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Industrial and Organizational Psychology           

This document is an abridged version of the approved CRSPPP (Committee on the Recognition of Specialties and Proficiencies in Professional Psychology) petition for the recognition of Industrial and Organizational Psychology as a specialty in professional psychology.

Industrial and Organizational Psychology is represented by the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) www.siop.org:

SIOP Administrative Office
520 Ordway Ave.
Bowling Green, OH 43402

Tel: 419-353-0032
Fax: 419-352-2645

Siop@siop.org

Brief description of the specialty

 Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychology is both the study of behavior in organizational and work settings and the application of the methods, facts, and principles of psychology to individuals and groups in organizational and work settings.  I/O psychologists are versatile behavioral scientists specializing in human behavior in the workplace. I/O psychologists recognize the interdependence of individuals, organizations, and society, and they recognize the impact of factors such as increasing government influences, growing consumer awareness, skill shortages, and the changing nature of the workforce. I/O psychologists facilitate responses to issues and problems involving people at work by serving as advisors and catalysts for business, industry, labor, public, academic, community, and health organizations. They are: 

  • Scientists who derive principles of individual, group, and organizational behavior through research;
  • Consultants and staff psychologists who develop scientific knowledge and apply it to the solution of problems at work; and
  • Teachers who train students in the research and application of Industrial-Organizational Psychology

The following parameters differentiate the I/O specialty from others.

 

a.      Populations: The distinct focus of I/O psychology is on human behavior in work settings. Therefore, the populations affected by the practice of I/O psychology include individuals in and applicants to business, industry, labor, public (including non-profit), academic, community, and health organizations.

b.     Problems: I/O psychologists deal with problems or issues that can be classified as both applied and basic in nature.  Basic problems are quite variable, following the investigator's interests. Examples include research on methods of behavioral measurement, communication, motivation, social interaction, and leadership. Applied problems and activities are oriented around scientific solutions to human problems at work.  These latter problems and activities include but are not limited to:

Recruitment, Selection and Placement: Analyzing jobs and work, developing recruitment procedures, developing selection procedures, validating tests, optimizing placement of personnel, and identifying management potential

Training and Development: Identifying training and development needs, formulating and implementing training programs, coaching employees, evaluating the effectiveness of training and development programs, and planning careers.

Performance Measurement: Developing criteria, determining the economic utility of performance, and evaluating organizational effectiveness.

Motivation and Reward Systems:  Developing, implementing, and evaluating motivation and reward programs such as goal setting programs or pay-for-performance plans.

Organizational Development: Analyzing organizational structures and climates, maximizing the satisfaction and effectiveness of individuals and work groups, and facilitating organizational change.

Quality of Work Life: Identifying factors associated with job attitudes, designing and implementing programs to reduce work stress and strain, developing programs that promote safe work behavior and the prevention of accidents, illnesses, and injuries, and designing programs that enhance work/family life.            

Consumer Behavior: Assessing consumer preferences, evaluating customer satisfaction with products and services, and developing market segmentation strategies.

The Structure of Work and Human Factors: Designing jobs and work, optimizing person-machine effectiveness, and developing systems technologies. 

c.      Procedures and techniques:  A variety of procedures, tools, techniques and guidance documents have been developed to assist I/O psychologists in effectively addressing the above types of issues and problems.  Notably, I/O psychologists have rigorously developed both standardized and more situationally-specific procedures and techniques for assessing the three primary elements in a work system the worker, the work itself, and the work context.  In regard to the assessment of worker characteristics, these procedures would include tests and other means for evaluating more stable individual differences such as cognitive abilities, personality characteristics, values, and physical abilities and more transient characteristics or work behaviors. In addition, numerous procedures have been developed for analyzing the content and human requirements of work, collectively referred to as job analysis procedures.  With respect to the evaluation of work context variables, procedures have been developed to assess and effectively manage organizational culture and climate, organizational reward systems, and the design of organizations.

In addition, I/O psychologists have focused on the development of procedures for addressing important statistical/methodological issues and problems such as the extent to which employment test validity coefficients generalize across situations, procedures for aggregating individual-level data to the group- and organization-level, and procedures for translating the effectiveness of behavioral interventions into estimates of economic utility. 

