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Saturday AM

Coffee Break: Saturday, 7:308:00 Multiple Locations

93. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Chicago VI (Level 4)

Complementary Tests for Admissions to Academic Institutions: Beyond Cognitive Ability

The use of cognitive academic admissions tests (e.g., GMAT, MCAT, SAT, ACT, and LSAT) has become the focus of concern as institutions attempt to increase prediction of success as well as increase diversity in the schools and occupations. The challenges in identifying, developing, and validating complementary tests will be discussed.

Wayne J. Camara, College Board, Chair

Jennifer Hedlund, Central Connecticut State University, Robert J. Sternberg, Yale University, Developing a Supplement to the GMAT in MBA Admissions

Ellen Julian, Association of Medical Colleges, Assessing the Personal Characteristics of Premedical Students

Patrick Kyllonen, ETS, Standardized Letter of Recommendation

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, Frederick L. Oswald, Michigan State University, Brian H. Kim, Michigan State University, Lauren J. Ramsay, Michigan State University, Michael A. Gillespie, Michigan State University, Biodata and Situational Judgment: Complements to Standardized Tests in Academic Prediction

Sheldon Zedeck, University of CaliforniaBerkeley, Marjorie M. M. Shultz, University of CaliforniaBerkeley, Jamie H. Clark, University of CaliforniaBerkeley, Effectiveness Factors for Lawyering Performance

Wayne J. Camara, College Board, Discussant

Submitted by Sheldon Zedeck, zedeck@socrates.berkeley.edu

94. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:009:50 Chicago VII (Level 4)

Technologys Role in the Evolution of Acceptable Test Validation Strategies

This panel discussion brings together representatives from companies currently creating and deploying new technology-driven validation models with representatives from companies utilizing online testing and assessment for the purpose of discussing the broad-based impact of technology on the science of validation and the acceptability of specific technology-related validation models.

Charles A. Handler, rocket-hire.com, Chair

James C. Beaty, ePredix, Panelist

David G. Bigby, Bigby, Havis & Associates, Panelist

Mitchell W. Gold, Sprint, Panelist

Steven T. Hunt, Independent Consultant, Panelist

David L. Mayfield, Georgia-Pacific, Panelist

Submitted by Charles A. Handler, chandler@rocket-hire.com

95. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Chicago X (Level 4)

New Perspectives on Cross-Cultural Issues in Organizations

New perspectives on cross-cultural issues in organizations are considered, including a cross-cultural model of role-taking in organizations, a model of cultural change in multicultural organizations, cultural differences in responses to stress, cultural determinants of preferences for rewards, and the influence of social identity on emotional responses in multicultural organizations.

Dianna L. Stone, University of Central Florida, Chair

Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University of Central Florida, Dianna L. Stone, University of Central Florida, Role-Taking in Culturally Heterogeneous Organizations

Miriam Erez, Technion, The Dynamic Nature of Culture From a Multilevel Perspective

Rabi S. Bhagat, University of Memphis, Karen South Moustafa, University of Memphis, Cultural Variations in Coping with Organizational Stress

Joseph J. Martocchio, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Compensation and Reward Systems in a Multicultural Context

Patricia Garcia-Prieto, University of Geneva, Susan Schneider, University of Geneva, Interpreting Diversity Issues in Organizations: The Role of Social Identity

Harry C. Triandis, University of Illinois, Discussant

Submitted by Eugene F. Stone-Romero, roughrock@bellsouth.net

96. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Sheraton II (Level 4)

Understanding the Effectiveness of 360-Degreee Feedback Programs

Four presentations and a discussion offer research results and insights on the effectiveness of 360-degree feedback and how to improve the use of 360-degree programs in organizations. The panelists represent academics, practitioners, and an international perspective on 360-degree feedback. 

Joan F. Brett, Arizona State UniversityWest, Chair

Leanne E. Atwater, Arizona State UniversityWest, 
Co-Chair

James W. Smither, La Salle University, Manuel London, SUNYStony Brook, Richard R. Reilly, Stevens Institute of Technology, A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies of Multisource Feedback

Leanne E. Atwater, Arizona State UniversityWest, Joan F. Brett, Arizona State UniversityWest, 360-Degree Feedback to Managers: Does It Result in Changes in Employee Attitudes?

Patrick R. Powaser, Oxy Inc., Marc C. Marchese, Kings College, Cultural Influences on 360-Degree Feedback

Alma McCarthy, National University of IrelandGalway, Thomas N. Garavan, University of Limerick, Recipient Acceptability of Multisource Feedback: An Investigation of Rater, Ratee, and Contextual Variables

Allan H. Church, PepsiCo, Discussant

Submitted by Joan F. Brett, jbrett@asu.edu

97. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Sheraton III (Level 4)

Holding Multiple Roles and Using Family Policies: Benefits and Costs

The papers in this symposium examine nontraditional outcomes of the workfamily intersection. Specifically, the positive effects of engaging in multiple roles and the potential difficulties of using family-friendly policies are investigated. Strategies to maximize worklife balance and minimize family-friendly policy backlash are empirically tested.

Bryanne L. Cordeiro, Pennsylvania State University, Chair

Alicia A. Grandey, Pennsylvania State University, Co-Chair

Ellen E. Kossek, Michigan State University, Brenda A. Lautsch, Simon Fraser University, Susan C. Eaton, Harvard University, Kerrie L. Vanden Bosch, Michigan State University, Managing WorkHome Boundaries,
Performance, and Well-Being: The Effects of Formal Access to Telework and Flexibility Enactment

Jeffrey H. Greenhaus, Drexel University, Tammy D. Allen, University of South Florida, Sharon Foley, Drexel University, WorkFamily Balance: Exploration of a Concept

Rebecca H. Mulvaney, Caliber Associates/Pennsylvania State University, Alicia A. Grandey, Pennsylvania State University, Off-the-Job Training: A New Model of Nonwork-to-Work Facilitation

Candace B. Cronin, Caliber Associates/Pennsylvania State University, Alicia A. Grandey, Pennsylvania State University, Do You Think Your Family is My Responsibility? Evaluating the Fairness of a Family-Responsive Policy

Julie Holliday Wayne, Wake Forest University, Discussant

Submitted by Bryanne L. Cordeiro, blc194@psu.edu

98. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Sheraton V (Level 4)

Old Wine, New Bottles: Sexual Harassment and Womens Career Development

This symposium examines the impact of sexual harassment on womens career progress and development, including the buffering effects of a mentor; harassment by clients and customers; career impact of discrimination on professional women; and a longitudinal study of the ongoing effects of harassment on womens career development over time.

