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Guidelines for Education and Training at the Doctoral Level in
Industrial-Organizational Psychology

August 1999

Approved by the American Psychological Association 

Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc.

These guidelines were prepared by the Education and Training Committee of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc., Janet Barnes-Farrell, Chair. Members of the Committee were: Debra A. Major (Subcommittee Chair), Jeffrey Reed, Kecia Thomas, Lisa Scherer, and Kathleen Lundquist. 

        Copyright, 1999, by

        Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc.

        Citation: Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. (1999).

Guidelines for education and training at the doctoral level in industrial/organizational psychology. Bowling Green, Oh: Author

Bowling Green, Oh: Author 
 

Guidelines for Education and Training
at the Doctoral Level in
Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Prepared by the Education and Training Committee

Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc.

Division 14 of The American Psychological Association

Organizational Affiliate of The American Psychological Society

Approved by Executive Committee: September 1996

Approved by The American Psychological Association: August 1999

These Guidelines represent the views and expertise of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc., Division 14 of the American Psychological Association and Organizational Affiliate of the American Psychological Society. In issuing these Guidelines, SIOP is not speaking for APA, APS or any other division or unit of APA or APS.

Purpose of the Guidelines

These guidelines replace an earlier version published in 1985 by The Society for I-O Psychology (Division 14 of the American Psychological Association). The last version was developed by the members of the 1982 Education and Training Committee of The Society for I-O Psychology (i.e., Klimoski, Hulin, Ilgen, Neumann, Peters, Schneider, & Stone). These guidelines have been written to aid faculty and curriculum planners in the design of doctoral level graduate programs in Industrial/Organizational psychology. They may also be useful to potential doctoral students in the discipline by providing a preview of doctoral training, suggesting criteria which may be used to select a doctoral program, and giving students an overview of the competencies they are responsible for mastering during the course of their doctoral education.

The term "guidelines" refers to pronouncements, statements, or declarations that are suggestions or recommendations. Guidelines differ from "standards" in the "standards" may be mandatory and may be accompanied by an enforcement mechanism. Thus, as guidelines, this document is not intended to be either mandatory or exhaustive or a substitute for appropriate professional judgment and it may not always be applicable in all situations. The aspirational intent of the guidelines is to facilitate the continued development of Industrial/Organizational Psychology.

Although such guidelines have implications for several other related concerns of the Society members, these other concerns will not be addressed here. Specifically, these guidelines were not written for the purpose of providing the basis for graduate studies program certification, determining eligibility for specialty licensing as an I-O psychologist, establishing eligibility for membership in the Society, or highlighting the continuing education and training needs of the profession. Those interested in training at the master's level are referred to the Guidelines for Education and Training at the Master's Level in Industrial/Organizational Psychology (1994). Finally, it should be reiterated that the focus of this document is the training of I-O psychologists. These guidelines are not designed to be a set of recommendations for education in related fields (e.g., Labor and Human Resources, Organizational Behavior). Although it is recognized that a large number of academic disciplines or specialties are concerned with developing related subject matter and skills, these related areas are beyond the scope of the guidelines.

Perspective of the Guidelines

In many respects, the perspective taken in the current guidelines is consistent with that expressed in the 1985 version. In particular, this revision adheres to the scientist-practitioner model and takes a competency-based approach. In other respects, this version is substantially different from the 1985 Guidelines (e.g., our treatment of "personal skills"). Both the similarities and differences are discussed in more detail below.

The scientist-practitioner. Consistent with the traditional orientation and philosophy of the members of the Society, the underlying theme embedded in these training guidelines is that the I-O psychologist is frequently both the generator of knowledge and the consumer/user of such knowledge. As a scientist, he or she develops and evaluates theory using research and empirical skills. As a practitioner, he or she applies and evaluates theory and research under specific conditions. Thus, the I-O psychologist frequently provides psychological services to individuals and groups in organizational settings.

Consistent with the traditional orientation and philosophy of the members of the Society, the underlying theme embedded in these training guidelines is that the I-O psychologist is frequently both the generator of knowledge and the consumer/user of such knowledge. As a scientist, he or she develops and evaluates theory using research and empirical skills. As a practitioner, he or she applies and evaluates theory and research under specific conditions. Thus, the I-O psychologist frequently provides psychological services to individuals and groups in organizational settings.

Taking the scientist-practitioner model seriously means that doctoral education needs to focus on both the theory and application associated with all content areas. In preparing for the current version of the guidelines, many I-O psychologists, especially those employed outside the academic setting expressed concern that previous guidelines have been too focused on theory. We recommend that theory and practice both receive consideration as students learn about the content of I-O psychology. The relevance of theory to practice and applied research should be emphasized. I-O practitioners working in the field can facilitate the development of doctoral students' practical knowledge by offering internship and research opportunities and sharing their own practical experiences.

This dual emphasis on theory and practice is needed regardless of a student's intended career path. Those interested in academic careers need to understand both theory and practice to develop sound research, the findings of which should have a meaningful applied impact. Academicians will also be charged with teaching new generations of I-O psychologists about the theory and applications associated with each content area. I-O practitioners in industry, government, and consulting are required to use their knowledge and skills to deliver products. Thus, students not only need to know each topic in a theoretical sense, they also need to know "how to" develop and implement associated products. For instance, a student should know "how to" design and conduct a job analysis or conduct and report on the results of a test validation. Learning about a topic in a theoretical sense is not equivalent to the experience of doing it. Doing it and having first hand familiarity with the pitfalls, limits, and constraints of a technique is different from, and as critical as, theoretical knowledge.

Competencies. As emphasized in the 1985 Guidelines, the goal of graduate training is developing competencies. Taking a competency-based approach, these guidelines focus on the skills, behaviors, and capabilities necessary to function as a new member of the profession. One of the committee's primary goals was to update the competency list to reflect current content thought to be important for I-O psychologists.

. As emphasized in the 1985 , the goal of graduate training is developing competencies. Taking a competency-based approach, these guidelines focus on the skills, behaviors, and capabilities necessary to function as a new member of the profession. One of the committee's primary goals was to update the competency list to reflect current content thought to be important for I-O psychologists.

The description of each competency area was amended as needed to reflect the current state of the discipline. In some cases competency titles were altered or re-organized to reflect new content and more appropriate groupings within a domain. The current guidelines include four additional competency areas (i.e., Business and Consulting Skills, Health and Stress in Organizations, Job Evaluation and Compensation, Leadership and Management). Consistent with the emphasis on the scientist-practitioner model, every opportunity to emphasize both theory and practice related to a competency has been seized in this revision of the guidelines. The word "theory" was deleted from many of the competency titles to emphasize the point that both the theory and practice related to a competency are important.