Finally, the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) has produced guidelines and white papers, which serve to promote good practice such as the Principles for the Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures (Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1987), Ethical Practice of Psychology in Organizations (Lowman, 1998), and Affirmative Action: A Review of Psychological and Behavioral Research (Kravitz, Harrison, Turner, Levine, Chaves, Brannick, Denning, Russell, & Conard, 1997).  For instance, the former document specifies the principles of good practice in the choice, development, evaluation, and use of personnel selection procedures.

Theoretical and scientific knowledge required for the specialty

I/O psychologists should acquire knowledge of research and theory on the social bases of behavior, cognitive-affective bases of behavior, and individual differences theory.  Social, cognitive, developmental, learning, and individual difference theories continue to play important roles in theory development and research in I/O psychology.  Although knowledge of research and theory on the biological bases of behavior is important for I/O psychologists dealing with specific practice issues or more specific research issues (e.g., the role of cortical regulatory systems in experienced affect at work), practice and research in I/O psychology is much less focused than some other specialties on the biological bases of behavior. 

I/O psychologists require distinctive knowledge of ethical and legal issues associated with practice in organizations.  To this end, SIOP and APA have produced a book to educate I/O psychologists about the unique ethical dilemmas faced in applying psychology in work settings.  This volume provides guidance with respect to ethical issues in personnel selection, organizational diagnosis and intervention, managing consulting relationships, research, professional certification and training, and professional behavior. In regard to legal issues, I/O psychologists need to be knowledgeable of statutory (e.g., Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1991) and administrative laws (e.g., Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972), executive orders (e.g., Executive Order 11246), and court decisions (e.g., Griggs v. Duke Power, Wards Cove Packing Company v. Atonio) as they apply to the practice of psychology in organizations.

Overview Of The Required Knowledge And Practice Activities For Seven Core Professional Practice Domains

a.      Assessment: I/O psychologists must have knowledge and skills to assess jobs and work, performance, and people.  For assessing jobs and work, knowledge of alternative methods for describing work and the human attributes necessary to perform the work is needed.  For instance, I/O psychologists should be knowledgeable of the numerous inventories used to describe work and worker characteristics (e.g., O*NET, Position Analysis Questionnaire, Occupational Analysis Inventory, Functional Job Analysis).  In regard to assessing performance, knowledge of subjective and objective measures of job performance is required.  For instance, I/O psychologists should be knowledgeable and skillful in the development of behavior-focused rating forms such Behaviorally Anchored Ratings Scales (BARS) and Behavior Observation Scales (BOS). For assessing individuals, I/O psychologists need to be knowledgeable of a variety of procedures for assessing individuals including psychological tests, biographical information, interviews, work samples, assessment centers, surveys, and the use of computers in assessment.

Representative practice activities:

1.     Assessing the content of work via job analysis procedures for the purpose of developing performance appraisal procedures.

2.     Assessing the human requirements of work via job analysis procedures for the purpose of developing or identifying personnel selection procedures.

3.     Assessing individual characteristics via psychological tests, interviews, work samples, and other means for selecting individuals into jobs and career development.

4.     Assessing employee knowledge, skill or work performance via a host of evaluation procedures for the purpose of identifying training needs. 

5.     Assessing employee perceptions of work environment characteristics via survey procedures for the purpose of managing an organizations climate.

 

b.     Intervention:  I/O psychologists design and evaluate the effectiveness of many types of interventions directed at individuals in groups such as goal setting and feedback interventions, personnel training programs, and workplace interventions to prevent stress-related illness. I/O psychologists may or may not be experts in the content of the intervention or training program, but they must possess knowledge of program design and evaluation.  For instance, with respect to personnel training, I/O psychologists need to know how to conduct a needs assessment, how to design a training program taking into account trainee characteristics and other factors that are likely to affect the transfer of training, and how to evaluate a training program including structuring a study that specifies how data are to be collected and choosing or developing measures of the criteria.  In addition, I/O psychologists must be knowledgeable of organizational change techniques and the relative effectiveness of organizational development interventions.   

Representative practice activities:

1.     Implementing a form of programmed instruction, ranging from printed booklets to interactive videotapes to computer-assisted instruction programs, designed to develop employees declarative and procedural knowledge.

2.     Conducting simulation training for the development of technical skills in controlled and safe environments.

3.     Conducting frame of reference training for raters who appraise others, where the raters are given a common and consistent frame of reference on which to make judgments.

