A Edgerton, PhD
A Career In Industrial and
I. AS I LOOK BACK
This story of a career in "Industrial Psychology" is organized around
sets of events rather than a chronology of career events. This should let the
reader understand more clearly the patterns of thinking, activities and
opportunities which were the basis of that career.
to understand some of these related but separated events, a resume is included
as Appendix A. This shows the various positions, employers and dates which
describe the framework of my career. I have been a pragmatist or empiricist
rather than a theorist. Both Dr. Herbert A. Toops, under whose guidance I
obtained the doctoral degree and Dr. Albert P. Weiss, a gentle but hard-nosed
behaviorist, had influences in my adopting the essence of the behavioristic
approach to problems. Even as an undergraduate I accepted McCalls dictum,
that anything which exists, exists in quantity, and that quantity is capable of
measurement. This includes direct and indirect measurement and also use of
surrogates. My activity was more in the direction of organizing a job according
to the ends sought rather than as a means of developing or validating a theory.
Most of my
career has been built around a core of "measurement"-- measurement of
achievement, measurement of aptitudes, measurement of skills, measurement of
attitudes, and analysis of the interrelations of such measures. It has involved
teaching of undergraduates and graduate students. It has included vocational and
career counseling of people from high school age up to 65 or older. Training
of counselors was part of this program. Research, which has always been a
substantial component, has included development of research tools and
experimental design as well. There has been consulting work with different
industries and government departments, as well as industrial research per se.
My work led
me into a variety of industries. Chemical manufacturing, public utilities,
electrical manufacturing, mining, paper and pulp, trucking, and oil well
equipment, as well as many U.S. government departments such as Army, Navy,
Marine Corps, Air Force, Labor, General Services, and Health, Education and
Welfare. I've been asked
if it took special knowledge of the techniques of the various
industries, but as far as I could see the questions I had to deal with were
served as an expert witness on the use of tests for selection and promotion
for a government agency and for a labor union.
I have been unusually fortunate in my associations, either as student or as co-worker,
with so many giants of the period especially in my earlier years in psychology.
These experiences were invaluable, both in terms of what I learned from them and
in terms of the support, motivation and opportunities they provided.
choice was the culmination of factors such as family, finances, training,
experiences, opportunities and persons who influenced my attitudes and opened
doors for me.
My original choice of career was medicine. Four of my father's brothers
practiced medicine and I saw it as a good kind of career-offering service to
others with social approval based on science. I do not recall that I thought of
it except as general practice. The only medical specialty I knew about at that
time was in the treatment of eye, nose and ear problems. At one time, when
working in a music and jewelry store, I thought seriously about becoming a
watchmaker. When I commented on this to my high school chemistry teacher she
seemed horrified at the idea, but gave me no reason for her feeling on the
after graduation from high school I went to Kansas State Normal, later Kansas
State Teachers College and recently Emporia State University. This choice had
about three elements in it. It was the school attended by both of my parents; it
was probably more economical to attend than any other school in the state, and
my father was enrolled there for summer school, thus starting me off with free room
I was responsible for earning almost all of my college expenses, so I had to have some
sort of job. I started as a dishwasher in a restaurant, and soon was able to
carry the title of waiter. Later I obtained a job in a local jewelry store,
keeping it clean and doing some of the simpler repair work on watches and
At the end of my first college year I failed the final examination in French,
and this proved to be a turning point in career choice and development. My
teacher, Mme Dudley, decided I needed a better job so I could study more.
Through her I was hired as shipping clerk in the school's Bureau of Educational
Measurements at the rate of 35 cents an hour. In addition I was given a re-test
for the failed final--the construction of every word in four pages of "Le
Voyage De Monsieur Perrichon," which I passed with flying colors and
received a B in the course. My job duties included keeping track of test
supplies on hand, filling orders for tests, packaging them for shipment and
making scoring stencils for the Army Alpha Test.
Within a few months, another position became available with some such title as
research clerk, which paid five cents per hour more than the job of shipping
clerk. This job required that I score tests, make scoring keys, and compute
means, standard deviations, correlation coefficients and other needed
statistical measures. I could do the statistical work before I knew the formulas,
and before I had any clear idea of the uses and limitations of such measures.
This brought some knowledge of how tests were made, how used, and what the
related costs might be. It was in fact an introduction to measurement. The most
important skill learned from this job, and maybe from my undergraduate training,
was the operation of a Monroe calculator. This skill opened so many
opportunities to me that it has seemed to be my most effective "entering
wedge" into psychology.
Another set of factors which had an impact both on vocational choice and on
early development was the influence of my "honorary foster parents."
This term I applied to individuals who went out of their way to give me
encouragement and suggestions, to push me ahead and to open doors of opportunity
for me. Dr. Dean A. Worcester, then Director of the Bureau of Educational
Measurements, was one. A month or so before I had hoped to graduate, he
suggested that since he was going to Ohio State University to complete work for
his PhD degree, why shouldn't I go too and get my graduate studies started. At
that time I'd never thought seriously about graduate study. I had to beg off
because I lacked one hour of credit for graduation and also was shortof money.
Dr. Worcester got E. R. Wood to arrange for the needed additional credit,
and then obtained all the part time work at Ohio State that I could handle. As
time went on, he would recommend my services to others, really stretching my
skills to live up to his advertising.
A second "honorary foster parent" was Dr. Ernest R. Wood, then an
instructor at Kansas State Teachers College. He was also working on his dissertation
(University of Chicago) which included a graphic method for computing partial
correlations. He hired me to operate the calculator for him, helping him
calculate the necessary values for drawing his graphic devices. This not only improved
my facility with the machine, but it also opened my eyes to the possibilities of
graphs and monographs for computing. Both of these men did much to push me
toward a career in psychology and measurement.
These two men developed the first statewide educational achievement contest. It
was held at Emporia. Kansas in May of 1923. High school students came from all
over the state to take the tests to see who could score highest in various
school subjects and which schools had entered the most effective teams for the
intellectual competition. Students took their tests in the morning and at three
in the afternoon assembled to hear the announcement of the winners. I was
chief clerk for the operation. That meant that my staff and I had to have all
scoring done and checked in time for the awards ceremony.
A third "honorary foster parent" was Dr. Herbert A. Toops of Ohio
State University. He opened the door to my first full time
"professional" job as statistical assistant for the study of
mechanical aptitudes at the University of Minnesota. This contributed to my
concept of the nature of aptitudes, and to the idea of objective behavioral
criteria for measurement of performance and for the validation of tests. In
addition to this job, I had the opportunity to take seminars with Dr. Karl
Lashley and Professor Donald G. Paterson. Each of these, too, left a substantial
imprint on my thinking.
A second large door which Dr. Toops opened for me was an opportunity to work for
Dr. Lewis M. Terman at Stanford University in the summer of 1926. Since Dr.
Terman was teaching elsewhere that summer, he left me one page of single spaced
typewritten instructions telling me what he wanted me to do on his study of the
masculinity and femininity of personality. In the summer of 1927, I went back to
Stanford to work on this project while taking a course in statistics with Dr. T.
L. Kelley and another course with Dr. Harold Hotelling. These experiences
increased my self confidence and added well known names to my list of
references. In addition there were several very capable graduate students who
made an impression on me. Among
them were Robert Bernreuter, Jack Dunlap, Floyd Ruch, Albert Kurtz, Philip Rulon,
Harry Harlow and Barbara Burks.
A third door which Dr. Toops opened for me was that of willingness to try new
ideas and to look for new approaches. I shall never forget, for example, the
consternation in his statistics class when the assignment was "Develop a
new statistical formula. Assignment due in two weeks." Completion of this
assignment became one of my first published articles, a derivation of a formula
for the computation of the average of a set of intercorrelations without
computing any one of them. Then there was the afternoon when I argued that a
concept presented by Dr. Toops was wrong. I could not put a finger on why I
believed it wrong and finally gave up. The next
morning I found the flaw in his presentation and so reported to him. That
was the only time that he severely criticized me. His criticism was that I had
not stayed with my argument the previous day.