Louise F. Fitzgerald, University of Illinois at 
UrbanaChampaign, Chair

Hilary J. Gettman, University of Maryland, Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland, Bringing Sexual Harassment Research in Line with the Service Economy: A Measure and Model of Sexual Harassment by Clients

Patrick Wadlington, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Fritz Drasgow, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Louise F. Fitzgerald, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, An Examination of the Moderation Effects of Mentoring on the Relationship Between Sexual Harassment and its Resulting Negative Outcomes on Women Within the Military

Louise F. Fitzgerald, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Linda L. Collinsworth, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Carra S. Sims, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Alayne J. Ormerod, University of Illinois UrbanaChampaign, White Collar Blues: The Causes and Consequences of Sex Discrimination Against Professional Women

Nancy E. Betz, The Ohio State University, Louise F. Fitzgerald, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Dead Ends and Detours: The Long-Term Impact of Sexual Harassment and Discrimination on the Career Development of Professional Women

Jeanette N. Cleveland, Pennsylvania State University, Discussant

Kimberly T. Schneider, Illinois State University, Discussant

Submitted by Louise F. Fitzgerald, Lfitzger@s.psych.uiuc.edu

99. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Arkansas (Level 2)

Organizational Commitment: Construct Refinement and Expansion

Commitment research has been maturing beyond articulation of basic theoretical components and measurement development. These papers contribute to this further development by examining the underlying nature of commitment, its predictiveness, and relationships among constituent components. 

Mindy E. Bergman, Texas A&M University, Chair

Pedro Ignacio Leiva, Texas A&M University, Katherine Marie Gaulke, Texas A&M University, Kristen M. Watrous, Texas A&M University, Ann H. Huffman, Texas A&M University, Stephanie C. Payne, Texas A&M University, Sheila Simsarian Webber, University of Southern Maine, Personality Correlates of Commitment: An Investigation of Two Foci of Commitment

Kristen M. Watrous, Texas A&M University, Mindy E. Bergman, Texas A&M University, Organizational Commitment: An Attempt at Construct Refinement

Arzu Wasti, Sabanci UniversityIstanbul, Commitment Profiles: The Combined Influence of Commitment Forms on Job Outcomes

Ian R. Gellatly, University of Alberta, John P. Meyer, University of Western Ontario, Andrew A Luchak, University of Alberta, Organizational Commitment and Behavior: Its the Nature of the Commitment Profiles that Count!

John Bingham, Texas A&M University, Internally Bound: An Examination of Ideological Commitment and the Covenantal Relationship

Natalie J. Allen, University of Western Ontario, Discussant

Submitted by Mindy E. Bergman, meb@psyc.tamu.edu

100. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Colorado (Level 2)

Cross-Cultural Approaches to WorkFamily Conflict: A 10-Country Investigation

This symposium presents findings of a 10-country cross-cultural research project on workfamily conflict. Emic results are grouped in three cultural contexts: Anglo-Saxon/European (Spain, Ukraine, Australia), Asian (Taiwan, Indonesia, India), and Middle-Eastern (Turkey, Israel). Data include analysis of the cultural context, workfamily policies, and findings of the focus group discussions.

Zeynep Aycan, Koc University, Chair

Roya Ayman, Illinois Institute of Technology, Karen Korabik, University of Guelph, Donna S. Lero, University of Guelph, Advancing Knowledge on WorkFamily Interface Through a Cross-Cultural Approach: A Multilevel and Multinational Project

Steven A.Y. Poelmans, IESE Business School, Leslie B. Hammer, Portland State University, Margarita V. Shafiro, Portland State University, Anne Bardoel, Monash University, WorkFamily Conflict in Anglo-Saxon and European Cultural Context: The Cases of Spain, Ukraine, and Australia

Ting-Pang Huang, Soochow University, Artiawati Mawardi, University of Surabaya, Ujvala Rajadhyaksha, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Tripti Pande Desai, Institute for Intergrated Learning in Management, WorkFamily Conflict in Asian Cultural Context: The Cases of Taiwan, Indonesia, and India

Zeynep Aycan, Koc University, Anat Drach-Zahavy, University of Haifa, Anit Somech, University of Haifa, WorkFamily Conflict in Middle-Eastern Cultural Context: The Cases of Turkey and Israel

Submitted by Zeynep Aycan, zaycan@ku.edu.tr

101. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:009:50 Missouri (Level 2)

Leaders in a Global Economy: Challenges and Benefits for Executives

Leaders in a Global Economy is a study of executives that covered leadership, development, rewards, connections, work-life, and retention. A total of 10 major global companies participated in the study. The principal researcher will describe the study and representatives from four companies will discuss how the study was applied in their organizations.

Michele L. Ehler, Dow Chemical Company, Chair

Sara P. Weiner, IBM, Maria Ferris, IBM, IBM and the Leaders in a Global Economy Study

Ginnie Hough, Dow Chemical Company, Jennifer H. Frame, Dow Chemical Company, Global Benchmarking: Comparing Senior Leaders Views on Diversity, Inclusion, and WorkLife

Alan L. Colquitt, Eli Lilly & Company, Candi Lange, Eli Lilly & Company, Gender Diversity at Eli Lilly and Company: Follow-Up on the Leaders in a Global Economy Study

Kelly ONeil, JP Morgan Chase, Katherine Anne McAllister, JP Morgan Chase, A Call to Action: Improving WorkLife Integration and Advancing the Womens Agenda at JP Morgan Chase

Ellen Galinsky, Families and Work Institute, Discussant

Submitted by Michele L. Ehler, Mehler@dow.com

102. Roundtable: Saturday, 8:008:50 Erie (Level 2)

Studying Counterproductive Workplace Behavior: Overcoming Challenges and Offering Future Directions

The scientific study of counterproductive workplace behavior has become an increasingly prominent issue among academicians and practitioners alike. This session will allow audience members to openly discuss the challenges associated with conducting research on this topic, address recent developments, and share ideas as a point of departure for future inquiry.