4.     Implementing process improvements and job enrichment, efforts to expand a workers role in planning, improving, and performing their work.

5.     Implementing team building and organizational development interventions with groups or teams.  These interventions are designed to enhance team member morale, problem-solving skills, and team effectiveness.

c.      Consultation: I/O psychologists must be knowledgeable of the roles and functions of others with whom they will interact on a professional basis.  Given that organizations are open systems in continual interaction with multiple, dynamic environments, the form and level of consultation that an I/O psychologist has will vary from one setting to another and over time within any particular setting.  Although primary consultation is with management personnel, the type of work and work context may necessitate consultation with other organizational stakeholder groups such as union personnel, those involved in our legal system, organizational suppliers, and consumer/client groups.  Broad knowledge of the above content areas as well as knowledge of strategic decision-making and organizational stakeholder groups are helpful in consultation with others.

Representative practice activities:

1.     Working with compensation specialists to establish organizational reward systems.

2.     Participating with engineers in the planning, design, and testing of person-machine systems.

3.     Obtaining the advice of legal professionals concerning the implications of court decisions for the validation and use of personnel selection procedures.

4.     Consulting with mental health, public health, and medical personnel on the design and evaluation of workplace interventions intended to reduce work stress and strain. 

5.     Interacting with union personnel concerning the protection of union member rights when planning assessments and interventions.

d.     Supervision:  Knowledge required for supervision in Industrial/Organizational psychology includes not only knowledge that is generic to all professional supervision, but also knowledge of general standards (e.g., APA, 1992; AERA, APA, & NCME, 1999; Code of Fair Testing Practices, 2000) and knowledge and skills specific to the practice of I/O psychology.  

American Eductional Research Association, American Psychological Association, & National Council on Measurement in Education.  (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing.  Washington, D.C.:  AERA Publications.

American Psychological Association. (1992). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct.  Washington, D.C.:  Author.  

Code of Fair Testing Practices in Education. (2000) Washington, D.C.: Joint Committee on Testing Practices. (Mailing Address: Joint Committee on Testing Practices, American Psychological Association, 750 First Street, NE, Washington, DC, 20002-4242.)

Representative practice activities:

1.     Supervising the development of psychological tests.

2.     Managing the administration of an employee survey.

3.     Supervising the design of an employee performance appraisal system.

4.     Leading an analysis to determine the solution to an organizational problem.

5.     Managing the implementation of an organizational change effort, such as a new reward system for high performing employees or process improvements.

6.     Supervising student research

e.      Research and Inquiry: I/O psychologists must have extensive knowledge of research strategies and research methodology as well as knowledge of psychometrics and statistics.

Representative practice activities:

1.     Evaluating the effectiveness of an organizational intervention, such as job redesign intervention or process improvements.

2.     Studying the transfer of training to the job.

3.     Conducting a criterion-related validity study to determine the predictive effectiveness of a personnel selection procedure.

4.     Estimating the economic impact of a personnel selection or training program.

5.     Studying the relation between organizational commitment and turnover.

6.     Conducting laboratory experiments, field experiments, or field studies

f.       Consumer Protection:  I/O psychologists should acquire knowledge of ethical principles of psychologists and the ethical practice of psychology in organizations.  In addition, SIOP operates a web site and consultant locator service designed to help those interested in finding an individual or firm with experience and expertise in particular practice areas.

Representative practice activities:

1.     Communicating to clients the relevant legal and technical aspects of a selection program or some other I/O-psychology related program in terms the organizational representatives can understand.

2.     Indicating to potential client organizations that assessment procedures will be developed only according to professionally acceptable standards.

3.     Establishing clear rules as to how sensitive data (e.g., pre-employment drug test results) will be maintained and how results will be communicated to all parties. 

4.     Examining promotional materials for I/O psychology-related products and services and requesting the right of approval prior to distribution to the public.

5.     Obtaining permission from a client organization prior to discussing consulting work in a public forum. 

g.      Professional Development: I/O psychologists have opportunities to update their knowledge and skills on a regular basis through participation in SIOP sponsored workshops and conferences.  A sampling of workshops held at the most recent Annual Conference is presented below.  In addition, many I/O psychologists belong to other APA Divisions (e.g., Division 5, Evaluation, Measurement and Statistics; Division 19, Military Psychology), professional societies such as the Academy of Management, and local associations (e.g., Personnel Testing Council of Metropolitan Washington D.C.) that provide further professional development opportunities.