Just as both science and practice are inherent in each competency, we also feel that an appreciation of diversity can be applied to each area. Although the concept has only received theoretical and scientific attention within our field in recent years, the significance of diversity has been long recognized. Thus, graduate training in I-O psychology should take every opportunity to emphasize working with all types of people and developing an appreciation of diverse views.

The 1985 Guidelines included a thorough discussion of the efficacy of the competency-based approach over the previously used multiple curricula models of the 1973-1974 Guidelines (Schneider, Carlson, Lawler, & Pritchard, 1974). As argued in 1985, we also believe that the competency-based approach allows for a more integrated training model, recognizes the possibility of "equifinality" in the methods used to produce competent graduates, and allows for a broader application of the guidelines regardless of individual program capacities and resources.

Identifying competencies. A number of sources were consulted in updating the content of existing competency areas and developing new ones. As mentioned previously, we relied most heavily upon the 1985 version of the guidelines, only departing from it as deemed necessary. We also found Schippmann, Hawthorne, and Schmitt's (1992) analysis of the doctoral level I-O psychologist's work role particularly helpful. Several discussions of the education and training of I-O psychologists in The Industrial-Organ-izational Psychologist were consulted (e.g., Greguras & Stanton, 1996; Maahs & Major, 1995; Sebolsky, Brady, & Wagner, 1996). Various other sources supplied a sense of where we have been and where we are going as a discipline (e.g., Dunnette, 1990; Howard, 1990). In addition, numerous I-O psychologists in academia, industry, consulting, and the government provided input, as did students at various stages of graduate training.

A number of sources were consulted in updating the content of existing competency areas and developing new ones. As mentioned previously, we relied most heavily upon the 1985 version of the guidelines, only departing from it as deemed necessary. We also found Schippmann, Hawthorne, and Schmitt's (1992) analysis of the doctoral level I-O psychologist's work role particularly helpful. Several discussions of the education and training of I-O psychologists in were consulted (e.g., Greguras & Stanton, 1996; Maahs & Major, 1995; Sebolsky, Brady, & Wagner, 1996). Various other sources supplied a sense of where we have been and where we are going as a discipline (e.g., Dunnette, 1990; Howard, 1990). In addition, numerous I-O psychologists in academia, industry, consulting, and the government provided input, as did students at various stages of graduate training.

The 1985 Guidelines purposely excluded "personal skills" (e.g., oral and written communication skills, facility at developing interpersonal relationships, effective work habits, critical/analytic thinking ability, etc.). The argument for exclusion was that such skills are of universal importance and should constitute a common concern of graduate training in any field. In this version of the guidelines, many of these skills have been included in a new competency labeled Consulting and Business Skills. Our contention is that these skills are critical to competence and success as an I-O psychologist. While such skills are indeed universally important, they are applied by I-O psychologists in some unique and consistent ways (e.g., to apply for funding, to communicate with executives and constituents outside the discipline). Although we agree with the 1985 guidelines that such skills could presumably be used as selection criteria in the screening of applicants for graduate study, we also recognize that these skills may need to be further developed through graduate training.

Related competencies. The bulk of this document describes the areas or domains recommended specifically for training in I-O psychology. However, before presenting them, it would be useful to comment on domains considered, but judged not to be appropriate as part of this document.

The bulk of this document describes the areas or domains recommended specifically for training in I-O psychology. However, before presenting them, it would be useful to comment on domains considered, but judged not to be appropriate as part of this document.

One cluster of competencies that was omitted involves areas in which it would be desirable, but not necessary to have training to ensure career success in I-O psychology. A list of these areas could easily be expanded to include much of social science and business (e.g., content mastery in Economics, Marketing, Labor Relations, and even Accounting). Potential important process capabilities (skills) would include those needed for organizational development efforts, employee counseling, or individual rehabilitation. Competencies in all these areas would indeed be appropriate and desirable, but they are not made part of these guidelines.

Other aspects of graduate training have not been formally incorporated into these guidelines. Any quality graduate program should provide students with a realistic preview particular to that program. Expectations and requirements should be clear and explicit from the outset, beginning with the recruiting process. If a program has a particular emphasis (e.g., training academicians or training practitioners), it is also reasonable to expect that emphasis to be clearly communicated. While these are things that we encourage graduate programs to do, we have not developed specific guidelines for them.

There is a belief that a good doctoral program provides guidance to students in their own career planning and in the use of career enhancement strategies. Such activities assist a student in drawing together personal information and experiences in a formal effort to make a career decision and to map out a suitable career path. Once a decision has been made, appropriate developmental experiences could then be provided in a systematic way. Many schools already incorporate such planning, often using a variety of mechanisms (e.g., assigning an advisor; establishing a guidance committee). While this is viewed as a desirable feature of a graduate program, it is not expressed as a competency.

Finally, if a primary aim of graduate education is to produce responsible professionals, it seems reasonable that this notion be reinforced throughout graduate training. Helping students understand the ways in which they are responsible for their own education and career development is highly appropriate and desirable. Though we believe that taking responsibility for one's own professional development should be emphasized (e.g., developing a professional network, communicating with peers, participating in the field, etc.), a relevant competency has not been formally articulated.

The recommended domains. Table 1 lists the areas identified by the committee as relevant to the training of I-O psychologists at the doctoral level. The competencies were organized into two groups. The first (competencies 1-6) reflects the more general knowledge and skill areas deemed appropriate in the training of I-O psychologists. The second group (competencies 7-25) contains those competencies that reflect substantive content in the field of I-O psychology. The entries are presented alphabetically within their group. Neither the presentation order of the two groupings nor the individual entries should be construed to reflect importance or priority in training at the doctoral level.

Table 1 lists the areas identified by the committee as relevant to the training of I-O psychologists at the doctoral level. The competencies were organized into two groups. The first (competencies 1-6) reflects the more general knowledge and skill areas deemed appropriate in the training of I-O psychologists. The second group (competencies 7-25) contains those competencies that reflect substantive content in the field of I-O psychology. The entries are presented alphabetically within their group. Neither the presentation order of the two groupings nor the individual entries should be construed to reflect importance or priority in training at the doctoral level.