Melissa L. Gruys, Washington State UniversityVancouver, Host
Susan M. Burroughs, Washington State UniversityVancouver, Co-Host

Submitted by Melissa L. Gruys, gruys@vancouver.wsu.edu

103. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:009:50 Ontario (Level 2)

HR MetricsContinuing the Journey

I-O psychologists are increasingly participating in the creation and evaluation of HR measures in organizations. The aim of this panel is to continue the healthy and meaningful dialogue between academics and practitioners (started at SIOP 2003) to assess the state of the art in HR metrics and share best practices

Wayne F. Cascio, University of Colorado, Chair

Venkat Bendapudi, The Ohio State University, Panelist

Scott M. Brooks, Gantz Wiley Research, Panelist

Laura A. Gniatczyk, ArvinMeritor, Inc., Panelist

Michele E.A. Jayne, Ford Motor Company, Panelist

Nathan T. Sloan, HumanR, Inc., Panelist

Mahesh V. Subramony, University of WisconsinOshkosh, Panelist

Submitted by Mahesh V. Subramony, subramon@uwosh.edu

104. Conversation Hour: Saturday, 8:008:50 Mayfair (Level 3)

Ethical Dilemmas in Organizational Psychology: 
Discussion of Circumstances, Impact, Outcomes

This conversation hour provides opportunities to discuss real-life ethical dilemmas in the practice of I-O psychology: what is salient and the reasons they occur. This session will examine case studies submitted by psychologists working in three work contexts: internal/organization, independent practitioners, and consultants in consulting firms.

Welyne M. Thomas, Personnel Decisions International, Host

Joy E. McCarthy, McCarthy Consulting, Co-Host

Jaci Jarrett Masztal, Burke, Inc., Co-Host

Submitted by Welyne M. Thomas, Welyne.Thomas@personneldecisions.com

105. Interactive Posters: Saturday, 8:008:50 Parlor A (Level 3)

Interactive Posters: Job Attitudes

105-1 Situational and Dispositional Factors in Job and Life Satisfaction

Both situational (job characteristics, role stressors, treatment by supervisors and coworkers) and dispositional variables (positive affectivity, negative affectivity and core self-evaluations) were related to job and life satisfaction in 364 university employees. Hypothesized predictors explained 48% and 32% of the variance in job and life satisfaction, respectively.

Nathan A. Bowling, Central Michigan University

Connie P. Watson, Delta College

Terry A. Beehr, Central Michigan University

Submitted by Nathan A. Bowling, 
nathan.a.bowling@cmich.edu

105-2 Core Self-Evaluations in Japan: Effects on Job and Life Satisfaction

This study tested the relative validity of four dispositional measures in predicting job and life satisfaction. In a professional Japanese sample, the core self-evaluations concept displayed, in general, higher correlations with satisfaction than each of the concepts lower-order traits, and explained incremental variance beyond PA, NA, and the NOSQ.

Ronald F. Piccolo, University of Florida

Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida

Submitted by Ronald F. Piccolo, rpiccolo@ufl.edu

105-3 Measurement Equivalence of the JDI Across Chinese and American Workers

Despite increased usage of job attitude surveys within global organizations, few studies have addressed the issue of measurement equivalence across western and eastern cultures. Therefore, we examined the functioning of the Job Descriptive Index across Chinese and American workers. CFA and IRT techniques confirmed the appropriateness of JDI score comparisons.

Steven S. Russell, Bowling Green State University

Mo Wang, Bowling Green State University

Submitted by Steven S. Russell, sruss@bgnet.bgsu.edu

105-4 Development of the Coworker Satisfaction Index Using CTT and IRT

Measures of colleague satisfaction in the workplace often do not capture the intricacies of coworker relationships. In this study, the importance of coworker interactions and the limitations of existing measures were examined. The Coworker Satisfaction Index was developed using a combination of Classical Test Theory and Item Response Theory frameworks.

Michael A. Lodato, Bowling Green State University

Erin Thornbury, Bowling Green State University

Submitted by Michael A. Lodato, mlodato@bgnet.bgsu.edu

106. Poster Session: Saturday, 8:008:50 River Exb Hall A (Level 1)

Statistics, Research Methods, Technology

106-1 Ensemble Estimation: A New Method for Assessing Validity Transport

The current study compares three methods for assessing the viability of validity transport: SchmidtHunter, HedgesVevea, and Louiss Ensemble methods. Results of the study suggest the Ensemble method is a comparable nonparametric alternative to the SchmidtHunter method. Both the Ensemble and Schmidt-Hunter methods worked better than the HedgesVevea method.

Jennifer L. Kisamore, University of Oklahoma

Michael T. Brannick, University of South Florida

Submitted by Jennifer L. Kisamore, jkisamore@ou.edu

106-2 Robustness of rwg and ADM Interrater Agreement Indices

The statistical performance of two interrater agreement indices used to rate single targets was compared. ADM was more robust under conditions of skew and variance, while rwg was more robust under conditions of platykurtosis. The implications of these findings with respect to judges ratings of a single target are discussed.

Kristin Smith-Crowe, Tulane University

Michael J. Burke, Tulane University

William P. Dunlap, Tulane University

Submitted by Kristin Smith-Crowe, ksmith5@tulane.edu

106-3 E-Recruitment and the Benefits of Organizational Web Appeal 

Reactions to online job advertisements were examined. Although both the formatting and user-friendliness of online recruitment materials influenced participants inclinations to pursue associated jobs, formatting was more important than user-friendliness. Impressions of the employer mediated the relationship between satisfaction with the Web site and inclinations to pursue employment with the organization.

Lori Foster Thompson, East Carolina University

Phillip W. Braddy, North Carolina State University

Karl Wuensch, East Carolina University

Submitted by Lori Foster Thompson, FosterL@mail.ecu.edu

106-4 Exploratory Factor Analysis: Avoiding Four Common Mistakes

Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is a complex, multistep process. Applied researchers often use the computer software defaults rather than making informed choices from the available options. This paper provides practical information on making decisions regarding (a) extraction, (b) rotation, (c) the number of factors to interpret, and (d) sample size.

Blandy Costello, North Carolina State University

Jason W. Osborne, North Carolina State University

Submitted by Blandy Costello, blandy_costello@ncsu.edu

106-5 Benchmarking rwg Interrater Agreement Indices: 
Lets Drop the .70 Rule-Of-Thumb

Variance-based interrater agreement indices in the rwg family are often interpreted using rules of thumb derived for reliabilities (e.g., .70 = acceptable). Monte Carlo results suggest that far more stringent standards are needed, especially for maximum-variance rwg, as values > .70 can routinely be obtained from totally random ratings.

Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Tech

Eran Hollander, Virginia Tech

Submitted by Robert J. Harvey, rj@pstc.com

106-6 Time-Independent Repeated Measures Data: Examples of Alternative Models

Most discussions of multilevel (hierarchical) models for the analysis of repeated measures data emphasize time-dependent models. This paper outlines several examples in which time is not the most relevant predictor, even when it appears otherwise. Our goal is to broaden the conceptual framework of data analysts who use multilevel models.

Aaron S. Wallen, New York University

David Rindskopf, City University of New YorkGraduate 
Center

Submitted by Aaron S. Wallen, asw218@nyu.edu

106-7 Effects of Electronic Monitoring Type on Organizational Justice and Privacy

This study investigated the effect of different types of electronic performance monitoring and control systems (EPMCSs) on perceptions of procedural justice, interpersonal justice, and privacy. Results from 246 college students indicated significant differences in perceptions of fairness and privacy depending on EPMCS type.

Laurel A. McNall, University at Albany, SUNY

Sylvia G. Roch, University at Albany, SUNY

Submitted by Laurel A. McNall, lm5865@albany.edu

106-8 Problems with Statistical Control in Management Research: Analysis and Recommendations

I examine statistical control in a sample of 60 articles published during 20002002. Authors basis for including control variables, clarity regarding methods, and reporting of results were coded. Potential problems included lack of explanations for inclusion, unclear descriptions of methods, and incomplete reporting. Recommendations for addressing these problems are offered. 

Thomas E. Becker, University of Delaware

Submitted by Thomas E. Becker, beckert@lerner.udel.edu

106-9 How Should We Meta-Analyze Reliability Coefficients?

We compared three methods of meta-analysis for reliability data: Vacha-Haase, Hunter, and Schmidt (1990), and Lipsey and Wilson (2001). Results suggested that a hybrid procedure works best; Hunter and Schmidt should be used to estimate the mean and random-effects variance component but weighted regression should be used for modeling moderators.

Corinne D. Mason, CPS

Submitted by Corinne D. Mason, Corinne_222@hotmail.com

106-10 Initial Monte Carlo Findings on Maximum Likelihood Meta-Analysis

This study examined Raju and Drasgows (2003) recently derived maximum likelihood estimation procedures for validity generalization research. Initial results based on simulated data indicated that these techniques produced some inaccuracies, although further investigation is needed to confirm these findings.

Patrick D. Converse, Michigan State University

Frederick L. Oswald, Michigan State University

Submitted by Patrick D. Converse, convers8@msu.edu

106-11 Examination of Agreement Among Consensus- Versus Mechanically Derived Assessment Center Ratings

Standardized methods for aggregating assessment center dimension ratings remain a source of debate. This paper questions assertions that the mechanical integration of assessment center dimension ratings is a viable alternative to traditional consensus discussions. Results based on intraclass correlation coefficients suggest that mechanically derived ratings lack necessary agreement with consensus-derived ratings.

Michelle Bush, University of Tennessee

Maria R. Louis-Slaby, University of Tennessee

Robert T. Ladd, University of Tennessee

Submitted by Michelle Bush, mlaird@utk.edu

106-12 The Positives and Negatives of Negatively Worded Items in Scales

This study looked at two well-defined scales to determine if negative wording influenced factor structures and internal consistency for people with different reading ability (ACT reading subscores), high and low Need for Cognition, and different decision-making styles. Factor structures did vary across groups when items were phrased negatively.

Craig V. King, POPULUS

Richard J. Fogg, Kansas State University

Ronald G. Downey, Kansas State University

Submitted by Craig V. King, CVKing@populus.com

106-13 Impact of State Negative Affect on Self-Reported Trait Negative Affect

Results of two studies using different research designs indicated that individuals who were induced into state negative affect reported higher levels of fear, hostility, sadness, and guilt on a frequently used self-report measure of trait affect. Implications for the results are discussed as they relate to organizational research.

Angela K. Pratt, Wayne State University

Nicholas Cannon, Wayne State University

Anthony O. June, Wayne State University

James M. LeBreton, Wayne State University

Submitted by Angela K. Pratt, apratt@sun.science.wayne.edu

106-14 Scoring Situational Judgment Tests Using Examinee Responses Without Criterion Data

Data are summarized demonstrating substantial convergence between situational judgment tests scored using expert- and examinee-based scoring standards computed without reference to criterion data for which substantial expert and examinee data are available. The convergence indicates that examinee response distributions may be used to score situational judgment tests.

Pete Legree, U.S. Army Research Institute

Joseph Psotka, U.S. Army Research Institute

Submitted by Tonia S. Heffner, heffnert@ari.army.mil

106-15 Assessing Interrater Agreement When the Number of Raters is Small

The present paper examined the consequences of estimating interrater agreement with rwg, utilizing a small number of raters. Three issues were pointed out and discussed: dependency of rwg on n; ambiguity regarding zero-agreement; the discreteness of rwg. Implications of low-n agreement were pointed out and recommendations regarding practice were made.

Leifur Geir Hafsteinsson, Virginia Tech

Neil M. A. Hauenstein, Virginia Tech

Submitted by Leifur Geir Hafsteinsson, lgh@vt.edu

106-16 Estimates of Error Variance Attributable to Various Components of Unreliability

Different types of reliability estimates (testretest, alternate form, internal consistency) account for different sources of error variance. By obtaining a sample of different types of reliability estimates for the same tests we provide estimates of the amount of error variance different sources of error account for.

Corey E. Miller, Wright State University

Carl L. Thornton, Wright State University

Submitted by Corey E. Miller, corey.miller@wright.edu

106-17 Extending an Approach to Developing Parallel Test Forms

We developed parallel forms of a situational judgment inventory predicting college performance. After generating 10,000 tests by randomly selecting items from within 12 content domains, we extend the Gibson and Weiner (1998) approach by selecting parallel tests using their criterion-related validity with GPA, in addition to their classical test statistics.

Alyssa Friede, Michigan State University

Frederick L. Oswald, Michigan State University

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University

Brian H. Kim, Michigan State University

Lauren J. Ramsay, Michigan State University

Submitted by Alyssa Friede, friedeal@msu.edu

106-18 Differential Item Functioning and Item Information

This research established a link between differential item functioning (DIF) and item information in item response theory. A method of measuring DIF in terms of item information was proposed. Several examples were presented. The proposed index was highly related to other measures of DIF. Implications for research were discussed.