Representative practice activities:

1.     Attending conferences to learn about research and practice developments.

2.     Participating in professional development workshops such as those conducted at SIOPs Annual Conference.

3.     Reading APA and SIOP task force reports, journals, and books concerning research and practice developments (such as the books published in SIOPs Frontiers Series and SIOPs Professional Practice Series).

4.     Reading SIOPs quarterly journal TIP (The Industrial/Organizational Psychologist) to update knowledge concerning the latest I/O psychology-relevant information on a variety of topics. 

5.     Participating in professional, scientific, and educational organizations whose mission is (in whole or part) to advance the knowledge and practice of industrial and organizational psychology. 

Other Areas of I/O Specific Scientific Knowledge

There are a variety of other specific specialty areas within I/O psychology that build upon a basic scientific core.  Twenty of these areas are discussed below:

1. Research Methods

The domain of research methods includes the methods, procedures, techniques, and  tools useful  in  the conduct  of  empirical research  on phenomena  of interest in  I/O psychology.  At a general  level, the areas  encompassed by research methods include the  scientific method (with attention to issues in the  philosophy  of science),  inductive  and  deductive reasoning,  problem statements and research questions,  hypotheses, the nature and definition of constructs,  and   study  designs   (experimental,  quasi-experimental,  and non-experimental). At  a more operational level,  research methods includes, but  is  not limited  to,  the  manipulation of  variables (in  experimental research), the  concepts underlying  and methods used for  the assessment of the  reliability and  validity  of measures,  the administration  of various specific  types  of measures  (questionnaires,  interviews, observations  of behavior, projective measures, etc.), the use of various sampling procedures (probability  and  non-probability type)  especially  as  applied to  survey research, the  conduct of  research with various  specific strategies (field study, laboratory experiments,  field experiment, sample survey, simulation, case study, etc.), the use of statistical methods to establish relationships between  variables,  and  the  formulation  of  research-based  conclusions. Specific  knowledge about  relative  strengths and  weaknesses of  different research strategies,  an understanding  of qualitative research  methods, as well as  a tolerant  appreciation of the benefits  of alternative strategies must be developed. Computer  literacy has become increasingly important, and programming skills may be  particularly useful. Finally, an understanding of the  ethical standards  that govern  the conduct  of all  research involving human participants is essential.

 2. Statistical Methods/Data Analysis

This domain has to  do with the various statistical techniques that are used in the analysis of data generated by empirical research. The domain includes both  descriptive  and  inferential   statistical  methods;  it  spans  both parametric  and  nonparametric   statistical  methods.  Among  the  specific competencies, issues and techniques encompassed by the domain are: estimates of central tendency; estimates of variability; sampling distributions; point and  interval   estimates;  inferences  about   differences  between  means, proportions, and so forth;  univariate and multivariate analyses of variance (fixed, random, and mixed  effects models); linear and non-linear regression and  correlation; path  analysis;  multiple discriminant  function analysis; multiple  and canonical  regression;  factor analysis;  components analysis; cluster  analysis;  pattern  analysis;  and  structural  equation  modeling. Knowledge of  this domain  implies a basic understanding  of the statistical foundation  of  such methods,  asymptotic  sampling  variances of  different statistics, the  assumptions underlying the proper  use of the same methods, and   the  generalizations,   inferences,   and  interpretations   that  can legitimately   be    made   on   the   basis    of   statistical   evidence.  

3. Attitude Theory, Measurement, and Change

Attitudes, opinions  and beliefs  are extremely important  in organizational settings.  They are  important in  their own  right because of humanitarian concerns  for the  quality  of working  life of  those  who are  employed in organizations.  They   are  also   important  for  diagnosing   problems  in organizations.  Finally,  they  are important  because  they  relate to  the behavioral intentions and the  behaviors of individuals at work. Some of the job attitudes  typically studied  by I/O psychologists include,  but are not limited to, job satisfaction  (general and various facets), job involvement, organizational commitment, and perceptions of fairness.