In describing the knowledge and skills to be developed, the committee endeavored to stay at the appropriate level of specificity. Our goal was to highlight the key components of each domain well enough to be of help to curriculum designers. We do not describe the totality of the domain. It is also clear that domains are not always easily differentiated. In some cases it may be argued that (analytically/taxonomically) one area could be subsumed within another. Similarly, it is clear that competencies in one domain facilitate mastery or performance in another. These points notwithstanding, the areas listed in Table 1 were all felt to be sufficiently discrete and important to warrant their separate places on the list.

The presentation of the domain attempts both to define and to suggest ways to measure or to index achievement. That is, there is frequent reference to indicators or possible ways that skills in a domain are manifested. Many of these might be used by educators to decide whether or not a person is indeed proficient in an area. This is not to imply that those which are presented are the only indicators of proficiency.

 

TABLE 1

Areas of Competence to be Developed

in Doctoral Level I-O Psychology Programs

1. Consulting and Business Skills

2. Ethical, Legal, and Professional Contexts of I-O Psychology

3. Fields of Psychology

4. History and Systems of Psychology

5. Research Methods

6. Statistical Methods/Data Analysis

7. Attitude Theory, Measurement, and Change

8 Career Development

9. Consumer Behavior

10. Criterion Theory and Development

11. Health and Stress in Organizations

12. Human Performance/Human Factors

13. Individual Assessment

14. Individual Differences

15. Job Evaluation and Compensation

16. Job/Task Analysis and Classification

17. Judgment and Decision Making

18. Leadership and Management

19. Organization Development

20. Organization Theory

21. Performance Appraisal and Feedback

22. Personnel Recruitment, Selection, and Placement

23. Small Group Theory and Team Processes

24. Training: Theory, Program Design, and Evaluation

25. Work Motivation

Recommended Areas of Competence

Table 1 lists the areas recommended by these guidelines for inclusion in doctoral level programs in I-O psychology. The majority of these competencies were included in the 1985 version of the Guidelines. The description of each competency area was updated as appropriate. In some cases competency titles were altered to reflect new content. In addition, four new competency areas (i.e., Business and Consulting Skills, Health and Stress in Organizations, Job Evaluation and Compensation, Leadership and Management) were added to the list. Each competency area is described below:

1. Consulting and Business Skills

Success as an I-O psychologist requires development of a variety of consulting and business skills. Communication, business development, and project management represent broad categories capturing some of the most essential business and consulting skills.

Effective business communication is critical and encompasses a variety of writing, presenting, and interpersonal skills. Business writing is characterized by its brevity, action orientation, attention to the audience, and link to the organization's bottom-line. Business presentation involves the development and presentation of information to a business audience that clearly articulates key messages in terms the audience can understand, along with skills in presenting and responding to questions. Effective communication and interpersonal skills are required to interact with and influence organizational members. These skills are particularly important in team contexts. An understanding of how individual efforts facilitate group performance and the ability to contribute as a member of a group are essential.

Effective business development depends on the ability to package ideas, proposals, and requests in a fashion which leads to their acceptance and movement of the organization in desired directions. Many good ideas are rejected because they are poorly communicated or inadequately justified in terms of their benefits. A practical problem-solving approach is frequently required in a business or consulting setting. Relevant content and methodological skill or knowledge, regardless of its source or discipline, along with creative "outside-the-box" thinking, is often required to address and solve practical business problems. This involves understanding how elements relate to a larger whole (e.g., effect of a change in compensation on employee productivity, satisfaction, turnover).

Project management skills focus on the details of organizing work in a business setting, whether as an internal or external consultant. This may include budgeting, scheduling, and managing others so that work is accomplished in an efficient and effective manner. Project management often requires the integration and utilization of information from several sources. Success is contingent upon being able to attend to detail while maintaining a view of the "big picture."

2. Ethical, Legal, and Professional Contexts of I-O Psychology

This domain has to do with the ethical, legal, and professional contexts within which the I-O psychologist operates. The I-O psychologist should have knowledge of and should behave in accord with relevant ethical guidelines (e.g., Ethical Principles of Psychologists, 1981, 1992, and the Ethical Principles in the Conduct of Research with Human Participants, 1973, 1982). The I-O psychologist should also have knowledge of relevant federal, state, and local laws, statutes, regulations, and legal precedents (e.g., the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission's Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures). Since a fair amount of professional work done in organizations is covered by negotiated labor contracts, competency in this domain would also include an awareness of opportunities and restrictions imposed by such agreements, as well as an appreciation of the labor/management dynamics associated with them. Finally, all I-O psychologists should have knowledge of the various professional norms, standards, and guidelines relevant to their profession (e.g., Specialty Guidelines for the Delivery of Services by Industrial/Organizational Psychologists, 1981; Standards for Providers of Psychological Services, 1979; Principles for the Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures, 1987; and Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, 1985).

3. Fields of Psychology

I-O psychology is basically the study of behaviors of individuals or groups of individuals that occur in a particular type of location-organizations of almost any kind. I-O psychology is a context-centered discipline. This focus differentiates it from fields of psychology that study basic processes (e.g., perception, memory, learning), from fields that study particular populations of individuals (e.g., children, mentally disturbed), from fields that study analytic procedures or assessment procedures (e.g., psychometrics), and from fields that study mechanisms of behavior (e.g., physiological psychology, brain research). Although the populations of individuals and the locations are different, in this emphasis on behavior in a set of locations we are like educational psychologists in our eclecticism. Because we borrow concepts, procedures, and paradigms from the other fields of psychology, it is important that we have an understanding of the strengths, weaknesses, and sources of our often unacknowledged borrowings.

While we draw freely from other fields of psychology, we may not borrow equally from all fields. We share a great deal with social psychology, psychometrics, motivation, learning, and personality. Historically, the discipline has borrowed less heavily from clinical, developmental, and physiological-sensory psychology. The importance of these fields of psychology to the I-O area changes over time and obviously varies with the particular interests of the individual I-O psychologist. It is difficult to predict which of the related fields will develop research leads and findings in the near and distant future that will have an impact on I-O psychology. In any event, to be consistent with APA recommendations (American Psychological Association Committee on Accreditation, 1996), exposure should reflect competency in the following broad areas:

    a) Biological Bases of Behavior: Physiological Psychology, Compara- tive Psychology, Neuropsychology, Sensation and Perception, Psy- chopharmacology.

    b) Cognitive-Affective Bases of Behavior: Learning, Thinking, Moti- vation, Emotion.

    c) Social Bases of Behavior: Social Psychology, Group Processes, Organizational and Systems Theory.

    d) Individual Differences: Personality Theory, Human Development, Abnormal Psychology.