Damon U. Bryant, University of Central Florida

David Williamson, Educational Testing Service

William Wooten, University of Central Florida

Dahlia S. Forde, University of Central Florida

Submitted by Damon U. Bryant, dbryant@pegasus.cc.ucf.edu

106-19 Item Information for the Multidimensional 3-Parameter Logistic Model

The item information function in a specified direction for the multidimensional 3-parameter logistic (M3-PL) model was derived. The M3-PL item information function was shown as a general case of item information for several unidimensional and multidimensional models. A sufficient condition for maximizing information was given. Research implications were discussed.

Damon U. Bryant, University of Central Florida

Submitted by Damon U. Bryant, dbryant@pegasus.cc.ucf.edu

106-20 Development of the Learner Characteristics Scale

A scale was developed to assess characteristics of engagement, involvement, and self-regulated learning, which are related yet distinct areas of research that address how learners acquire knowledge. Undergraduates performed a card-sorting task or responded to the scale. Consistent results support the proposed characteristics, which correlated with academic performance measures.

Nancy J. Stone, Creighton University

Submitted by Nancy J. Stone, nstone@creighton.edu

106-21 New Methodologies and Insight into I-O Psychology Program Ranking

Over the past 2 decades, there has been an interest in ranking I-O psychology doctoral programs. This study expands upon the previous research and presents an alternative method for ranking such programs.

Brian L. Parry, Brigham Young University

Sean D. Otto, Brigham Young University

Bruce L. Brown, Brigham Young University

Submitted by Bruce L. Brown, bruce_brown@byu.edu

106-22 Conflict and Cooperation: Occupational Subculture of IT Employees

IT supports the effective functioning of most organizations. Individuals supporting these technologies have become critically important. In the present study, we interviewed these and other employees to explore their work, intragroup communication, and intergroup communication. Analysis using Trices (1993) framework suggested that cultural conflict contributed to dysfunction within the organizations.

Cavinda Caldera, Syracuse University

Indira Guzman, Syracuse University

Kathryn R. Stam, Syracuse University

Vibha Vijayasri, Syracuse University

Isabelle Yamodo, Syracuse University

Jeffrey M. Stanton, Syracuse University

Submitted by Jeffrey M. Stanton, jmstanto@syr.edu

107. Community of Interests: Saturday, 8:008:50 River Exb Hall A (Level 1)

Community of Interests: Team Performance 

Participants can come and go as they like, and chat with others conducting similar projects.

108. Symposium: Saturday, 8:309:50 Sheraton I (Level 4)

Women in the Executive Suite: 
Barriers to Equal Workplace Advancement

Barriers to the advancement of women to the most senior ranks of corporations are explored in studies drawing on both experimental and survey research methodologies. Findings indicate that the key barriers include female executives management styles, perceived lack of empowerment, and inadequate expertise in senior line management.

Jason P. DePasquale, CNA Corporation, Chair

Mary Johannesen-Schmidt, Oakton Community College, 
Marloes van Engen, Tilburg University, Claartje Vinkenberg, Vrije Universtiteit, Transformational Versus Transactional Leadership as a Route to Career Advancement: Doing the Right Thing Varies for Male and Female Leaders
 
Kim T. Morris, International Survey Research, Patrick Kulesa, International Survey Research, Katherine M. Simonds, International Survey Research, Rebecca C. Masson, International Survey Research, Gender Gaps in the Opinions of Senior Leaders

Brian Welle, Catalyst, Whats Holding Women Back? Barriers to Womens Advancement as Perceived by Top Executives

Alice H. Eagly, Northwestern University, Discussant

Submitted by Jason P. DePasquale, jason_depasquale@msn.com

109. Symposium: Saturday, 8:309:50 Sheraton IV (Level 4)

Positive I-O Psychology: A Discussion of Approaches and Directions

The purpose of this session is twofold: (a) to present the current work of individuals doing research in positive I-O psychology, examining work utilizing a variety of approaches, and (b) to create a discussion among the participants and the audience about the future directions of positive psychology in the industrial-organizational field.

Megan Gerhardt, Miami University, Chair

Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida, Joyce E. Bono, University of Minnesota, Amir Erez, University of Florida, Edwin A. Locke, University of Maryland, Core Self-Evaluations and Job Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Concordance

Suzanne J. Peterson, Miami University, Fred Luthans, University of Nebraska, Positive Psychological Capital States as Predictors of Executive Performance and Attitudes

Daniel Heller, University of Waterloo, David Watson, University of Iowa, Remus Ilies, Michigan State University, The Role of Person Versus Situation in Life Satisfaction: A Critical Examination

Brent Scott, University of Florida, Remus Ilies, Michigan State University, Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida, The Influence of Personal Traits and Experienced States on Satisfaction with Job, Marriage, and Life

Bruce J. Avolio, University of Nebraska, Discussant

Submitted by Megan Gerhardt, gerharmm@muohio.edu

110. Master Tutorial: Saturday, 8:309:50 Ohio (Level 2)

One CE Credit Available for Attending!
Register at the Session

Employees With Disabilities: Employer Misconceptions Versus Data and Practices

More than a decade after the Americans with Disabilities Act passed, most people with disabilities are still unable to find adequate employment. This tutorial will present accurate data and practical examples to counter employers misconceptions and suggest ways to change inaccurate perceptions and attitudes of managers, coworkers, and business leaders.

Nathan D. Ainspan, U.S. Department of LaborODEP, 
Presenter

Peter Blanck, Law, Health Policy and Disability Center, Presenter

Joyce A. Bender, Bender Consulting Services, Inc., Presenter

Kris Libertucci, UnumProvident, Presenter

Molly Ray, BankNorth, Presenter

Submitted by Nathan D. Ainspan, Nathan@Ainspan.com

111. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:309:50 Mississippi (Level 2)

Reducing Absenteeism in a Represented Environment

This forum will address some of the challenges of organizational diagnosis and change in a represented environment. We will discuss I-O based techniques used to impact absenteeism in two unionized settings. All of the implemented techniques were within the scope of bargained-for policies and contracts.