4. Career Development

Theory  and research  regarding  career development  are concerned  with the interplay between  individuals and environments and  attempt to describe the nature of the patterns of positions held and resultant experiences during an individual's lifespan.  Included in this domain  are models and explanations of  the origin and  measurement of  individual aptitudes and  interests, how individual, social, chance, and  environmental factors shape educational and training experiences,  specific skill  training and development, early work history, occupational  choice, organizational/job choice  and switching, the sequence  of  jobs taken  after  organizational  entry, work/family  issues, midcareer plateaus, and retirement planning.

 5. Consumer Behavior

 The focus  of this area is the systematic  study of the relationship between the  producers   (or  distributors)  and  consumers   (actual  or  potential recipients)  of  goods  and  services. Usually  this  involves  many of  the following  concerns:  consumer preferences  for  product features,  consumer attitudes  and motivation,  buying habits  and patterns,  brand preferences, media   research  (including   the   effectiveness  of   advertisements  and commercials), estimating  demand for products or  services, and the study of the economic expectations of people. Closely allied to those areas of market research  which focus  on personal  consumption, there  is a  substantive or content basis  to this domain insofar as there is a  body of theory and data amassed  dealing with  the antecedents  and correlates of  consumer behavior which should be learned.  There is a skill component to be mastered as well, inasmuch as the area  is built upon the appropriate application of a variety of   social   science  research   methodologies   (e.g.,  sampling   theory, questionnaire and survey protocol design and execution, individual and group interviewing,   stimulus   scaling,   and   mathematical  model   building).

6. Criterion Theory and Development

Almost all applications of  I/O psychology (e.g., selection, human resources planning,  leadership,  performance appraisal,   organization  design, organization  diagnosis  and  development,  training)  involve  measurements against  criteria (standards)  that  indicate effectiveness  on the  part of individuals, groups, and/or organizations.  The selection of criteria is not a  simple  issue  and  represents a  significant  area  of  concern for  I/O psychologists.

The knowledge base of this domain incorporates understanding the theoretical issues  such as  single  versus multiple  criteria, criterion  dynamics, the characteristics  of good  and  acceptable criteria  (relevance, reliability, practicality), and  criteria as a basis  for understanding human behavior at work and in organizations. Knowledge of past research in this area, which is quite extensive, is also necessary. 

Beyond this knowledge, the I/O psychologist should have the skills necessary for  developing  valid  criteria   and  methods  of  measuring  them.  These necessarily include  skills in many  of the other domains  identified in the document (e.g., job analysis, psychometrics).

 7. Health and Stress in Organizations

 Job performance and effective  organizational functioning can be affected by health  and safety  factors in  the work  place which result  in sub-optimal working conditions  and reduced productivity. This  competency area requires the  study   of  interactions   between  human  physical   capabilities  and problematic conditions  in the  work place in  an attempt to  understand the limits  of performance and  negative effects  on workers. Among  the factors considered   are  hazardous   environmental  conditions  induced   by  toxic substances  (e.g.,  chemical, biological,  nuclear),  loud noises,  blinding lights,   noxious   odors.  Other   factors   considered   are  related   to organizational  structure  and  job  design  such  as  shift  work,  or  the requirements  of  particular  tasks.  Additional sources  of  organizational stress that  may affect  performance, commitment, and  attitudinal variables include  downsizing,  harassment,  work-family  pressures, and  outsourcing. There should  be some familiarity with  government standards relating to the work place (e.g., Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines).

 8. Human Performance/Human Factors

 Human  Performance is  the study  of limitations  and capabilities  in human skilled behavior.  Skill is broadly construed  to include perceptual, motor, memory,  and cognitive activities,  and the  integration of these  into more complex  behavior. Emphasis  is  on the  interaction of  human  behavior and tools, tasks, and environments, ranging from detection and identification of simple events to problem  solving, decision making, human errors, accidents, and  control  of complex  environments.  Included among  the variables  that affect human  performance are individual  differences, organismic variables, task   variables,   environmental   variables,   and   training   variables. 

Competency in this area  assures awareness of issues of experimental design, a  grounding in  perception, cognition,  and physiological  psychology, some knowledge  of  computer  programming,  and quantitative  modeling  based  on techniques from mathematical  psychology, engineering, and computer science. Familiarity in the subject  areas of basic experimental psychology should be combined with an awareness of applied research in such areas as work station design, workload measurement,  control systems, information display systems, health and safety, and human-computer interactions.