Students in doctoral programs in I-O psychology should be able to read and to comprehend the issues and controversies involved in basic research published in journals in at least a subset of these related areas. The specific fields of competency and journals read will vary among individuals; but awareness, interest, and reading in several areas seem crucial to both initial doctoral training and continuing education.

4. History and Systems of Psychology

If students in graduate programs in I-O psychology know how the discipline of psychology developed and changed into its present configuration, then each generation will share the common bonds and language of the discipline. They will also possess a knowledge of the intellectual heritage of our field. Such common knowledge is important for the pragmatic functional role it plays in communication and in preventing frequent repetitions of the mistakes and dead ends of the past. Many historical schools and systems of psychology have contemporary representatives, either in a pure or a diluted form; a knowledge of the roots of these different theoretical positions is important. For example, many contemporary debates about theoretical perspectives appear dysfunctional when viewed against the background of historical developments in our field. A knowledge of our history enables us to appreciate these different approaches both for their unique contributions to psychology and for the alternatives they provide for an understanding of observable phenomena.

An understanding of history and systems of psychology allows integration of I-O psychology into the broader discipline by tracing our roots back to American functionalism, radical behaviorism, views of Freud, Titchener, Tolman, Spearman, and Cattell and other perspectives that have shared the thinking of psychology. Such integration is important to foster an attitude among I-O psychologists that places high value on the development of theoretical approaches to the I-O problems which are well integrated with psychology as a whole. In addition, there is the specific history of the field of I-O psychology to consider. Understanding one's "roots" as an I-O psychologist and our more recent past is essential.

5. Research Methods

The domain of research methods includes the methods, procedures, techniques, and tools useful in the conduct of empirical research on phenomena of interest in I-O psychology. At a general level, the areas encompassed by research methods include the scientific method (with attention to issues in the philosophy of science), inductive and deductive reasoning, problem statements and research questions, hypotheses, the nature and definition of constructs, and study designs (experimental, quasi-experimental, and non-experimental). At a more operational level, research methods includes, but is not limited to, the manipulation of variables (in experimental research), the concepts underlying and methods used for the assessment of the reliability and validity of measures, the administration of various specific types of measures (questionnaires, interviews, observations of behavior, projective measures, etc.), the use of various sampling procedures (probability and non-probability type) especially as applied to survey research, the conduct of research with various specific strategies (field study, laboratory experiments, field experiment, sample survey, simulation, case study, etc.), the use of statistical methods to establish relationships between variables, and the formulation of research-based conclusions. Specific knowledge about relative strengths and weaknesses of different research strategies, an understanding of qualitative research methods, as well as a tolerant appreciation of the benefits of alternative strategies must be developed. Computer literacy has become increasingly important, and programming skills may be particularly useful. Finally, an understanding of the ethical standards that govern the conduct of all research involving human participants is essential.

6. Statistical Methods/Data Analysis

This domain has to do with the various statistical techniques that are used in the analysis of data generated by empirical research. The domain includes both descriptive and inferential statistical methods; it spans both parametric and nonparametric statistical methods. Among the specific competencies, issues and techniques encompassed by the domain are: estimates of central tendency; estimates of variability; sampling distributions; point and interval estimates; inferences about differences between means, proportions, and so forth; univariate and multivariate analyses of variance (fixed, random, and mixed effects models); linear and non-linear regression and correlation; path analysis; multiple discriminant function analysis; multiple and canonical regression; factor analysis; components analysis; cluster analysis; pattern analysis; and structural equation modeling. Knowledge of this domain implies a basic understanding of the statistical foundation of such methods, asymptotic sampling variances of different statistics, the assumptions underlying the proper use of the same methods, and the generalizations, inferences, and interpretations that can legitimately be made on the basis of statistical evidence.

7. Attitude Theory, Measurement, and Change

Attitudes, opinions and beliefs are extremely important in organizational settings. They are important in their own right because of humanitarian concerns for the quality of working life of those who are employed in organizations. They are also important for diagnosing problems in organizations. Finally, they are important because they relate to the behavioral intentions and the behaviors of individuals at work. Some of the job attitudes typically studied by I-O psychologists include, but are not limited to, job satisfaction (general and various facets), job involvement, organizational commitment, and perceptions of fairness.

It is also important that I-O psychologists be aware of the extensive literature on attitude theory, attitude measurement, and attitude change. In particular, I-O psychologists must know how attitudes are formed and changed and how they are related to behaviors. With respect to the latter, a knowledge of the literature on the relationship between attitudes and behavior is important if for no other reason than to know the limitations of the connections between these two constructs.

8. Career Development

Theory and research regarding career development are concerned with the interplay between individuals and environments and attempt to describe the nature of the patterns of positions held and resultant experiences during an individual's lifespan. Included in this domain are models and explanations of the origin and measurement of individual aptitudes and interests, how individual, social, chance, and environmental factors shape educational and training experiences, specific skill training and development, early work history, occupational choice, organizational/job choice and switching, the sequence of jobs taken after organizational entry, work/family issues, midcareer plateaus, and retirement planning.

Knowledge in this area would reflect an understanding of these processes, events, or phenomena as they are considered both by the individual employee and from the perspective of the employing organization. Knowledge of how organizational practices such as recruitment, selection, job placement, socialization, training, performance appraisal, and career planning programs enhance or retard career development is also necessary, as is an understanding of the special career issues and challenges faced by particular groups (e.g., women, ethnic minorities, the disabled).

9. Consumer Behavior

The focus of this area is the systematic study of the relationship between the producers (or distributors) and consumers (actual or potential recipients) of goods and services. Usually this involves many of the following concerns: consumer preferences for product features, consumer attitudes and motivation, buying habits and patterns, brand preferences, media research (including the effectiveness of advertisements and commercials), estimating demand for products or services, and the study of the economic expectations of people. Closely allied to those areas of market research which focus on personal consumption, there is a substantive or content basis to this domain insofar as there is a body of theory and data amassed dealing with the antecedents and correlates of consumer behavior which should be learned. There is a skill component to be mastered as well, inasmuch as the area is built upon the appropriate application of a variety of social science research methodologies (e.g., sampling theory, questionnaire and survey protocol design and execution, individual and group interviewing, stimulus scaling, and mathematical model building).

