RESEARCH

  • A. Conclusions
  • B. Limitations and Needed Research

IX. REFERENCES

X. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Prepared by a subcommittee of the Scientific Affairs Committee of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, October, 1996.

Committee Members:
David A. Kravitz, Rice University
David A. Harrison, University of Texas at Arlington
Marlene E. Turner, San Jose State University
Edward L. Levine, University of South Florida
Michael T. Brannick, University of South Florida
Donna L. Denning, City of Los Angeles
Craig J. Russell, University of Oklahoma
Maureen A. Conard, HRStrategies
Rabi S. Bhagat, University of Memphis