9. Individual Assessment

This  domain  refers to  a  set of  skills  that are  needed for  assessing, interpreting,   and    communicating   distinguishing   characteristics   of individuals for a variety of work-related purposes. The two primary purposes of individual assessment can  be defined broadly as selection (e.g., hiring, promotion,  placement) and  development  (e.g., career  planning, skill  and competency   building,  rehabilitation,  employee   counseling).  Individual assessment  may help  attain  multiple goals,  many  of which  are aimed  at achieving some  form of person-environment fit,  including assessee fit to a specific  job   or  career   track  and  assessee  fit   within  a  specific organizational context (e.g., department, work group).

Individual   assessment    incorporates   skill   in   individual   testing, interviewing,  and  appraisal  techniques  for  the  purpose  of  evaluating ability,  personality,  aptitude, and  interest characteristics.  Individual assessment  also requires  identifying, developing, selecting,  and/or using the appropriate means for such assessment, and communicating the results and interpretation  of assessment  accurately in  both face-to-face  and written form.

A  knowledge of  the fact  that individual  assessment focuses on  the whole person  is  required.  In  addition, a  knowledge  of  the  manner in  which environmental  and  contextual factors  shape  the  purpose and  use of  the accumulated   information    of   individual   assessments   is   necessary.

10. Job Evaluation and Compensation

This  competency area  focuses on  determining the  appropriate compensation level for skills, tasks, and/or jobs. Job evaluation is a processes by which the relative  value of  jobs is determined  and then linked  to commensurate compensation. Job evaluation is  closely tied to and usually predicated upon sound  job/task  analyses.  In  general,  job  evaluation  and  compensation involves  identifying  compensable  factors,  attending  to  perceptions  of fairness and equity, and considering issues of comparable worth. Proficiency in  this  competency  area  is demonstrated  by  a  theoretical and  applied understanding of various  job evaluation techniques, compensation strategies (e.g.,  pay for  skills,  team-based pay,  etc.), and  the legal  and social issues surrounding compensation. 

11. Job/Task Analysis and Classification

This  domain  encompasses  the   theory  and  techniques  used  to  generate information about what is involved in performing a job or task, the physical and  social context  of this  performance, and  the attributes needed  by an incumbent  for such  performance.  Tasks are  basic units  of  activity, the elements of  which highlight  the connection between behavior  and result. A job is an arbitrary  grouping of tasks designed to achieve an organizational objective. It is common for jobs to be grouped or classified on the basis of a  variety  of  criteria,   depending  on  the  purpose  and  goals  of  the classification system.

 The fundamental  concern of job  and task analysis is  to obtain descriptive information  to design  training  programs, establish  performance criteria, develop  selection  systems,  implement  job  evaluation  systems,  redesign machinery  or tools,  and create  career paths  for personnel.  The specific steps taken and the  type of information gathered will vary depending on the purpose of the job and task analyses and the classification system. Relevant information  includes, but  is  not limited  to: what  worker  behaviors are involved; the  knowledge, skills,  and abilities required;  the standards of performance desired; the tools, machines, and work aids used; the sources of information  available  to the  incumbent;  the  social, environmental,  and physical working conditions; and  the nature of supervision. Similarly, some of  the steps  involved in  job and  task analyses include:  identifying the purpose of  the analysis; preparing, designing,  or selecting a job analysis system;  collecting job  or task  information; summarizing the  results; and documenting the steps taken for future reference. The classification of jobs typically entails  identifying the  purpose and goals  of the classification system; designing  a classification  scheme; categorizing jobs  according to the  established  scheme; and  documenting  the  classification process  and outcomes.

 The  individual competent  in  this domain  should have  a knowledge  of the different  approaches to  job/task analysis  and classification, as  well as skill in applying these techniques to real world situations. This competency area  is likely  to continue  evolve as  the nature  of work in  our society continues to change.