10. Criterion Theory and Development

Almost all applications of I-O psychology (e.g., selection, human resources planning, leadership, performance appraisal, organization design, organization diagnosis and development, training) involve measurements against criteria (standards) that indicate effectiveness on the part of individuals, groups, and/or organizations. The selection of criteria is not a simple issue and represents a significant area of concern for I-O psychologists.

The knowledge base of this domain incorporates understanding the theoretical issues such as single versus multiple criteria, criterion dynamics, the characteristics of good and acceptable criteria (relevance, reliability, practicality), and criteria as a basis for understanding human behavior at work and in organizations. Knowledge of past research in this area, which is quite extensive, is also necessary.

Beyond this knowledge, the I-O psychologist should have the skills necessary for developing valid criteria and methods of measuring them. These necessarily include skills in many of the other domains identified in the document (e.g., Job Analysis, Psychometrics).

11. Health and Stress in Organizations

Job performance and effective organizational functioning can be affected by health and safety factors in the work place which result in sub-optimal working conditions and reduced productivity. This competency area requires the study of interactions between human physical capabilities and problematic conditions in the work place in an attempt to understand the limits of performance and negative effects on workers. Among the factors considered are hazardous environmental conditions induced by toxic substances (e.g., chemical, biological, nuclear), loud noises, blinding lights, noxious odors. Other factors considered are related to organizational structure and job design such as shift work, or the requirements of particular tasks. Additional sources of organizational stress that may affect performance, commitment, and attitudinal variables include downsizing, harassment, work-family pressures, and outsourcing. There should be some familiarity with government standards relating to the work place (e.g., OSHA).

12. Human Performance/Human Factors

Human Performance is the study of limitations and capabilities in human skilled behavior. Skill is broadly construed to include perceptual, motor, memory, and cognitive activities, and the integration of these into more complex behavior. Emphasis is on the interaction of human behavior and tools, tasks, and environments, ranging from detection and identification of simple events to problem solving, decision making, human errors, accidents, and control of complex environments. Included among the variables that affect human performance are individual differences, organismic variables, task variables, environmental variables, and training variables.

Competency in this area assures awareness of issues of experimental design, a grounding in perception, cognition, and physiological psychology, some knowledge of computer programming, and quantitative modeling based on techniques from mathematical psychology, engineering, and computer science. Familiarity in the subject areas of basic experimental psychology should be combined with an awareness of applied research in such areas as work station design, workload measurement, control systems, information display systems, health and safety, and human-computer interactions.

13. Individual Assessment

This domain refers to a set of skills that are needed for assessing, interpreting, and communicating distinguishing characteristics of individuals for a variety of work-related purposes. The two primary purposes of individual assessment can be defined broadly as selection (e.g., hiring, promotion, placement) and development (e.g., career planning, skill and competency building, rehabilitation, employee counseling). Individual assessment may help attain multiple goals, many of which are aimed at achieving some form of person-environment fit, including assessee fit to a specific job or career track and assessee fit within a specific organizational context (e.g., department, work group).

Individual assessment incorporates skill in individual testing, interviewing, and appraisal techniques for the purpose of evaluating ability, personality, aptitude, and interest characteristics. Individual assessment also requires identifying, developing, selecting, and/or using the appropriate means for such assessment, and communicating the results and interpretation of assessment accurately in both face-to-face and written form.

A knowledge of the fact that individual assessment focuses on the whole person is required. In addition, a knowledge of the manner in which environmental and contextual factors shape the purpose and use of the accumulated information of individual assessments is necessary.

14. Individual Differences

I-O psychology emphasizes the importance of individual differences in the study of individuals' behaviors. Because this emphasis requires accurate assessments of unobservable psychological traits, a sound background in both classical and modern measurement theories and their respective areas of application is essential. The domain of measurement includes theory and assessment of individual differences in skills and abilities. This exposure would cover the nature of construct measurement and the philosophy of science assumptions underpinning many of our approaches to scale development. Other topics which might be covered are the measurement of attitudes (e.g., job satisfaction) and product preferences by scaling procedures, measurement of performance on complex jobs, and measurement of comparable worth of individuals to organizations.

A great deal of what I-O psychologists do in this area is subjected to close scrutiny by courts of law, civil rights groups, and professional colleagues. Because of these external and internal pressures, students must be trained to conduct research and to apply measurement principles in conformance to the highest standards of our discipline. Students may also need skills to help communicate their research methods and findings to interested parties outside the discipline.

It is important to recognize the limitations of classical true score theory. Questions about item and scale bias, test equating, minimum competence assessments, mastery testing, tailored testing, and appropriateness measurement raise issues for which classical true score theory can provide only approximate solutions. Although these areas of application were originally studied in relation to ability measurement, they have been generalized to attitude scales, surveys, questionnaires, and rating scales. Thus, it is increasingly important that students in I-O psychology are prepared to use and to conduct research on both classical measurement procedures and more contemporary procedures (e.g., Item Response Theory).

15. Job Evaluation and Compensation

This competency area focuses on determining the appropriate compensation level for skills, tasks, and/or jobs. Job evaluation is a processes by which the relative value of jobs is determined and then linked to commensurate compensation. Job evaluation is closely tied to and usually predicated upon sound job/task analyses. In general, job evaluation and compensation involves identifying compensable factors, attending to perceptions of fairness and equity, and considering issues of comparable worth. Proficiency in this competency area is demonstrated by a theoretical and applied understanding of various job evaluation techniques, compensation strategies (e.g., pay for skills, team-based pay, etc.), and the legal and social issues surrounding compensation.

16. Job/Task Analysis and Classification

This domain encompasses the theory and techniques used to generate information about what is involved in performing a job or task, the physical and social context of this performance, and the attributes needed by an incumbent for such performance. Tasks are basic units of activity, the elements of which highlight the connection between behavior and result. A job is an arbitrary grouping of tasks designed to achieve an organizational objective. It is common for jobs to be grouped or classified on the basis of a variety of criteria, depending on the purpose and goals of the classification system.