COUNSELOR TRAINING PRACTICUM
In 1937, soon after returning to Ohio State University from the Occupational
Research Program (ORP) of the U. S. Employment Service, I met with a small group
concerned with the vocational guidance of young people, especially those seeking
jobs and not in school. One result was to organize a vocational counseling
practicum for graduate students in cooperation with the Junior Division of the
Ohio State Employment Service
Office In Columbus, Ohio. This was one of the earliest practicum training
programs for counselors dealing with young people trying to find jobs. It must
be remembered that this was a depression program. It had urgent reality and as
such offered qualified graduate students an unusual opportunity to participate
in supervised on‑the‑job training in vocational counseling.
Graduate students in psychology, education. sociology and social administration
were included. This program existed for several years, until war conditions
changed the employment picture to one in which employers were actively
The program included counseling interviews with clients, use of test data,
conferences on job hunting, motivation and encouragement. It also included a
case board each Saturday morning in which each counseling trainee reviewed his
case for discussion and advic6 from the staff and his fellow trainees. The
courses received credit via a minor problem course number in psychology. In
addition, under the same course number an Occupational Information course was
offered. This included occupational classification, descriptions of the more
common opportunities open to young persons, a look at wage scales, employer
requirements and the use of the new Dictionary of Occupational Titles. Later, in
order to regularize the situation, I requested that the College of Education approve
three core courses to be included in any program for vocational/career
counseling. These included the counseling practicum, and the occupational
information courses. The third proposed course was designed to cover the kinds
of community Information needed for such counseling, how to obtain it, organize
it and keep it up to date. The college curriculum committee approved the
counseling practicum only, and recommended the inclusion of two courses in John
Dewey's educational philosophy instead of the other courses. I do not know of
any students who followed the latter recommendation. Nonetheless, several students in
the practicum program later became directors of University counseling centers in
large midwestern universities.
About this same time I was appointed Counselor in the College of Arts and
Sciences, with special attention to students who were enrolled but had little
idea of their career goals. These were designated "Exploratory
Students," and were permitted to try various subject matter areas to
explore their content and meaning to the student rather than following all of
the junior division requirements. Aptitude tests and interviews were used
extensively to aid this exploratory process.
Thus the University was becoming more aware of the need for more career
information and making it available to counselors and students. In 1941, the
Occupational Opportunities Services (OOS) was organized and I became its
director. Its primary purpose was to aid the advisors in the various colleges on
questions of occupational information. At first no counseling was done by the
organization, since that was the function of junior division counselors in each
of the colleges; but we did administer special aptitude tests at the request of
the college counselors and on request of individual students. Soon we were
"interpreting" the test results. One early product was the publication
"Ohio State and Occupations," a book reporting for each department of
the University the kinds of jobs and careers its graduates entered.
Soon after this service center was organized World War II was upon us and the
University was asked to organize a Star Unit to assign enlisted military
personnel to appropriate academic training programs on the basis of tests,
previous academic history, and Individual preference. I was asked to take over
the program and have it ready to operate in about ten days. The program was
organized, personnel employed, tests purchased and space obtained. Then the War
Department told us to dismantle it. One week later they asked the University to
put together their form of such a program and have it ready to operate within
one week. The only difference between the4version of the program and ours was
that military personnel made the academic assignments; we used the same space,
same personnel, same tests as we had planned earlier.
war came to a close the Occupational Opportunities Service was given
responsibility for a vocational counseling contract with the Veteran's
Administration. The counselors were mature, experienced personnel who wanted
to continue their graduate studies. Better counselors couldn't be had, they were
THE SCIENCE TALENT SEARCH
The Science Talent Search for the Westinghouse Science Scholarships was an
important part of my career. Early in 1941, Dr. Stuart H. Britt, Office of the
American Psychological Association, called me and explained that there was a
matter in Washington, D.C. which could be of interest to me. My expenses would
be covered if I would come. On my arrival, the two of us had breakfast together
where I learned that the Westinghouse Educational Foundation was offering
support to Science Service In taking over Science Clubs of America, and that the
program to give new life to Science Clubs of America would be a search for
science talent among the high school seniors of the nation.
At 9:30 that morning, we met with representatives of the organizations
concerned, and outlined a program for selection. We proposed the following
A "Science Aptitude Examination," a college aptitude test
in science clothing.
A "Personal Data Blank," an anecdotal recommendation asking
what the student had done to show his status in such areas as creativity,
work habits, scientific attitude, ability to work with others, leadership,
A transcript of the student's high school academic record.
We were asked to prepare the selection program, construction of the
Science Aptitude Examination and the Personal Data blank. The plan was to
operate on a successive hurdles arrangement. The first hurdle was to complete
the entrance requirements. All data were required for each student before he became an
entrant in the Search. The second hurdle was the examination and those who came
successfully over that were evaluated on their high school transcripts. These
"hurdles" have been used in the searches since 1941. The third hurdle
was the score on the Personal Data bank. Following
this, at least two scientists read and rated the project reports of the surviving
Each year about 2,000 to 4,000 high school seniors entered the program with 300
of these being listed as "Honorable Mentions" in the Search; from this
number 40 became the "Winners" whose expenses were paid to come to
Washington, D.C. There, they were interviewed by each member of the Board of
Judges before the final awards were decided. Interviewing these contestants was
a stimulating experience. It also afforded one a view of the growth in high
school curricula and community opportunities available to such talented young
people. One factor adding greatly to the validity of selection was the selection
ratio, in this case choosing 300 from among the 2,000 to 4,000 entries. With
such data available for 2,000 to 4,000 outstanding high school seniors each
year, follow up studies were needed to tell how effective the selection
procedure had been, to describe the educational and career development of such
talented young persons and to offer information which might make better counsel
and guidance possible for them. The few studies completed showed that the
winners (top 40 each year) made on the average greater academic and professional
advancement than did the rest of the Honorable Mention group and the latter in
turn had greater success than the other contestants. Selection procedures were
modified both in form and in use over the years. About the second year the
project requirement was changed to "My Scientific Project" and
required the contestant to report on work that he had done. It was also found
that it made no essential difference whether a teacher or the contestant filled
out the Personal Data blank, since it was a factual behavioral document rather
than a set of evaluative statements. The 29th Annual Search (1969) was the last
to use the aptitude examination since our data showed that it no longer seemed
to be refining the selection. The areas referred to in the Personal Data blank
have been modified from time to time in the light of the judges' opinions about
which furnished the more useful Information and what information about the
contestants seemed to be lacking.
The program is continuing and I hope that it goes on for many years, seeking out
the enormous pool of scientific talent among the seniors of our high schools and
giving credit to many outstanding and dedicated teachers.
Probably leading into scientific careers many young people who had not
considered such a possibility.
OCCUPATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAM--U.S. EMPLOYMENT SERVICE
One direct outcome of my experience in the study of mechanical aptitude at the
University of Minnesota was an invitation, ten years later, to join the staff of
the Occupational Research Program of the U.S. Employment Service. There my
duties included research design and statistical analysis in a psychological
One program was the development and validation of trade questions as an aid to
employment interviews. The questions were designed and validated in terms of the
extent to which they could differentiate those craftsmen who were highly skilled
from those of less skill and
experience who were trying to "muscle in." Questions were obtained by
field interviews with craftsmen. To become USES trade questions substantially
more craftsmen had to answer the questions correctly than did helpers,
trainees and others. To select valid items, we used a simple statistical procedure based on the overlap
of the score distributions from the two samples.