 12. Judgment and Decision Making

Judgment and  decision making encompasses an  area of research and knowledge that  is both  prescriptive  and normative  in  its emphases.  This area  is important  because   judgment  and  decision  making  under  conditions  of uncertainty  probably  describes the  majority  of  the decisions  managers, psychologists,  market forecasters,  and budget/policy planners  make during the  course of  their  work and  research. A  knowledge of  decision theory, judgment,  and problem  solving research  is important to  understanding the critical  processes  that influence  how  information is  processed and  the quality of the decision outcomes.

 Many different content areas  within the broad area of I/O psychology can be studied  explicitly as  applications of  decision and judgment  theory. Such areas as vigilance behavior,  employee selection, choice behavior, and human performance  in  complex environments  can  be integrated  by principles  of decision theory that may require fewer concepts than are necessary when each content areas  is considered  distinct and unique.  Applications of decision theory  to the  policies of  decision makers,  judges, and  clinicians allow greater  understanding  of   inferential  procedures  used  by  individuals. Approaches  for  describing  and  predicting judgment  and  decision  making include  Brunswik's  lens  model,  Bayesian inference,  subjective  expected utility, prospect theory, and the cognitive information processing paradigm. A  knowledge of  these  approaches and  an ability  to integrate  across the different approaches are indicative  of breadth as well as depth of training in judgment and decision theory.

 13. Leadership and Management

Management and  leadership can be approached  at different levels. The study of  management and  leadership at  the macro  level involves  the influences senior level  individuals have in the  larger organizational context-setting strategy,  directing change,  influencing  values. Theory  and research  may focus   on   characteristics  of   leaders,   leader  style,   leader-member interactions, behaviors  of leaders, and related  phenomena. At a more micro level, leadership  and management  involves the day-to-day  exchange between leaders and  followers. This  includes challenges faced by  line managers in their relationships with subordinates in the assignment of tasks, evaluation of performance, coaching and  counseling for improvement, resource planning, and  related tasks. Related  to many  other areas, effective  leadership and management  involves  task  analysis,  motivation, decision  making,  career planning,  selection,  performance  appraisal, interpersonal  communication, listening   and  related   skills   in  a   supervisor-subordinate  context. Increasingly,  attention is  placed on  team leadership  and self-leadership (especially in  relation to  empowerment), and horizontal  leadership (i.e., peer influence processes).

 14. Organization Development

This   domain  encompasses   theory  and   research  relevant   to  changing individuals, groups, and organizations  to improve their effectiveness. This body  of  theory and  research  draws  from such  related  fields as  social psychology,   counseling  psychology,  educational   psychology,  vocational psychology,    engineering    psychology,    and   organizational    theory.

More specifically, this domain concerns theory and research related, but not limited to: individual  change strategies including training, socialization, attitude  change, career  planning,  counseling, and  behavior modification; interpersonal and group change strategies, including team building and group training, survey  feedback, and  conflict management; role  or task oriented change  strategies, including  job  redesign, role  analysis, management  by objectives,  and  temporary task  forces;  and organization  system-directed change strategies,  including survey feedback, open  systems oriented change programs,  human  resource accounting,  flexible  working hours,  structural changes, control system changes, and quality circles.

15. Organization Theory

It  is well  accepted  that the  structure, function,  processes,  and other organizational-level  constructs  have  an   impact  upon  the  behavior  of individuals  in   organizations.  Therefore,   it  is  necessary   that  I/O psychologists  have  a  thorough  understanding  of the  nature  of  complex organizations.  This understanding  should include,  but is not  limited to, classical  and   contemporary  theories   of  organizations,  organizational structure,   organizational   design,  technology,   and   the  process   of organizational policy formation and  implementation. Much of this theory and research is  generated by sociologists and  those students of organizational behavior  who choose  as  their unit  of analysis  constructs  not primarily within  the individual  or  within the  immediate group  environment  of the individual. Integration  of organizational  and individual constructs  is an important area of study within I/O psychology. Such an integration obviously requires a knowledge of organizational theory. 

16. Performance Appraisal and Feedback

Performance appraisal  and feedback have both a  knowledge and a skill base. This area centers on  the methods of measuring and evaluating individuals as they  perform  organizational tasks  and  on  taking action  (administrative and/or  developmental) with  individuals  on the  basis of  such appraisals. 