The fundamental concern of job and task analysis is to obtain descriptive information to design training programs, establish performance criteria, develop selection systems, implement job evaluation systems, redesign machinery or tools, and create career paths for personnel. The specific steps taken and the type of information gathered will vary depending on the purpose of the job and task analyses and the classification system. Relevant information includes, but is not limited to: what worker behaviors are involved; the knowledge, skills, and abilities required; the standards of performance desired; the tools, machines, and work aids used; the sources of information available to the incumbent; the social, environmental, and physical working conditions; and the nature of supervision. Similarly, some of the steps involved in job and task analyses include: identifying the purpose of the analysis; preparing, designing, or selecting a job analysis system; collecting job or task information; summarizing the results; and documenting the steps taken for future reference. The classification of jobs typically entails identifying the purpose and goals of the classification system; designing a classification scheme; categorizing jobs according to the established scheme; and documenting the classification process and outcomes.

The individual competent in this domain should have a knowledge of the different approaches to job/task analysis and classification, as well as skill in applying these techniques to real world situations. This competency area is likely to continue evolve as the nature of work in our society continues to change.

17. Judgment and Decision Making

Judgment and decision making encompasses an area of research and knowledge that is both prescriptive and normative in its emphases. This area is important because judgment and decision making under conditions of uncertainty probably describes the majority of the decisions managers, psychologists, market forecasters, and budget/policy planners make during the course of their work and research. A knowledge of decision theory, judgment, and problem solving research is important to understanding the critical processes that influence how information is processed and the quality of the decision outcomes.

Many different content areas within the broad area of I-O psychology can be studied explicitly as applications of decision and judgment theory. Such areas as vigilance behavior, employee selection, choice behavior, and human performance in complex environments can be integrated by principles of decision theory that may require fewer concepts than are necessary when each content areas is considered distinct and unique. Applications of decision theory to the policies of decision makers, judges, and clinicians allow greater understanding of inferential procedures used by individuals. Approaches for describing and predicting judgment and decision making include Brunswik's lens model, Bayesian inference, subjective expected utility, prospect theory, and the cognitive information processing paradigm. A knowledge of these approaches and an ability to integrate across the different approaches are indicative of breadth as well as depth of training in judgment and decision theory.

18. Leadership and Management

Management and leadership can be approached at different levels. The study of management and leadership at the macro level involves the influences senior level individuals have in the larger organizational context-setting strategy, directing change, influencing values. Theory and research may focus on characteristics of leaders, leader style, leader-member interactions, behaviors of leaders, and related phenomena. At a more micro level, leadership and management involves the day-to-day exchange between leaders and followers. This includes challenges faced by line managers in their relationships with subordinates in the assignment of tasks, evaluation of performance, coaching and counseling for improvement, resource planning, and related tasks. Related to many other areas, effective leadership and management involves task analysis, motivation, decision making, career planning, selection, performance appraisal, interpersonal communication, listening and related skills in a supervisor-subordinate context. Increasingly, attention is placed on team leadership and self-leadership (especially in relation to empowerment), and horizontal leadership (i.e., peer influence processes).

19. Organization Development

This domain encompasses theory and research relevant to changing individuals, groups, and organizations to improve their effectiveness. This body of theory and research draws from such related fields as social psychology, counseling psychology, educational psychology, vocational psychology, engineering psychology, and organizational theory.

More specifically, this domain concerns theory and research related, but not limited to: individual change strategies including training, socialization, attitude change, career planning, counseling, and behavior modification; interpersonal and group change strategies, including team building and group training, survey feedback, and conflict management; role or task oriented change strategies, including job redesign, role analysis, management by objectives, and temporary task forces; and organization system-directed change strategies, including survey feedback, open systems oriented change programs, human resource accounting, flexible working hours, structural changes, control system changes, and quality circles.

20. Organization Theory

It is well accepted that the structure, function, processes, and other organizational-level constructs have an impact upon the behavior of individuals in organizations. Therefore, it is necessary that I-O psychologists have a thorough understanding of the nature of complex organizations. This understanding should include, but is not limited to, classical and contemporary theories of organizations, organizational structure, organizational design, technology, and the process of organizational policy formation and implementation. Much of this theory and research is generated by sociologists and those students of organizational behavior who choose as their unit of analysis constructs not primarily within the individual or within the immediate group environment of the individual. Integration of organizational and individual constructs is an important area of study within I-O psychology. Such an integration obviously requires a knowledge of organizational theory.

21. Performance Appraisal and Feedback

Performance appraisal and feedback have both a knowledge and a skill base. This area centers on the methods of measuring and evaluating individuals as they perform organizational tasks and on taking action (administrative and/or developmental) with individuals on the basis of such appraisals.

The knowledge base includes a thorough understanding of rating scale construction and use. Also relevant are the areas of measurement theory, data analysis, criterion theory and development, motivation theory, and the factors which underlie interpersonal perception and judgment. An understanding of the similarities, differences, and inconsistencies among the perceptions of performance and feedback supplied by peers, subordinates, and supervisors is essential.

The skill base includes procedures for communicating performance evaluations to job incumbents and counseling them in appropriate means of improving their performance. Also, skill in designing a complete performance appraisal and feedback system which meets organizational needs while maintaining and/or enhancing worker motivation and/or performance is required.

22. Personnel Recruitment, Selection, and Placement

This domain consists of the theory and techniques involved in the effective matching of individual needs, preferences, skills, and abilities with the needs and preferences of organizations. An organization's needs are defined by the jobs assigned to positions in the organization.

More specifically, this domain encompasses theory and research in: human abilities; test theory, development, and use; job analysis; criterion development and measurement; recruitment; classical and decision theory models of selection and placement; alternative selection devices (e.g., interviews, assessment centers); and legal and societal considerations that impact upon recruitment, selection, and placement. In particular, the individual must keep current with the legislation and court decisions related to these issues, as well as with responses of the Society to laws and their interpretations.

23. Small Group Theory and Team Processes

Much of human activity in organizations takes place in the presence of other people. This is particularly true of work behavior. The pervasiveness of interpersonal and task interdependence in organizations demands that I-O psychologists have a good understanding of the behavior of people in work groups. Though the labels "group" and "team" are often used interchangeably, it is also critical to have a familiarity with the growing teamwork literature. This requires an understanding that extends beyond familiarity with research and theory related to interpersonal behavior in small groups. The body of theory and research concerning groups and teams draws from social psychology, organizational psychology, sociology, and organizational behavior. A good background in group theory and team processes includes, but is not limited to, an understanding of leadership, motivation, interpersonal influence, group effectiveness, conformity, conflict, role behavior, and group decision making.