A second area was in the design and treatment of data for the "Department
Store Study." This was undertaken to develop valid measures of on-the-job
performance of sales personnel in department stores as a basis for validation of
selection tests. The primary study used a large store in Baltimore. Later the
findings were cross validated in department stores in two other large cities.
First of all we wanted to measure sales performance in terms of recorded
evidence of on-the-job performance rather than in terms of ratings by
supervisors. These included such data as total dollar value of sales, value of
goods returned, the selling of "specials" and errors in making out
sales slips. Then there was the question of how to compare sales performance of
persons in one department, as in notions, with those in another department, as
in ladies' ready-to-wear. The study assumed that the quality of
sales from department to department was about equal, and that variability of
sales performance from department to department were about equal. On such bases
the score for each salesperson was the ratio of his own performance record to
the mean of his own department.
Then we faced the question of how the several evidences of quality of sales
performance could beat be combined into a single index which would be a fair
measure of overall sales performance. One could average the scores for each
salesperson (expressing the scores as standard scores). Another concept, and the
one we finally used, was that the best overall index of sales performance should
be a weighted sum of the several variables for which the weights were those
obtained by minimizing the sum of squares of the differences among all pairs of
Harold A. and Kolbe, Laverne. The Method of Minimum Variation for the
Combination of Criteria, Psychometrica 1, Sept. 19369 183-187.
A very interesting phenomenon which we observed was that of the
changes in performance scores of individual sales personnel over the years. The index rose
rapidly during the first five or six years on the job, then started a very slow decline over a
period of many years. Such a decline was not enough to suggest "coasting
in" to retirement but rather that job performance had become routinized.
Since that study I have not seen so careful and objective a measurement of job
performance; although I have in many cases sought such objective behavioral
From the time
was first introduced to objective testing (in 1921, as a high school senior), I
have been much interested in the nature of aptitudes, how they were acquired,
and how they could be used to help people gain greater satisfaction in living.
My participation in the Minnesota study of mechanical abilities* had contributed
several concepts. The central problem had been one of obtaining a sound, acceptable and
objective measurement of mechanical ability and then exploring the validity of
the available mechanical aptitude tests, especially their validity relative to a
D. Go . Rlliott, F. M. , Anderson, L.
D., Toops, H. A. , Heidbreder, E. ,
Mechanical Ability Tests, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 1930.
In constructing the performance criterion of mechanical ability we assumed that
those who possessed greater amounts or degrees of aptitude would perform more
effectively on sample mechanical tasks, and that those who performed less well on those
same tasks had less aptitude. The subjects for the study were junior high school
boys. Each boy normally took a series of five shop courses: woodworking, sheet
metal work, printing, electricity and mechanical drawing. For purposes of the
study each shop course introduced a series of
projects which all students were required to do, such as making a wooden game board, a metal
cookie cutter, a wired electrical circuit, a drawing of one of the projects, and
the setting of type for a news item. Mechanical ability was assumed to be
reflected by how rapidly and how precisely each boy completed each project.
Measures used were those utilized by the shop teachers in their subjective
evaluation of performance, as squareness of the game board, accuracy of
dimensions, uniformity of chamfers on each edge, alignment of holes and
smoothness of finish.
problems of measurement.
For example, how to measure the quality of a Western Union splice--a
splice required in the projects of the electrical shop. To construct a scale for
evaluating the splices made, we obtained a sample of some 200 splices made by
the boys included in the study. These splices were rated for quality by a number
of raters. Then we selected some ten of them representing degrees of quality
ranging from poorly done splices up to those which had
been really excellently done--somewhat analagous to the handwriting scales then in use to furnish
standards for rating samples of handwriting. With such a large number of
measures there was need to combine them into a single index. For want of some
estimate of which characteristics were more important, and because each
measurement reflected a facet of the quality of performance, the score for each
boy for each project was the sum of his standard scores of all the measurements
and ratings given for his project.
The aptitude tests were mostly improvements of the then available tests. For
example, the Minnesota Assembly test had 15 items as compared with the Stenquist,
an earlier test using 10 items.
Other tests as well were lengthened to improve their reliability and
revised where needed to give greater currency to their content. One test which
attracted my attention was a "Things Done" checklist, a list of things
which a boy might have done such as wiring a light socket, planning a board,
splicing two electric wires, soldering, setting rubber type, making a stamp
pad, etc. The score was the number of items checked. And this "Things
Done" score correlated higher with the mechanical ability criterion than
any other "aptitude" test! One might conclude that a person who had
high mechanical aptitude would have done many more mechanical tasks because he
had the aptitude. Another possible conclusion was that aptitudes were learned
skills and that score on the aptitude tests reflected a learning curve for that group of
I have found the latter definition very useful in vocational and educational
counseling. It also seems to be more in alignment with our concepts of schools
as a place in which to learn new skills.
I remember the late Dr. H. H. Goddard stating that, given enough time, anyone
can learn anything, and that even a moron could learn calculus; given enough
time, but seldom would live that long.
This concept has important implications for career counseling. For
many years we have been administering aptitude tests and telling people that
they had certain aptitudes and lacked others and should make their vocational
/educational choices in line with the test score patterns. This approach has a
limiting finality about it. One young man, a freshman, had a low college
aptitude test score, so low that I told
him that his test score indicated that his chances of completing college were no
more than 1 in 13 because he lacked or was weak in those skills which were
needed for academic success. This approach did not kick him in the teeth. It did
tell him that his present skills were inadequate for the task of academic work.
This man accepted my verdict as a dare rather than a daunt, and we spent the rest of our
time looking at what he could do to raise his chances for satisfactory college
grades from 1 in 13 to some more acceptable level. The ultimate result was that he did graduate from college. In
further exploration of the significance and patterns of aptitudes, I asked all
of my special counselees in the College of Arts to take the
Thurstone Primary Abilities Test. These special counselees were students who had
entered college with little or no idea of their vocational goals. At the end of
the college year, these test scores were correlated with their marks in various
*Ellison, Mary Lou and Edgerton, Harold A., The Thurstone Primary Mental
Abilities Tests and College Marks. Educational and Psychological Measurement,
Vol. I, No. 4, October 1941.
Should Theory Precede or Follow a "How-to-do-it" Phase of
Training - ONR, 1956, Edgerton.
The Inductive Reasoning factor showed its strength in marks in Romance Language
courses. We learned that these courses were
primarily by inductive methods. The Deductive Reasoning factor showed its
strength in its correlations with marks in Psychology and Zoology. These courses
were taught using a deductive approach.
a study sponsored by the Office of Naval Research, the relationship of
aptitude pattern and teaching method was explored further. The study was made in
the beginning course in Meteorology with cooperation of the staff of that
school. About half of the sections of the course were organized so that the
practical or "how to" parts came as early as possible in the course.
In the other sections the theoretical concepts were presented first with the
"how to" put as late as possible in the course. All trainees in these
courses were given the Thurstone Test of Primary Mental Abilities. The
correlations with the memory factor were highest for the courses with "how
to" at the early part while the reasoning factor showed the highest
correlations with course grades for those with theory first.
There remains much to be done in this area. At present our teaching assumes that
teaching method is determined by the subject matter to be taught rather than by
the characteristics of the learners.
I believe that efforts to teach according to the measured aptitudes of the
student would greatly increase our success ratio.
VII. TESTS AND TEST CONSTRUCTION
Many of the positions I have held have entailed some test construction as well
as the use of tests.
My first introduction to the large scale production of tests was assisting Dr.
Herbert A. Toops in the construction of Forms 6 to 26 of the Ohio State
University Psychological Examination. This required using rigid rules in the
selection of materials, styles of items, and difficulty indices for test items.