Dru D. Fearing, Nucleus Solutions, Chair

Kelly J. Strom, Nucleus Solutions, Deborah Ladd, Nucleus Solutions, Chera L. Haworth, Nucleus Solutions, Annemarie C. Johnson, Work Strategy LLC, Reducing Absenteeism in a Represented Environment

Submitted by Deborah Ladd, ladd@nucleusweb.com

112. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:309:50 Huron (Level 2)

Applying I-O Psychology in Higher Education Administration: Opportunities and Challenges

Panelists will discuss higher education administration as a forum for the practice of I-O psychology. Using question-and-answer format, the session will show how an I-O background prepares one for this work and address necessary or desirable skill sets and information that are not part of standard I-O training.

Rosemary Hays-Thomas, University of West Florida, Co-Chair

William D. Siegfried, University of North 
CarolinaCharlotte, Co-Chair

John M. Cornwell, Loyola UniversityNew Orleans, Panelist

Irwin L. Goldstein, University System of Maryland, Panelist

Milton Hakel, Bowling Green State University, Panelist

Laura L. Koppes, Eastern Kentucky University, Panelist

Submitted by Rosemary Hays-Thomas, rlowe@uwf.edu

113. Roundtable: Saturday, 9:009:50 Erie (Level 2)

Maximizing Diversity in Talent Management: 
The I-O Practitioners Perspective

Many organizations are striving to increase the diversity in their top ranks; however, when reviewing key leadership in many organizations, diverse talent remains sparse. In this roundtable, representatives from Dell and Wachovia will present their challenges and successes in building a stronger pipeline of diverse talent through talent management.

Lucy Wenzel Dahl, Dell Computer Corporation, Host

Kim M. Stepanski, Pfizer, Inc, Co-Host

Rhonda K. Kidwell McGown, Wachovia, Co-Host

Submitted by Lucy Wenzel Dahl, lucy_dahl@dell.com

114. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 9:009:50 Mayfair (Level 3)

Its a Dirty Job: Staffing and Retaining for Undesirable Jobs

The organizations featured in this forum have trouble filling difficult jobs, hiring qualified people, and retaining employees. The jobs might entail unpleasant work conditions, harsh work hours, heavy travel, or lack of social contact. This forum examines strategies used by three organizations to select and retain talent in difficult positions.

Gloria M. Pereira, University of HoustonClear Lake, Chair

Elizabeth M. Haley, University of NebraskaOmaha, Gloria M. Pereira, University of HoustonClear Lake, Working at the Railroad: Hiring for Train Service Positions at Union Pacific Railroad

Pete Hudson, Waste Management, Derrick Hamilton, Waste Management, Hauling Trash to a Dump: Hiring and Retaining Drivers at Waste Management

Lauren Manning Salomon, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Making Cancer History: Recruiting and Retaining Clinical Coding Specialists

Submitted by Gloria M. Pereira, pereira@cl.uh.edu

115. Interactive Posters: Saturday, 9:009:50 Parlor A (Level 3)

Interactive Posters: Statistics, Research Methods, Technology

115-1 (Practically In) Significant: The Difference Between Internet and Paper Feedback Ratings

One prominent process improvement to feedback ratings is allowing them via computer (e.g., Internet). However, similarity between Internet and paper rating mediums remains unclear. Ratings were analyzed to assess comparability between Internet and paper-based response mediums. Although Internet ratings were higher, the size of those differences was practically insignificant.

Carey L. Peters, Tennessee Valley Authority

Stephen Gaby, University of Tennessee

Submitted by Carey L. Peters, clpeters@tva.gov

115-2 Technology and Applicant Screening: 
Do IVR and Paper-and-Pencil Formats Differ?

With the increased use of technology in screening contexts, organizations may administer the same prescreen content via different formats. Does format change the construct being measured and/or the applicants entering the next step of the selection process? The current study addresses these questions in regards to IVR/telephone and paper-and-pencil formats.

Jennifer M. Hurd, Aon Consulting

Joshua M. Sacco, Aon Consulting

Submitted by Jennifer M. Hurd, jennifer_m_hurd@aoncons.com

115-3 The Impact of Data Collection Methodology on Popular Data-Reporting Indices

Using a within-subjects design, this study examined the impact of survey administration method (paper-and-pencil vs. Internet) on two popular methods of reporting organizational data (means analysis and percent-favorable/unfavorable responses). Data from 117 participants demonstrated factorial invariance and no significant mean differences. However, percent-favorable responses differed by administration method.

Brian G. Whitaker, University of Akron

Submitted by Brian G. Whitaker, bgw111@yahoo.com

115-4 Are Online and Paper-and-Pencil Personality Tests Truly Comparable?

Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test for measurement invariance between nineteen commercially available online and paper-and-pencil personality scales. Furthermore, respondents were either randomly assigned or allowed to choose their response format. Results indicated that while conscientiousness tended to be invariant across conditions, many other scales were not.

Adam W. Meade, North Carolina State University

Lawrence Michels, University of Georgia

Gary J. Lautenschlager, University of Georgia

Submitted by Adam W. Meade, adam_meade@ncsu.edu

116. Poster Session: Saturday, 9:009:50 River Exb Hall A (Level 1)

Motivation, Decision Making

116-1 Domain Specificitys Effect on the Validity of Goal Orientation Measures

Existing measures of goal orientation (GO) assess a general or a domain-specific construct, although the impact of this distinction is unknown. The present study used a sample of 584 undergraduates to show that the domain specificity of the GO measure influenced the extent to which it correlated with other constructs.

Michael Horvath, Clemson University

Christine Scheu, Michigan State University

Richard P. DeShon, Michigan State University

Submitted by Michael Horvath, mhorvat@clemson.edu

116-2 Goal Orientation and Feedback Sign as Predictors of Self-Efficacy Changes

Goal orientation was examined as a moderator of the effects of feedback on self-efficacy changes. Self-efficacy was assessed throughout learning, and the extent to which feedback and goal orientation predicted these changes was examined. Self-efficacy changes were less influenced by feedback sign when individuals were high in learning orientation.

Erin M. Richard, Louisiana State University

James M. Diefendorff, Louisiana State University

Submitted by Erin M. Richard, erinrichard@hotmail.com

116-3 Scenario Use in Managerial Explanation Tasks

Attempts to reduce overconfidence in explanation tasks often encourage individuals to sequentially consider alternatives to an initial explanation. However, individuals may underweight alternatives. Scenario planning encourages the simultaneous generation of multiple initial explanations. We adapt this logic from planning tasks to explanation tasks and present results from a laboratory study.