24. Training: Theory, Program Design, and Evaluation

This domain includes theory and techniques used to design, conduct, and evaluate instructional programs. The instructional process begins with a needs assessment, including organizational, job and task, and person analyses, to determine the goals and constraints of the organization and the characteristics of the job and trainees. Familiarity with basic phenomena of learning (e.g., modern learning theory, conditioning principles), as well as knowledge of the different approaches to training (e.g., computer assisted instruction, simulation, behavior modification) are necessary for designing programs. An ability to develop meaningful and appropriate training objectives is essential. Transfer of training to the desired setting is an important consideration. In order for programs to be conducted as planned, the instructors must have good instructional skills. Thus, training the trainers is necessary.

Both the process and the outcome of the program may be evaluated to determine if it has been conducted as planned and whether or not it has had any effect. Knowledge of appropriate training evaluation criteria and design issues, such as pre- and post-testing and control groups, as well as organizational constraints is necessary for planning an evaluation strategy.

25. Work Motivation

Work motivation refers to the conditions within the individual and his or her environment that influence the direction, strength, and persistence of relevant individual behaviors in organizations when individual abilities and organizational constraints are held constant. Increasingly, work motivation is a concern at the group level as well.

I-O psychologists need to have a sound background in work motivation in at least three respects. First they must have a thorough understanding of the theories of human motivation including, but not limited to, need theories, cognitive theories, and reinforcement theories. In all cases there must be a thorough understanding of the extensive research and theory that exist outside the domain of work in the basic psychological literature. At the second level, there must be an understanding of the research and theory in motivationally relevant domains of I-O psychology that represent general applications of one or more motivational perspectives. Such general strategies for work motivation as goal setting, job design, incentive systems, and participative decision making are relevant here. Finally, there must be an awareness of and ability to apply very specific, motivationally oriented practices that adapt motivational constructs to specific cases. For example, understanding and implementing management-by-objectives involves an application of goal setting principles and participation.

Strategies for Building Competence

Program designers and faculty may develop a student's capabilities in a recommended area by using one or more methods or techniques. In some cases it is likely that multiple means might actually be preferred. A given course may touch upon more than one area. Moreover, the resources and capacities of a given program will also shape decisions in this area. For these reasons the guidelines will not detail a specific curriculum plan. However, suggested strategies are provided.

Table 2 describes curriculum options identified as useful methods for doctoral-level training. While other approaches and variations do exist, the list in Table 2 is reasonably inclusive. Table 3 summarizes the recommendations of the guidelines by relating the goals of training to the methods or techniques identified. The entries in this table should be viewed as suggestions of reasonable and appropriate approaches to educating students in the desired knowledge and skill domains. Though the techniques identified are not necessarily the only ones available, an effort was made to match each competency area with the techniques most likely to be effective for development in that domain. The fact that there are multiple entries for training in a skill area should not imply that all techniques listed are required to promote a level of mastery deemed appropriate by a program's faculty. Finally, it would be consistent with the spirit of these guidelines for a program to develop skill or knowledge in several of the domains using a single particular educational experience (e.g., a seminar, a supervised field project, or an assigned reading list).

Though the guidelines are most specifically intended for curriculum development, they also serve as a guide for students in ensuring the adequacy of their education. It is our firm belief that students are every bit as responsible for their education as faculty are. In some cases this means students must take advantage of presented opportunities (e.g., taking a needed class, participating in a research project, attending conferences). It may also mean that students need to be proactive in developing their own opportunities (e.g., independent study, finding an internship, developing a professional network, reading appropriate journals).

Furthermore, we encourage practitioners to continue to play an active role in the development of I-O psychologists. Giving students opportunities to work on applied projects, offering internships, and taking an active role in the education and training of doctoral students (e.g., serving on the E & T Committee, contributing to doctoral consortia, visiting and speaking at graduate programs). In some respects, no one is more aware of the most current knowledge, skills, and abilities required of I-O psychologists than those practicing the discipline in the field.

Summary

The competency based approach of these guidelines has much to recommend it. It maintains a focus on what is to be taught and learned, provides desirable flexibility to curriculum planners, and recognizes the multiple paths to developing most skills of importance. Nonetheless, it is also true that the recommendations based on such an approach might become dated or irrelevant to the field. Therefore, the present guidelines should be reevaluated on a regular basis. They must be kept up to date by continuous reference to the nature of work and conditions surrounding the I-O psychologist at work.

TABLE 2

Curriculum Options Considered in the Guidelines

1. Formal Course Work: Classroom instruction common to university settings in which material pertinent to the domains is covered. This method itself can involve a variety of different means, to include lectures, discussion, presentations, and so forth. While taking courses, students also have the opportunity to work together with peers, taking advantage of the benefits of cooperative peer learning.

Classroom instruction common to university settings in which material pertinent to the domains is covered. This method itself can involve a variety of different means, to include lectures, discussion, presentations, and so forth. While taking courses, students also have the opportunity to work together with peers, taking advantage of the benefits of cooperative peer learning.

2. Independent Readings/Study: Non-classroom instruction in which the student, in consultation with qualified personnel, assumes basic responsibility for and commitment to the accomplishment of domain objectives. This method includes all forms of non-classroom instruction for which self-initiated effort is of central concern and for which such effort can successfully result in the achievement of relevant domain objectives. Examples would include self-initiated effort aimed at covering defined domains through reading; generating appropriate review manuscripts, proposals or reports; designing and conducting a research investigation; and acquiring interactive computer skills.

Non-classroom instruction in which the student, in consultation with qualified personnel, assumes basic responsibility for and commitment to the accomplishment of domain objectives. This method includes all forms of non-classroom instruction for which self-initiated effort is of central concern and for which such effort can successfully result in the achievement of relevant domain objectives. Examples would include self-initiated effort aimed at covering defined domains through reading; generating appropriate review manuscripts, proposals or reports; designing and conducting a research investigation; and acquiring interactive computer skills.

3. Supervised Experience (and field research): Non-classroom instruction in which the student is actively engaged in projects under the direct supervision of qualified personnel (e.g., faculty, senior students, I-O practitioners). Such projects would be aimed at fulfilling specific training objectives with special emphasis given to the acquisition of skills. Participation would not be motivated primarily for compensation. This method might often be characterized by in vivo learning opportunities such that the student learns in settings similar to those to which transfer can be expected. Research experience should begin during the first year of graduate education with small projects and be expanded in later years as the student gains skill and knowledge in the field.