It involved trying out proposed test materials on a sampling of college freshmen
to determine item difficulty and to note non-functioning answer alternatives. It
also required that we determine the equivalence
from form to form of the tests, so that test data would be comparable from form
to form, year to year and person to person.
A somewhat different approach was used in constructing 29 successive forms of
the "Science Aptitude Examination" which was used as one step in selection of
winners for the Westinghouse Science Talent Search. Some of the materials tapped
science information, and others involved reading paragraphs drawn from science
publications with questions requiring that the contestant be able to read and to
reason from these materials. Basically
it was an academic aptitude test dressed in science clothing. It was not really necessary that the several forms be
comparable since each was used for only one year.
Each form of the test was made public after it had been used, thus it was
necessary to produce entirely new test items each year. One of the most difficult
parts of the test construction was to develop materials sufficiently difficult
to discriminate among the more able of the contestants. For most of the test
forms the frequency distribution was skewed with the upper fifty percent of
scores covering a much shorter range than those of the lower fifty percent.
different kind of test we developed at OSU was a test of
Supervisory Judgement. For this we tried a multiple choice format, requiring the
identification of a best answer and a worst answer among the alternatives for
each question. This seemed to work quite effectively in breaking up the pattern
of having a "textbook answer," or using cues inadvertently included in
the construction of the questions. This format was used in a training program
for Quality Assurance personnel.
Since the trainees were experienced in Quality Assurance rules and procedures,
the crucial question was how to build an
examination which would legitimately measure their knowledge of the course
content at the beginning of the training session and again at the end. The best
and worst answer scheme seemed to be quite effective. The use of the examination
also proved to be a good method of getting these experienced people to pay attention
during the class sessions and to do their homework.
Another interesting job we undertook was to adapt some commonly used Mechanical Aptitude
tests for use in Venezuela where an oil company was setting up a training
program to train Venezuelans in some of the technical crafts of the oil field
including diesel mechanics, welding, and pipefitting. Requirements for entry to
these training programs called only for graduation from common school, about our
fifth grade level. (Interestingly, no one from
Caracas was permitted to apply. It
was assumed that city dwellers would not like to live and work out in the oil
field.) There actually were 150 qualified applicants for 15 training slots--an
excellent selection ratio. We used such tests as the Paper Form Board and Test
of Mechanical Comprehension. We did visit a number of villages to see what kind
of mechanical content we could find boys involved in. We also talked to many of
the Venezuelan employees asking about their mechanical experiences. As far as we
could see there were no indications that tests used in the USA for similar
purposes could not be used here.
However, because the applicants had little or no experience with objective form
tests we took steps to insure that they understood what they were to do.
Directions were rewritten in simplified English and these were then translated
into Spanish. To administer the test the cover page of directions was enlarged
to about 3 x 5 feet so that it was viewable by all who were taking the test, As
the examiner (a Spanish speaking Italian engineer) read the directions aloud he
would point to the words and diagrams in the directions. This procedure seemed
to work very well. In fact these Venezuelans with only a common school education
seemed to know better how to work on the Paper Form Board test than did North
Americans at the 12th grade or higher level.
In a situation like this, the company did not feel that it was necessary to have
a tryout and validation of test materials. Knowing of our experience with the same tests in the
USA and with such a high selection ratio. (150 applicants for 15 openings) they
felt that they should be able to get good quality trainees, and it must be noted
that they seemed much pleased with the final selection.
Other test construction programs I have been involved in were construction or critique of
various tests for military use and as achievement examinations for college
courses involving military personnel.
A technique which has proven very useful in construction of criterion measures
and tests could be called "looking through the eyes in position to
see." A good example
of this was the development of the Ohio State University Flight Inventory. This
work was done under a research contract with the National Research Council aimed
at developing measures of progress in learning to fly. The time was just prior
to World War II, when young college men were given the opportunity to learn to
fly and were trained through a Civilian Pilot Training Program (CPT) to the
level of earning their private pilot license.
There was a lack of uniformity in the instructor ratings of the
performance of these students both from time to time and from instructor to
instructor. With Dr. Robert Y. Walker, our approach was to systematize the kinds
of observations used by flight instructors in grading or rating the performance
of their student pilots. We dealt only with flight performance, not with
learning in ground school. It was assumed
that flight instructors could report on what the student flyer did on any given
flight with considerable accuracy and reliability. The discrepancies in
instructor ratings seemed to rest in the differences in standards for rating any
given item of performance, such as how the student pilot performed in a climbing
right turn soon after take-off. These differences in standards seemed to vary
some from time to time for the same instructor and also from instructor to
program set out to develop a set of standard tasks and maneuvers for all of those
required to obtain a private pilot license. We developed a check list for each
required maneuver so that an instructor/observer could report his observation of
how well the student performed each of the required maneuvers. The observer's check
list was based on the instructor's knowledge of how the maneuvers were to be
performed, common errors made and degree of errors made. A series of maneuvers,
constituting a check flight, was used as a basis for an over-all performance report or final
examination by the flight instructor. The inspector's flight check for a private
license was done by the inspector in his own fashion. Dr. Walker learned to fly
and obtained both his private license and his single engine commercial license
in learning how a flight instructor sees the performance of his student.
The same technique--looking at a job situation through the eyes of those in
position and skilled enough to see--was the first step in many studies,
especially those relating to criteria for selection of tests or to development
of performance reports.
Another area which raises interesting questions lies in the effects of
"cramming" by practicing on material similar to the aptitude or
selection tests used. Does the Increase in aptitude test score obtained by such
means reflect a real increase in aptitude and in later on-the-job performance?
In the academic world, training on vocabulary and interpretation of paragraph
material commonly used for academic aptitude tests, does enable students to
obtain better grades in their courses. If such rapidly learned material
increases one's aptitude as well as aptitude test score, we may have the
question in counseling, "What aptitudes does your vocational choice call
for?" rather than "How well do your aptitudes match those which are
considered essential to the chosen field?"
Ever since I
entered the field of Psychology, I have heard about the "criterion problem." The
problem is that of determining what evidences can properly be used and how they
may be combined in construction of a measure of performance--a dependent
variable--by which effectiveness of the Independent variables or predictors may
be measured or judged. It is usually a question of what evidences or behaviors
are available for the purposes of the study. Seldom is it possible to approach
the question in any other way. This section is not intended as a review of the
"criterion problem" but rather as a look at some experiences in the
search for recorded behavioral evidence which might contribute to a clearer,
more valid estimate of the quality of on-the-job performance. In my extensive
on the development of criterion measures for validation of selection tests,
I have not found an oversupply of really valid criterion measures. In
most cases the best criteria available have been ratings of the immediate
superior. Reliabilities of such ratings varied considerably. Sometimes
reliability was too low for the rating to be an acceptable criterion, while in other situations it was very
good. When the reliability has been too low, interview and question procedures
have been used to obtain better
ratings from supervisors. In the Minnesota study of mechanical aptitudes the
criteria used were constructed from measurements and ratings of a standard set
of shop products. This Minnesota study did much to shape my attitude toward the
nature of aptitudes. These attitudes were further molded by a study, reported in
the 1920's, comparing the selection of tests when validated on the basis of
supervisory ratings to tests selected, when validated using worker production records as criteria.
Later, when constructing and validating selection tests or performance reports
for industry, I tried to search out any behavioral records which might shed more light
on performance. In a study of nine foremen, we had quite reliable ratings by
supervisors but there seemed to be some behavioral factor trying to crop up.