The  knowledge  base  includes  a  thorough understanding  of  rating  scale construction  and use. Also  relevant are  the areas of  measurement theory, data analysis, criterion theory  and development, motivation theory, and the factors   which   underlie  interpersonal   perception   and  judgment.   An understanding  of the  similarities, differences, and  inconsistencies among the perceptions of performance and feedback supplied by peers, subordinates, and supervisors is essential. The skill base includes procedures for communicating performance evaluations to  job incumbents  and counseling  them in  appropriate means  of improving their performance. Also, skill in designing a complete performance appraisal and  feedback  system which  meets  organizational  needs while  maintaining and/or   enhancing  worker   motivation  and/or  performance   is  required.

17. Personnel Recruitment, Selection, and Placement

This domain consists of  the theory and techniques involved in the effective matching of  individual needs,  preferences, skills, and  abilities with the needs and preferences of  organizations. An organization's needs are defined by the jobs assigned to positions in the organization. 

More  specifically, this  domain encompasses theory and research  in: human abilities;  test  theory,  development,  and use;  job  analysis;  criterion development  and  measurement; recruitment;  classical  and decision  theory models  of selection  and  placement; alternative  selection devices  (e.g., interviews, assessment centers); and  legal and societal considerations that impact  upon  recruitment,  selection,  and placement.  In  particular,  the individual  must  keep  current with  the  legislation  and court  decisions related to  these issues, as well  as with responses of  the Society to laws and their interpretations.

18. Small Group Theory and Team Processes

Much of human activity in organizations takes place in the presence of other people.  This is particularly  true of  work behavior. The  pervasiveness of interpersonal  and task  interdependence in  organizations demands  that I/O psychologists have  a good understanding  of the behavior of  people in work groups. Though the labels "group" and "team" are often used interchangeably, it  is  also  critical  to have  a  familiarity  with  the growing  teamwork literature. This  requires an understanding that  extends beyond familiarity with research and theory  related to interpersonal behavior in small groups. The  body of  theory  and research  concerning groups  and teams  draws from social psychology,  organizational psychology, sociology, and organizational behavior. A good background in group theory and team processes includes, but is not limited to, an understanding of leadership, motivation, interpersonal influence,  group effectiveness,  conformity,  conflict, role  behavior, and group decision making. 

19. Training: Theory, Program Design, and Evaluation

This  domain includes  theory and  techniques used  to design,  conduct, and evaluate  instructional programs.  The instructional  process begins  with a needs  assessment,  including  organizational,  job  and  task,  and  person analyses, to determine the goals and constraints of the organization and the characteristics of the job and trainees. Familiarity with basic phenomena of learning (e.g., modern learning theory, conditioning principles), as well as knowledge of  the different approaches to  training (e.g., computer assisted instruction, simulation, behavior  modification) are necessary for designing programs.  An  ability  to   develop  meaningful  and  appropriate  training objectives is  essential. Transfer of training to  the desired setting is an important consideration.  In order for programs  to be conducted as planned, the  instructors must  have  good instructional  skills. Thus,  training the trainers is necessary. 

Both  the  process and  the  outcome  of the  program  may  be evaluated  to determine if it has  been conducted as planned and whether or not it has had any effect. Knowledge of appropriate training evaluation criteria and design issues,  such  as pre-  and  post-testing  and control  groups,  as well  as organizational constraints is necessary for planning an evaluation strategy.

20. Work Motivation

Work motivation  refers to the  conditions within the individual  and his or her environment  that influence the direction,  strength, and persistence of relevant individual behaviors in organizations when individual abilities and organizational constraints are  held constant. Increasingly, work motivation is a concern at the group level as well.

I/O psychologists  need to have a sound background  in work motivation in at least three  respects. First they must have  a thorough understanding of the theories of  human motivation including, but  not limited to, need theories, cognitive theories, and reinforcement theories. In all cases there must be a thorough  understanding  of the  extensive  research and  theory that  exist outside the  domain of  work in the  basic psychological literature.  At the second level,  there must be an understanding of  the research and theory in motivationally  relevant domains  of I/O  psychology that  represent general applications  of  one  or   more  motivational  perspectives.  Such  general strategies  for  work  motivation as  goal  setting,  job design,  incentive systems, and participative decision making are relevant here. Finally, there must be  an awareness of and ability  to apply very specific, motivationally oriented practices that adapt motivational constructs to specific cases. For example, understanding and implementing management-by-objectives involves an application  of  goal setting principles and participation.