Non-classroom instruction in which the student is actively engaged in projects under the direct supervision of qualified personnel (e.g., faculty, senior students, I-O practitioners). Such projects would be aimed at fulfilling specific training objectives with special emphasis given to the acquisition of skills. Participation would not be motivated primarily for compensation. This method might often be characterized by learning opportunities such that the student learns in settings similar to those to which transfer can be expected. Research experience should begin during the first year of graduate education with small projects and be expanded in later years as the student gains skill and knowledge in the field.

In all cases, however, there must be meaningful professional supervision of the training experience. Examples would include practicum and internship experiences, field work teaching/training, thesis/dissertation research, etc. An extensive (even year-long) supervised internship performing the work of an I-O psychologist in a business, consulting, or government organization is strongly recommended as an essential component of doctoral preparation, especially for those who intend to become practitioners.

4. On-the-Job-Training: Non-classroom instruction in which capabilities are learned through "hands-on" experience on applied tasks under the explicit guidance of a professionally qualified task expert. Such training is typically done in conjunction with one's "job," and participation involves compensation. In any event, on-the-job training provides firsthand knowledge of the problems associated with particular I-O domains and allows for the opportunity to focus on solutions which will have an impact on the setting in which the student is working.

Non-classroom instruction in which capabilities are learned through "hands-on" experience on applied tasks under the explicit guidance of a professionally qualified task expert. Such training is typically done in conjunction with one's "job," and participation involves compensation. In any event, on-the-job training provides firsthand knowledge of the problems associated with particular I-O domains and allows for the opportunity to focus on solutions which will have an impact on the setting in which the student is working.

5. Modeling/Observation: Non-classroom implicit instruction which is obtained as a result of working with and paying attention to professionally qualified personnel in the daily conduct of their jobs or projects. This method implies that learning of important skills might well be obtained without explicit instructional intent on the part of the model. On the other hand, modeling may also be done in a purposeful and self-conscious manner. Modeling/ observation, because of its general nature, cuts across several of the above training methods.

Non-classroom implicit instruction which is obtained as a result of working with and paying attention to professionally qualified personnel in the daily conduct of their jobs or projects. This method implies that learning of important skills might well be obtained without explicit instructional intent on the part of the model. On the other hand, modeling may also be done in a purposeful and self-conscious manner. Modeling/ observation, because of its general nature, cuts across several of the above training methods.

Summary

Doctoral education in I-O psychology must employ multiple methods of education and training. All of the above approaches have value and should be integrated into a complete program of education and training. This program should ensure that the graduate will possess an appreciation of the roles of both theory and practice; will be able to develop new ideas and also to apply relevant information to solve real-world problems; and will possess the research, methodological, statistical and measurement knowledge and skills to enable conduct of appropriate research and problem solving.

TABLE 3

Means of Training the Recommended Capabilities

 

A

B

C

D

E

1. Consulting and Business Skills

*

 

*

*

*

2. Ethical, Legal, and Professiona Contexts of I-O Psychology l

*

 

*

*

*

3. Fields of Psychology

*

*

     
4. History and Systems of Psychology

*

*

     
5. Research Methods

*

*

*

 

*

6. Statistical Methods/Data Analysis

*

*

*

 

*

7. Attitude Theory, Measurement, and Change

*

*

 

*

 
8. Career Development

*

*

*

*

 
9. Consumer Behavior

*

*

*

   
10. Criterion Theory and Development

*

*

*

*

 
11. Health and Stress in Organizations

*

*

*

   
12. Human Performance/Human Factors

*

*

*

*

 

13. Individual Assessment

*

 

*

*

*

14. Individual Differences

*

*

*

   

15. Job Evaluation and Compensation

*

*

*

*

 

16. Job/Task Analysis, Job Evaluation, and Compensation

*

*

*

*

 

17. Judgment & Decision Making

*

*

     

18. Leadership and Management

*

*

*

 

*

19. Organization Development

*

*

*

*

*

20. Organization Theory

*

*

*

   

21. Performance Appraisal and Feedback

*

*

*

*

*

22. Personnel Recruitment, Selection, Placement and Classification

*

*

*

*

 

23. Small Group Theory and Team Processes

*

*

*

 

*

24. Training: Theory, Program Design, and Evaluation

*

*

*

*

*

25. Work Motivation

*

*

*

*

 

A = Formal Course Work; B = Independent Reading/Study; C = Supervised Experience (and field research); D = On-the-Job-Training; E = Modeling/Observation.

References

American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, National Council on Measurement in Education. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: Authors.

 

 

 

American Psychological Association Committee on Accreditation. (1996, January). Guidelines for the review of doctoral and internship programs. Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychological Association, Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. (1987). Principles for the validation and use of personnel selection procedures. Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychological Association. (1981, 1992). Ethical principles of psychologists. Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychological Association. (1973, 1982). Ethical principles in the conduct of research with human participants. Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychological Association. (1979). Standards for providers of psychological service (Rev. ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

American Psychological Association Committee on Professional Standards and Committee on Psychological Tests and Assessment. (1986). Guidelines for computer-based tests and interpretations. Washington, DC: APA.

Dunnette, M. D. (1990). Blending the science and practice of industrial and organizational psychology: Where are we and where are we going? In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 1-27). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

Greguras, G. J., & Stanton, J. M. (1996). Three considerations for I-O graduate students seeking academic positions: Publish, publish, publish. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 33(3), 92-98.

Howard, A. (1990). The multiple facets of industrial-organizational psychology: Membership survey results. Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

Maahs, C. J., & Major, D. A. (1995). Does your graduate program fully prepare you to enter the professional world? The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 32(4), 90-93.

Schippmann, J. S., Hawthorne, S. L., & Schmitt, S. D. (1992). Work roles and training needs for the practice of industrial-organizational psychology at the masters and Ph.D. level. Journal of Business and Psychology, 6, 311-331.

Schneider, B., Carlson, R., Lawler, E., & Pritchard, R. (1974). Guidelines for education and training in industrial and organizational psychology. APA Division of Industrial and Organizational Psychology. Washington, DC: Author.

Sebolsky, J. R., Brady, A. L., & Wagner, S. (1996). Want an applied job?-Get experience! The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 33(4), 65-70.

Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. (1985). Guidelines for education and training at the doctoral level in industrial/ organizational psychology. College Park, MD: Author.

Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Inc. (1994). Guidelines for education and training at the master's level in industrial/ organizational psychology. Arlington Heights, IL: Author.

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