Finally we asked that each first line foreman keep a record of work delays on
his shift each day. He was asked to indicate the reason for the delay but did
not record the man-hours
lost. I was assured that work delays due to the railroad
failing to bring in cars to load couldn't be the fault of a foreman, nevertheless
the foreman recorded all work delays. At the end of 30 days the number of work
delays for each foreman was
counted. We demonstrated that the number of delays due to the railroad was
unrelated to the rest of the work delays and independent of the supervisor's
ratings. These railroad delays were promptly put back into the work delay score of each
foreman. Had we not done this, I'm sure I would have had requests/demands that I
remove other categories of work delays, leaving possibly no significant
The number of work delays for foremen correlated -0.44 with the average of
ratings by immediate superiors and nine superintendents !
Another source of
information in quality of job performance of foremen might be found in
distribution of wage
increases. Insofar as wage
increases differed among the foremen, they must represent some estimate of
differences in quality of performance. So the measure average wage increase
over the previous five years" was added as a criterion variable. The final
criterion used for the validation of tests to select foremen included all of the
Another interesting bit of information came to light in a study of on-the-job
performance in two samples of chemists in the same plant. Discussion of possible
behavioral criterion variables with the Director of Personnel and Training
covered such possible variables as number of experiments performed, average
salary increases, absenteeism, number of papers published, etc. None of these
seemed to offer any useable data since there seemed to be no uniformity in the
situation relative to any of them. We did obtain performance rankings by
superiors which had acceptable reliability. Then our contract monitor suggested
that there were some job analysis, data for all of the chemists which had been
obtained a few months earlier by the ratio-delay method. We reclassified the
observations for each chemist into two categories. Either he was engaging in
some professional or technical work, or else he was doing some non-technical
activity such as washing laboratory glassware, smoking, visiting, going to the
restroom, etc. The non-technical score for each chemist was tried as a measure.
In each of the two samples. this variable showed a substantial negative
correlation with ratings by superiors. The superiors had not seen the data which
was collected for job description purposes. This kind of measurement would be
risky or impossible to use in most plants, since the workers would probably regard it as a "Big
Brother" spy situation. Misrepresentation of what each was doing at the moment each observation "What
are you doing now?" was called for would be encouraged.
Consultants find that there is a danger of looking at criterion data not acceptable to a client.
In starting to evaluate a vocational counseling program for the Department of
Defense, I proposed that staying with a vocational training choice might be as
good a criterion as we could find. Did the man complete his training course? Did
he pursue the same field of training or work after he became a civilian? Was he
still in that vocational field six months after discharge? At that point I was
assigned a new contract monitor, a clinical psychologist who was horrified at
There is room for much exploration of objective behavioral evidences of quality
of on-the-job performance. With increased use of such objective criteria, it Is
possible that tests for selection, hiring interviews and qualifications for the
job might change. Along with this. as there are changes in the social structure
of the work situation, one can expect some changes in the qualities thought most
desirable in employees.
HAROLD A. EDGERTON
High School. 1921, Humboldt, Kansas
Sc., 1924, Kansas State Teachers College, now Emporia State University
1926, Ohio State University
1928, Ohio State University
graduate study at University of Minnesota and Stanford University
student assistant. Bureau of Educational
Measurements, Kansas State Teachers College, 1922-1924. Duties involved test
construction and evaluation, statistical computation, assisting with state
scholarship contests. Under direction of Dr. D. A. Worcester and Dr. E. R. Wood.
Assistant, Mechanical Abilities Investigation, University of Minnesota,
September. 1924-June, 1925. Assisted in the development and evaluation of tests.
compilation of criteria of mechanical ability. direction of statistical work.
Under direction of Professor Donald G. Paterson.
Assistant, Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, June, 1925--August,
1928. Duties included administration and scoring of intelligence tests,
statistical consultation and computation. Put together 20 sets of mechanical
assembly tests for use in vocational guidance. Assistant to Dr. Herbert A. Toops.
Assistant, Department of Psychology, Stanford University, Summers 1926 and 192?.
Development of tests of non-intellectual traits. Work done under the supervision
of L. M. Terman, Stanford University.
Assistant, Department of Psychology, Ohio State University, 1928-1930. Assisting
with various researches on vocational guidance, college personnel, intelligence
tests, and personality rating; consulting with staff members and graduate
students relative to statistical procedures of their researches; teaching
courses in statistics, vocational guidance, general and educational psychology.
Professor of Psychology, Ohio State University, 1930--1941. Duties similar to
those listed above but with greater responsibility for their initiation and
conduct, and in addition, direction of researches of graduate students,
vocational guidance counseling, assisting in statewide testing and guidance
program of the Ohio College Association.
supervisor-Statistical Unit, Occupational Research Program United States
Employment Services Washington, D.C., January 1, 1935--October 1, 1936.
Statistical Consultant to the Standards and Research Division, United States
Employment Service in Winter Quarter 1937. Responsibilities for statistical
aspects of studies of worker qualifications and job opportunities. Construction
of criteria, designing new statistical techniques, and supervision of
statistical staff (on leave from Ohio State University).
College of Arts and Sciences, 1937--1941. (Also carried title and duties
indicated as Assistant Professor.) Development of Exploratory Program, guidance
and testing as part of the junior division services of the College. Established
a Placement Bureau for the College.
research project for the National Research Council on Development of Criteria
for Use in the Study of Selection and Training of Pilots, 1939--1942. (In
addition to regular employment.)
Occupational Opportunities Service, Ohio State
University, 1941--1945Direction of program of vocational counseling, aptitude
testing, and occupational studies for students of Ohio State University.
Professor of Psychology, Ohio State University, 1941--1945, consulting in
regard to statistical aspects of student researches. teaching courses in
counseling, personnel, and statistics.
Education Advisor, Star Unit, 154th S. U.. April, 1943--April. 1944. (Part of
duties as Director of the Occupational Opportunities Service.)
Test Construction Project at Ohio State University for the Army Specialized
Training Program, August, 1943-April, 1944.
Science Service, Inc., Washington, D. C., on the Westinghouse Annual Science
Talent Search. Developed and administered selection processes and served as
Chairman of the Board of Judges in selection of winners of the Science Talent
Consultant to Secretary of War, 1945-1946. Consultant with Personnel Research
Section, AGO, on research design and procedures.
Psychology, Ohio State University, 1945-1947. Consulting in regard to
statistical aspects of student researches, teaching courses in counseling,
personnel, and statistics.
President, and later President, Richardson, Bellows, Henry & Co.. Inc., New
York, New York, 1947-1962. Directed studies related to performance, evaluation
and personnel selection in various industries; maintained other professional
activities, contacted government agencies in seeking contracts Involving
research, consulting and training and directing work on those contracts.
Professor of Psychology. New York University, 1948-1949, conducting graduate
seminar on measurement in Industrial Psychology.
Research, Inc., Washington, D.C., 1962-1970, President. Sought contracts related
to research and consultation on personnel selection, training, and performance
evaluation, and directed staff in work in those contracts.
Adjunct Professor of Psychology, University of Maryland, 1962-1964. Conducted
seminars on Industrial and Personnel Psychology.
Special Committee to study education/training at Staff and
Command School, 1946-19470 Ft.
Civilian Member, Research and Development Committee, DOD, an Training and
Training Devices, 1948-1955Member, Committee on Professional Certification, N.
Y. State Psychological Association Committee on Professional Certification.
Member. American Psychological Association Committee on Construction of Code of
Ethics. Member, American Psychological Association Legislative Committee
Committee to Study Facilities of its Academy.
Psychological Association Committee on Standards for Psychological Services.
American Psychology Association, 1970--1975.
of Cooperating Editors, Educational and Psychological Measurement.
Member, 1963-1966, and President, 1966-1969,
Committee on Certification of Counseling Agencies, American College Personnel
and Guidance Association. Member, American Psychological Association Committee
on Standards for the Delivery of Psychological Services, 1970--1975.
Professional Societies and Recognitions: Diplomate, 1951, American Board of
Examiners in Professional Psychology. Memberships: American Psychological
Association President. Division 14, Industrial and Business Division, 1953-1954.