Robert C. Litchfield, Washington & Jefferson College

Jinyan Fan, The Ohio State University

Submitted by Robert C. Litchfield, rlitchfield@washjeff.edu

116-4 Performance Feedback Interacts With Motivational Orientations in Predicting Intrinsic Motivation

The results of this longitudinal field study support hypothesized interactive effects of performance feedback and select motivational orientations in predicting intrinsic motivation. For individuals who performed poorly, strong learning and achievement orientations sustained intrinsic motivation, whereas a strong orientation toward avoiding poor performance diminished intrinsic motivation. Implications are discussed.

Lucinda Lawson, Lehigh University

Robert R. Hirschfeld, University of Georgia

Submitted by Robert R. Hirschfeld, rhirschf@uga.edu

116-5 Overcoming Cognitive Load in the Interview: 
The Effect of Introversion/Extraversion

Introverted and extraverted participants were randomly assigned to interview (high cognitive load-HCL) or observe (low cognitive load-LCL) a job-candidate interview. Consistent with predictions, extraverted observers (LCL) adjusted their impressions of the job candidate most. Impression differences occurred even though participants demonstrated similar recall for job candidate information.

Lynn K. Bartels, Southern Illinois UniversityEdwardsville

Cynthia R. Nordstrom, Southern Illinois 
UniversityEdwardsville

Submitted by Cynthia R. Nordstrom, cnordst@siue.edu

116-6 PersonalityMotivational Pathways to Performance: PersonMotivational Underpinnings of Showing Up

This study examined personalitymotivational influences on class attendance and the role of attendance in training performance. As expected, attendance contributed significantly to the prediction of performance, beyond that of cognitive abilities. Results support the personalitymotivation pathways of influence on attendance and show that Conscientiousness and avoidance motivation significantly influenced attendance.

Steven D. Caldwell, Georgia Institute of Technology

Ruth Kanfer, Georgia Institute of Technology

Manuel Voelkle, University of Mannheim

Submitted by Steven D. Caldwell, steven.caldwell@mgt.gatech.edu

116-7 High Skill and Challenge at Work: Optimal Experience for Whom?

Applying Csikszentmihalyis (1990) flow theory to the workplace, two studies demonstrated that among achievement-oriented employees only, the combination of high skill and challenge produced greater positive mood, task interest, and performance than other skill-challenge combinations. Additionally, positive mood mediated the interactive relationship of skill/challenge and need for achievement with performance.

Jason R. Jones, University of Delaware

Robert Eisenberger, University of Delaware

Florence Stinglhamber, Maastricht University

Linda R. Shanock, University at AlbanySUNY

Amanda A. Tenglund, Towers Perrin

Submitted by Jason R. Jones, jrjones@udel.edu

116-8 The Affective-Cognitive Process and Situational Influences Underlying Interpersonal Facilitation

We found that perceived organizational support moderated the relationships between interpersonal facilitation and two dimensions of the Big Five model of personalityEmotional Stability and Conscientiousness; the relationships were stronger among workers reporting low support. More importantly, the Conscientiousness x support interaction mediated the Emotional Stability x support interaction.

Lawrence A. Witt, University of New Orleans

Michael K. Mount, University of Iowa

Submitted by Lawrence A. Witt, lwitt@uno.edu

116-9 Motivational Spillover in a Dual-Task Setting

The present study examined how motivational processes spill over across task boundaries in a dual-task setting. The results indicated that failure on a given task impacted self-efficacy and self-set performance goals for a subsequent task, and that this effect was partially mediated by positive and negative affect.

Yvette Quintela, Virginia Tech

John J. Donovan, Virginia Tech

Submitted by Yvette Quintela, yquintel@vt.edu

116-10 Are Emotional Display Rules Perceived as Formal Job Requirements?

This study explores the extent to which employees and their supervisors categorize emotional display rules as required behaviors (termed display rule breadth). Results show relatively low agreement between employees and supervisors on display rule role definitions. Predictors of display rule breadth include interpersonal interaction requirements of jobs and job attitudes.

James M. Diefendorff, Louisiana State University

Erin M. Richard, Louisiana State University

Meredith H. Croyle, Louisiana State University

Submitted by James M. Diefendorff, jdiefen@lsu.edu

116-11 An Examination of Moderators of the Hesitation and Performance Relationship

Job attitudes and job characteristics were examined as moderators of the relationship between the action-state orientation dimension of hesitation and supervisor ratings of performance in two samples. Routineness, job satisfaction, and job involvement were significant moderators of the relationship between hesitation and self-management performance.

James M. Diefendorff, Louisiana State University

Erin M. Richard, Louisiana State University

Robin H. Gosserand, IBM/Louisiana State University in 
Shreveport

LaToya Hardman, Southern University

Submitted by James M. Diefendorff, jdiefen@lsu.edu

116-12 The Decision to Trust: Which Antecedents are Most Important?

This study employed policy-capturing methodology to examine which antecedents to workplace trust are weighed most heavily in individuals decisions to trust. Results suggest that, in general, perceived trustworthiness, followed by expectations and attributions, were more important than the degree of organizational control and task importance.

Dana E. Sims, University of Central Florida

Barbara A. Fritzsche, University of Central Florida

Eduardo Salas, University of Central Florida

Submitted by Dana E. Sims, Abbey386@aol.com

116-13 A Motivational Model of Product Safety and Security Behaviors

Safety and security are critical to the products and services many organizations offer. We test a model of factors contributing to workers motivation to keep food products safe. Results support a revised model indicating that work routines, behavioral intentions, attention, and constraining conditions influence self-reports of safety and security behaviors.

Verlin B. Hinsz, North Dakota State University

Gary S. Nickell, Minnesota State UniversityMoorhead

Submitted by Verlin B. Hinsz, Verlin.Hinsz@NDSU.NoDak.edu

116-14 An Integration of Promotion/Prevention Focus and Action-State Orientation

This study integrated action-state orientation with a motivational focus within the framework of the Action Phases Model. Results indicated that time spent considering options was indicative of the deliberative and implemental mindsets. Disengagement tended to mediate the interactive effect of motivational focus and action-state orientation on overall performance.

Chu-Hsiang Chang, University of Akron

Jennifer P. Bott, University of Akron

Submitted by Chu-Hsiang Chang, cchang@uakron.edu

116-15 An Integrative Model of Motivation Predicting Change in Performance

The current study examines change in performance by applying aspects of expectancy and goal setting theory. A model that contains distal and proximal indicators of motivation is proposed. Data from 133 undergraduate students indicate that the relationship between change in effort and change in performance was moderated by ability.