President, Division 17, Consulting Psychology. Psychometric Society; President
1947. American Association for the Advancement of Science. Eastern Psychological
Sigma Xi (Science)
Pi Kappa Delta (Forensic)
Phi Delta Kappa (Education)
Alpha Psi Delta (Mychology)
Pi Mu Epsilon (Mathematics)
1. Edgerton, Harold A.--What Acquaintances with Statistics is Necessary? Educational
Research Bulletin, January 6, 1926: V: No. 1.
Edgerton,Harold A. and Paterson, Donald G.--Table of Standard Errors and Probable Errors of Percentages for Varying Numbers of
Cases, Journal of Applied Psychology, September 1926: X: 378-391.
3. Edgerton, Harold
A.--An Abac for Finding the Standard Error of a Proportion and
Standard Error of
the Differences of Proportions. Journal of Educational
A. and Toops, Herbert A.--A Table to Facilitate the Calculation of the Probable
Error of the Mean. Educational Research Bulletin, November 9, 1927, VI: No. 16.
Toops, Herbert A. and Edgerton, Harold A.--An Abac for Determining the
Probable Correlation over a Longer Range Knowing it over a Shorter One. Journal
of Educational Research, December, 1927.
6. Edgerton, Harold A. and Toops, Herbert A.--A Formula for Finding the Average
Intercorrelation of Unranked Raw Scores without Solving Any of the Individual
Intercorrelations. Journal of Educational Psychology. February, 1928, XIX:
Edgerton, Harold A. and
Toops, Herbert A.--A Table for Predicting the Reliability and Validity Coefficients of a Test When
Lengthened. Journal of Educational Research, October, 1928, 18:
8. Edgerton, Harold A. and Toops, Herbert
A.--Academic Progress: A Followup Study of
the Freshmen Entering the University in 1923. The Ohio State University Press,
1929, PP. 150-x.
9. Edgerton., Harold A.-Measuring the Validity of Predicted Scores. Journal of
Educational Psychology, May, 1930, 388-391.
10. Edgerton, Harold A.-Academic
Prognosis in the University (PhD dissertation);
Warwick and York, 1930, PP. 83+vii.
11. Edgerton, Harold A.--A Table for Finding the Probable Error of R
obtained by the use of Spearman-Brown Prophecy Formula (n = 2). Journal of
Applied Psychology, XIV, June, 1930, 296-302.
12. Edgerton, Harold
A.--Intelligence Tests of Delinquents, Journal of Higher
Education., Vol. 1, 161-162, March 1930.
Toops, Herbert A. and Edgerton, Harold A.--The Second Annual Statewide
Intelligence Testing Program of Seniors in Ohio High Schools. Ohio High School
Bulletin,, No. 4, O.C.A. Committee on Intelligence Tests, March, 1931, 31p.
Toops, Herbert A. and Edgerton, Harold A.--Opportunities in Ohio Colleges,
Guidance Manual No. 3,, State Department of Education, 1931, pp. 203.
A.--A Graphic Method of Finding Standard Errors and Probable Errors of
Differences. Journal of Educational Psychology, XXIII, January, 1932, 56-57.
16. Edgerton., Harold A.--Recording and
Reporting, Rev. of Educational Research, 3, June,
1933, 205, 208.
Harold A.--Characteristics of Pupil Population, Review of Educational
Research, June, 1933, 209-213.
18. Edgerton, Harold A.--A Formula for Finding the Average Correlation of Any One
Variable with the (n-1) Other Variables Without Solving Any of the Individual
Correlations. Journal of Educational Psychology, Mays 1935, 373-376.
19. Edgerton, Harold A.--Psychological Improvements in Statistical Processes -Paper
read at meeting of American Statistical Association. December 30, 1935.
20. Kolbe, Laverne, and Edgerton, Harold A.--A
Table for Computing Biserial r. Journal
of Experimental Education. March,
21. Edgerton, Harold A. and Kolbe, Laverne E.--The Method of Minimum Variation for the
Combination of Criteria. Psychometrika 1, September, 1936, 183-187.
22. Edgerton, Harold A.--A Note on the Computation of the Correlation Between Two
Lengthened Tests. Journal of Experimental Education, March, 1937, p. 289.
Harold A. and Starbuck, Edmund O.--A Table to Aid in the Computation of
Fisher's "t" Function for Comparison of Two Means. Psychometrika, 2, Vol.
24. Edgerton, Harold A., Shartle, C. L. and Otis, J. L.--The Department Store Study,
ORP, Department of Labor, 1937.
25. Edgerton, Harold A.--Table of Values for Transforming Values of r Into Fishers z
Correlation Function. Printed by Irving Lorge.
26. Edgerton., Harold A.--J. P. Guilford, Psychometric Methods, A
Review, Journal of Applied Psychology, XXI, No. 6, December 1937, p. 726.
27. Edgerton, Harold A. and
Valentine, W. L.--A Factor Analysis of Learning Data;
Psych. Pulletin., 1938, 32, 719.
28. Edgerton, Harold A.--The Exploratory
Program: Report of the Sixteenth Annual
Meeting of the American College Personnel Association, 1939,
29. Kurtz, A. K. and Edgerton, Harold
A.--Statistical Dictionary, 1939, John Wiley and Sons, 191 + xi.
30. Edgerton, Harold A. et. al., Statistical Studies of a College Freshman Testing
Program, Journal of Experimental Educations VIII, No. 3.
31. Edgerton, Harold A.--The Exploratory Programs Journal of Higher Education.
November, 1938, X No. 8, 421-424.
32. Edgerton, Harold A., Bordin, Edward.,
and Molish, Herman--Some Statistical Aspects
of Profile Records. Journal of Educational Psychology, March, 194I, 185-196.
33. Edgerton, Harold A.--E. F. Lundquist, Statistical Analyses in Educational Research,
a Review, Am. Jour. Psych., July 1941,
54, No. 3, 471-472.
Ellison, Mary Lou and Edgerton, Harold A.--The
Thurstone Primary Mental Abilities Tests and College Marks. Educational and
Psychological Measurement, Vol. I, No. 4, October 1941.
35. Edgerton, Harold A.--Women in Science Careers, Journal of The National Association
of Women Deans and Counselors, Vol. XXV, No. 4, June 1942,
36. Edgerton, Harold A.--How Science Talent Winners Were Chosen, Told by Judge.
Science News Letter, July 25, 1942,
Edgerton, Harold A. and Thomson, Kenneth F.--Test Scores Examined With the Lexis Ratio.
Psychometrika, December, 1942. 281-8.
38. Edgerton,Harold A. and Britt, Steuart Henderson--The First Annual Science Talent
Scientist, January, 1943, Vol. 31, No. 1.
39. Edgerton, Harold A. and Britt, Steuart Henderson--How Science Talent Search Winners
are Chosen. Science and the Future, 1943, pp. 112-115.
40. Edgerton, Harold A. and Britt, Steuart Henderson--Further Remarks Regarding The
Science Talent Search. American Scientist, 1943, Vol. 31, No. 3.
41. Edgerton, Harold A. and Britt, Steuart Henderson--The Science Talent Search,
Occupations, The Vocational Guidance Magazine, December 1943,
42. Edgerton, Harold A. and Britt, Steuart Henderson--The Science Talent Search,
Reprinted from Occupations in The Education Digest, IX, No. 6, Feb. 1944, 37-39.
43. Edgerton, Harold A. and Britt, Steuart Henderson--The Third Annual Science Talent
Search. Science, April 21, 1944, Vol. 99, No. 2573, pp. 319-320.
44. Edgerton, Harold A. and Britt, Steuart Henderson--Sex Differences in The Science
Talent Test. Science, September 1, 1944, Vol. 100, No. 2592, pp. 192-193.
45. Edgerton, Harold A., Britt, Steuart Henderson and Davis, Helen M.--Is Your State
Discovering Its Science Talent? Science Education, October, 1944, Vol. 28, No.4.
46. Edgerton, Harold A--A Symposium,
Ohio State University, The University, The G. I. Bill and the Veteran. School
and College Placement, December, 1944.
47. Edgerton, Harold A. and
Britt, Steuart Henderson--Science Talent in American
Youth. Science, March, 1945, Vol. 101, No. 2619, pp. 247-248.
48. Edgerton, Harold A. and Walker, Robert Y.--History and Development of the Ohio
State Flight Inventory, Part I: Early Versions and Basic Research. Civil
Aeronautics Administration, Division of Research, Washington, D. C., Report No.
47, July, 1945.
49. Edgerton, Harold A. and Walker, Robert Y.--History and Development of the Ohio
State Flight Inventory, Part II: Recent Versions and Current Applications, 1945.
50. Edgerton, Harold A. and Britt, Steuart Henderson--The Science Talent Search in
Relation to Educational and Economic Indices. School and Society. March 9, 1945.
Vol. 63, No. 1628. Pages 172-175.
51. Edgerton, Harold A.--Ohio State and Occupations. The Ohio State University Press,
52. Edgerton, Harold A. and Britt, Steuart Henderson-- Technical Aspects of the Fourth
Annual Talent Search. Educational & Psychological Measurement, Vol. 7., No.
1, Spring 1947, p. 3-21.
53. Personnel Research and
Procedure Branch TAGO - Survey of the Educational
Program, The Command and Staff College, 1947.
54. Edgerton, Harold A., Britt, Steuart Henderson and Norman, Ralph D.-Objective
Differences Among Various Types of Respondents to a Mailed Questionnaire.
American Sociological Review, Vol. XII, No. 4, Aug. 1947, 435-444.
55. Edgerton, Harold A., Britt, Steuart Henderson and Lemmon, William B.-Reliability
of Anecdotal Material in the First Annual Science Talent Search. Journal of
Applied Psychology, Vol. 31, No. 4. Aug., 1947, 435-444.
56. Edgerton, Harold A.--Counseling & Its Relation to Total Personnel. Ohio Nurses
Review, October 1947, p. 142-148.
Darley, J. G., Alexander, W. B., Bailey, H. W., Cook, W. W., Edgerton, H.A. and Vaughn, K. W.--The
Use of Tests in Colleges. American Council on Education Studies, Series VI,
Student Personnel Work, No. 9, XI, Dec. 1947, pp. 86.
58. Edgerton, Harold A.,
Britt, Steuart Henderson and Norman, Ralph D.--Physical Differences
Between Ranking & Non-Ranking Contestants in the First Annual Science Talent
Search. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, December 1947, p. 435-52.
59. Edgerton, Harold A., Britt, Steuart Henderson and Norman, Ralph D.--Later
Achievements of Male Contestants in the First Annual Science Talent Search.
American Scientist, Vol. 36, No. 3, Summer 1948.
Berkshire, J. R., Bugental, J. F. T., Cassens, Frank P. and Edgerton, Harold
Preferences in Guidance Centers. Occupations, The Vocational Guidance Journal,
1948, p. 337-343.
61. Edgerton, Harold A.--The Place of Measuring Instruments in Guidance, pages 51-58 of
Measurement of Student Adjustment and Achievement, Donahue, Wilma T., Coombs,
Clyde H. and Travis, Robert M. W. (Ed) University of Michigan Press, 1949.
62. Edgerton, Harold A. and Britt, Steuart Henderson--The Annual Science Talent Search
for the Westinghouse Scholarships, Transactions of The New York Academy of
Sciences, February 1949, p. 118-120.
Fryer, Douglas H. and Edgerton, Harold A.--Research Concerning "Off-the-Job
Training.", Personnel Psychology, Autumn 1950, Vol. 3, No. 3, p. 261-284.
64. Committee on Ethical Standards for Psychologists, Vol. 1. The Code of
Ethics, American Psychological Association, 1952, pp. 16.
65. Committee on Ethical Standards for Psychology, Ethical Standards for
Psychologists, Vol. 2, Source Bock of Ethical Problems, Incidents, and
Principles, American Psychological Association, 1952.
66. Edgerton, Harold A., Feinberg, M. R. and Falkind,
S. S.--Personnel Factors in Polar Operations, A report prepared for the Department
of the Navy, Office of Naval Research, Washington, D. C., 1953.
67. Edgerton, Harold A. and Daniels, Harry W.--The Development of Criteria of Safe
Operation for Groups, Journal App. Psych., 1954,-pp. 47-52.
A. and Blum, Milton L.--A Technique to Determine IlliteracyLiteracy Requirements of Jobs, Personnel
& Guidance Journal., May 1954, pp. 52-57.
A.--Some Needs in Training Research. Pers. Psych. 8, No. 1, Spring 1955, 19-25
70. Edgerton, Harold A.--As Management Sees
It . . . Are You a Good Interviewer?
June 1956, 232-236.
71. Edgerton, Harold A.--How to Get Top Results From Your Interviews. Pipe Line
72. Edgerton, Harold A., Feinberg, Mortimer R. and Thomson, Kenneth T--Prediction of
the "Human Relations" Effectiveness of Industrial Supervisors.
Personnel Psychology 10, No. 4, Winter 1957, 421-432.
Edgerton, Harold A.--Adapting Training Methods to Trainee Aptitudes.
Reviews, ONR, Department of the Navy, October 1958, 17-19.
74. Edgerton, Harold A.--Two Tests for Early Identification of Scientific Ability.
Educational & Psychological Measurement, Vol. 19, No. 3. Autumn 1959,
75. Edgerton, Harold A. and Krugman, Herbert E.--Profile of a Scientist-Manager.
Personnel, September-October 1959.
76. Edgerton, Harold A. and Sparks, C.
P.--Training, in Heyel, Handbook 2 Industrial
Research Management, Reinhold - lst & 2nd Edition, 1959 and 1968.
77. Edgerton, Harold
A.--A Table for Computing the Phi Coefficient. Journal of Applied
Psychology, Vol.44, No. 3. 1960, 141-145.
78. Edgerton, Harold A--Recent Developments and Current Practices in The Evaluation of
Scientific and High Level Technical Jobs, p. 14-15, TriService Conference on
The Role of Job Evaluation Techniques in the Structuring of Military
Occupations, ONR Symposium, Office of Naval Research., Washington, D.C., 1961.
79. Edgerton, Harold
A.--Science Talent, Its Early Identification and Continuing
Development, Science Services, Inc., 1961, pp. 105.
80. A Talk With a Talent Scout. The American Weekly, March 12,
1961, by Hearst Pub. Co., Inc. (Condensed
under same title in Reader's Digest, June 1961)
A.--Measurement of Performance In Terms of Behavioral Evidences a summary of a paper
given at the American Psychological Association, 1963.
82. Committee FAA Academy Survey, 1964, pp. 98 + 6.
83. Edgerton, Harold A.--"Perspective," the keynote address, Military Testing
Association, Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Conference, 20-22 October 1964.
Ft. Benjamin Harrison, Ind., v p.23-29
84. Edgerton, Harold A. and Sylvester, R. W.--The Delaware
Performance Research Inc., 1964, pp. 113
85. Edgerton, Harold A.--Science Talent: Its Early Identification and Later
Development, J. Exp. Educ. 34, No. 3, Spring 1966, 90-96.
86. Edgerton, Harold A.--The Summer Science Training Program ... and After. The Science
Teacher 33, No. 1, Jan. 1966.
Hodgson, Paul M., Sylvester, Robert W. and Edgerton, Harold A.--The Delaware
Multi-Occupational Program, A Study of Pre-Vocational Training, Journal of
Industrial Teacher Education, 1966, Vol. 3, No. 2.
88. Edgerton, Harold A. and Sylvester, R.
W.--Prediction of Outcomes of MDTA Programs, A
Pilot Study, Performance Research Inc., 1966.
89. Bartlett, C. J. and Edgerton, Harold A.--Dimensions of Summer Science Training
Programs As Reflected By Their Participants, Psychological Reports, 1966, 18, 67-73.
90. Edgerton, Harold A., Eisenberg, Terry and Bartlett, C.
J.--Dimensions of High
Schools As Related to Science Climate., The Science Teacher, May 1966.
91. Bartlett, C. J. and Edgerton, Harold A.--Stanine Values for Ranks for Different
Numbers of Things Rated, Educational and Psychological Measurement, Summer 1966.
92. Edgerton, Harold A.--Prediction of Outcomes of
MDTA Programs p. 17-26, Research in
Vocational and Technical Education, Proceedings of a Conference, Center for
Studies in Vocational and Technical Education, University of Wisconsin, 1967.
93. Edgerton, Harold A.--Recent Advances in Personnel Psychology in Industry,
Personnel Research and Systems Advancement, Twenty-Fifth Anniversary Symposium,
Personnel Research and Systems Advancement, Lackland AF Base, Texas, 1967.
94. Edgerton, Harold A. and Stoloff, Peter H.--A Note on Item Difficulty, Educ. and
Psych. Measurement, 27: No. 2, Science 1967, 261-6.
BELLOWS, HENRY & Co., INC. REPORTS
prepared by Harold A. Edgerton or to which he made major contribution.
Construction of Three Measures for Instructor Evaluation, 1948.
2. Academic Grades
of Students In the Naval School of PreFlight.
3. Final Report
4. Study of Basic
5. A Study of
Research Utilization, ONR - Edgerton 1952.
A Recommendation Blank to Aid In the Selection of Scientific and
Technical Personnel 1949 - HAE and MWR.
A Study of Army Recruiters - 1956, Katzell and Krugman.
A Proposed Billet Evaluation System for Enlisted Pay Grades in the U. S.
Marine Corps - Edgerton.
Personnel Factors in Polar Operations. ONR - Edgerton and Feinberg, 1953.
The Relationship of Method of Instruction to Trainee Aptitude Pattern -
ONR, 1958, Edgerton.
Should Theory Precede or Follow a "How-to-do-it" Phase of
Training - ONR, 1956, Edgerton.
Inputs of the National Science Foundation's Summer Science Program for
High Ability Secondary School Students. NSF pp. 141 - Edgerton, 1961.
Selection of Students for Summer Science Programs - 1961. pp. 14 -
The Status of Evaluation Studies of Summer Science Programs, NSF - 1961 -
pp. 43 Edgerton and Voight.
Pitfalls of Running a Summer Science Program, NSF - 1961, PP. 7 - Edgerton.
A Look at the 1959 National Science Foundation's "Summer Science
Training Programs for High Ability Secondary School Students" - NSF - 1959,
pp. 207 -Edgerton.
and Clerical Performance Report, American Cyanamid Co. - 1956- pp. 15 -
Performance Report for Supervisory and Technical
Personnel of W. Va. Pulp and Paper Co. - 1952, pp. 8 - Edgerton.
Tests for the Selection of Oilfield Equipment Salesmen for BS&B -
1958 - Edgerton.
The Development of Improved Methods to Aid In the Selection of
Supervisors and for the Evaluation of Their On-the-Job-Performance, Oliver Iron
Co. - 1956 - Edgerton.
Interim Report: Employee Selection Test Program - SNETCO - 1948 -
Tests to Aid in Selection of Personnel - United Parcel Co. - 1948 -
Classification/Assignment Techniques, November 1963, USMC, Marine Corps
pp. 37 plus tables and appendices.
The Aptitude Area Classification Test in Aviation Technical Training,
USMC - May 1964, pp. 22 - Edgerton.
3. The Delaware
Multi-Occupational Project - Sept. 1964, pp. 113 - Edgerton and Sylvester.
Teacher Training Programs for Instruction of Sub-literates and Disadvantaged Youth in Basic Literacy Subjects and Pre-Vocational Occupational
Areas - 1964, pp. 19 + 5 - Sylvester and Edgerton.
Three Years After SSTP: How Well is SSTP Achieving its Purposes - NSF 1965, pp. 60 -
Construction of Four Equivalent Forms of Officer
Selection Battery, Booklet II (USN) - Dec. 1965, pp. 11 - Edgerton.
Myrick, Richard (Ed), Proceedings: Conference on Personnel Retention Research Dec. 17 - 9.
1968 - PP. 366.
J. C. Bartlett - A Revision of Evaluation Techniques for Peace Corps Trainees
Prog. Report - Oct. 1965, pp. 4 + appendices.
Final Report: MDTA Training Program for MDTA Staff and Instructors, and Selected Faculty
Members of Wilmington Vocational Schools - 1965, pp. 6 -Sylvester and
The Prediction of Outcomes of MDTA Programs - Feb. 1966, pp. 19 + tables and appendices -
Edgerton and Sylvester.
The Date-A-Matic Inventory - Aug. 1966, pp. 5 - Sylvester and Edgerton.
A Review of Evaluation Techniques for Peace Corps Trainees: Validation Against Selection Board
Ratings pp. 65 - Bartlett, Walder, Schnieder, Stoloff and Voytas.
Questions to Aid in the Selection of Life Insurance Salesmen
- Edgerton and Sylvester.
Final Report on USAF Contract No. AF (609) 2272 - Construction of subject matter test items
The Self-Description Inventory, Oct. 1966, USMC - Edgerton.
Job Corps Trainees as a Sample of the Population - March 1967, pp. 14 + 18 Tables - Edgerton and
Changes in Job Corps Population with Time - 1967, pp. 8 + 26 Tables - Edgerton and
Comparison of Job Corps Rejectees with Census Data and
with Draftee and Draft
Rejectee Populations - Apr. 1967, PP. 7 + 11 Tables - Edgerton and Sylvester.
Comparison of Characteristics of Disciplinary
Dismissals with Job Corps Enrollees and Rejectee Populations - 1967, pp. 16 + 47 Tables - Edgerton
Changes In Job Corps "No Show" Population Over Time - 1967, pp.
13 + 26 Tables - Edgerton
Construction of A Maturity Scale - Oct. 1967, pp. 57 + vi + 22 Tables appendices - Edgerton and
Public Service Jobs for the Disadvantaged: A Description of the Jobs and
the Methods of Recruitment and
Selection - June 1968 - Myrick and Edgerton.
GSA Merit Promotion Plan - 1968 - Edgerton.
Merit Promotion Plan - pp. 9
GSA's Merit Promotion Plan - pp. 3
Questions on the Psychological Implications of the Employee
and Promotion Plan - pp. 12
Psychological View of the Current Appraisal System and Promotion
- pp. 5
Tryout of the GSA Improved Employee Appraisal and Promotion
- pp. 5
Maintenance - pp. 4
of the GSA Improved Employee Appraisal and Promotion Plan
Quantitative - Qualitative Studies of Military Talent - Feb. 1968, pp.
85, USMC - Edgerton.
Construction and Validation of the Technical Background Test - March
1968, pp. 23 + appendices
Basic Counselor Information - 1970 - Edgerton and Myrick.
Counselors Guide - 1969 - Sylvester.
Guide for the Use of Tests in Project Transition - 1969 - Edgerton
Counselor Training Program, Special Report - 1969 - Edgerton.
Making More Occupational Information Available - 1969 - Edgerton.
Counseling Minority Group Servicemen - 1969 - Bryant and Myrick.
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