Jeffrey R. Labrador, Central Michigan University

Neil D. Christiansen, Central Michigan University

Submitted by Jeffrey R. Labrador, jefflabrador@hotmail.com

116-16 Can a Decoy Boldly Go Where None has Gone Before?

We investigate whether the decoy effect generalizes to a 4-attribute decision task, and which of two posited heuristics is responsible for the effect. Results from within- and between-persons analyses (a) suggest the decoy effect does generalize, though somewhat weakened, and (b) are consistent with the dominance heuristic explanation.

Silvia Bonaccio, Purdue University

Charlie L. Reeve, Purdue University

Submitted by Silvia Bonaccio, silvia@psych.purdue.edu

116-17 Task Demands Moderate GoalOrientation Effects on Cognitive Appraisals

We examined effects of goal orientation on cognitive appraisals of threat and challenge and whether task demands moderated those effects. Results indicated differential effects for goal orientations on challenge and threat appraisals. Moreover, task demands moderated mastery goal-orientation effects on challenge appraisals, revealing stronger effects under high-demand conditions.

Paul R. Heintz, Wright State University

Debra Steele-Johnson, Wright State University

Anupama Narayan, Wright State University

Submitted by Paul R. Heintz, heintz.2@wright.edu

116-18 Goal Revision in a Simultaneous Multiple-Goal Environment

This study examined self-regulation in a multiple-goal environment. It was proposed that goal revision is influenced by GPDs and causal attributions. Results showed GPDs predicted revision direction and magnitude and that controllability attributions moderated this relation. Although results were not in the anticipated direction, they fit with modern motivational frameworks.

Trevor G. Byrd, Virginia Tech

John J. Donovan, Virginia Tech

Submitted by Trevor G. Byrd, trbyrd@vt.edu

116-19 Temporal and Hierarchical Considerations in Predicting Subsequent Self-Set Goals

This study examined how past performance and past goals influence subsequent self-set goals and how those relationships depend on the hierarchical level and the temporality of the goal with its life span. Results showed that the joint relationship of past goals and performance is quite complex in predicting subsequent goals.

Howard J. Klein, The Ohio State University

Brian R. Dineen, University of Kentucky

Bradley J. Alge, Purdue University

Submitted by Howard J. Klein, klein_12@cob.osu.edu

116-20 Changes in Effortful Performance in Response to 
Goal-Performance Discrepancies

This research examined how the level of effort exerted by individuals in a training program changed as a function of the goal-performance discrepancies (GPDs) they encountered. The results indicated that changes in effortful performance were related to GPDs and that this relationship was moderated by self-efficacy and performance goal orientation.

John J. Donovan, Virginia Tech

Stephen A. Dwight, Bristol-Myers Squibb

Dan Schneider, Sepracor Inc.

Submitted by John J. Donovan, donovan@vt.edu

116-21 Goal Revision Processes in an Organizational Context

The present study examined how individuals in an organizational setting revised their goals in response to goal-performance discrepancies (GPDs) and the potential influence of causal attributions on this relationship. The results indicated that goal revision was primarily a function of GPDs and that this relationship was moderated by stability attributions.

John J. Donovan, Virginia Tech

Stephen A. Dwight, Bristol-Myers Squibb

Dan Schneider, Sepracor Inc.

Submitted by John J. Donovan, donovan@vt.edu

116-22 Self-Esteem, Affectivity, and Deprivation: 
Predictors of Well-Being in the Unemployed

The influence of deprivation of the latent benefits of employment on the psychological well-being of a sample of unemployed individuals was examined. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for individual differences, employment commitment, and financial strain, the latent benefits were unable to significantly predict well-being.

Patricia N. Hoare, University of Southern Queensland

Michael A. Machin, University of Southern Queensland

Submitted by Michael A. Machin, machin@usq.edu.au

116-23 Efficient and Representative Designs for Judgment Analysis

Efficient and representative designs are compared across five different methods of judgment analysis (JA), a.k.a. policy capturing. The objective is to reduce the ratio of judgment cases to cues sufficient for acceptable results, and to save time. This may allow for easier and wider use of JA in organizations.

Kristophor G. Canali, University of Connecticut

R. James Holzworth, University of Connecticut

Submitted by Kristophor G. Canali, kristophor.canali@uconn.edu

116-24 The Effects of Cognitive Appraisals on Justice Perceptions

To increase our understanding of how people form justice perceptions, this study provides a cognitive appraisal model. Specifically, it discusses how social comparison (i.e., comparison of ones experienced treatment to the treatment a referent other receives) and normative comparison (i.e., comparison of ones experienced treatment to ones deserved treatment) affect justice perceptions.

Tae-Yeol Kim, University of North Carolina

Submitted by Tae-Yeol Kim, kimt@bschool.unc.edu

116-25 The Interactive Effects of Goal Orientation and Accountability on Performance

The current study investigated the interaction effects of the individual difference variables learning orientation, performance orientation, and avoidance orientation and accountability conditions on individual task performance. Data indicates that an interaction effect exists between accountability condition and learning and avoidance orientation for performance.

Walter D. Davis, University of Mississippi

Neal P. Mero, University of Central Florida

Joseph M. Goodman, University of Mississippi

Submitted by Joseph M. Goodman, jgoodman@bus.olemiss.edu

116-26 The Theory of Planned Behavior: An Examination Across Racial Groups

The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has been used to predict a wide range of behaviors. We examine how well this theory predicts faking behavior across racial groups. Results indicate that the TPB predicts the behavior of Black and White individuals better than it does Asian individuals.

Deirdre E. Lozzi, George Mason University

Lynn A. McFarland, George Mason University

Submitted by Deirdre E. Lozzi, dlozzi@gmu.edu

117. Community of Interests: Saturday, 9:009:50 River Exb Hall A (Level 1)

Community of Interests: High-Tech Recruitment and Selection 

Participants can come and go as they like, and chat with others conducting similar projects.

Coffee Break: Saturday, 10:0010:30 Multiple Locations

118. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Chicago VI (Level 4)

Last Line of Defense: Arming Pilots to Defend the Cockpit

The Arming Pilots Against Terrorism Act required the Transportation Security Administration to establish the Federal Flight Deck Officer program in which pilots would be trained and armed to defend the flight deck against terrorism and air piracy. This panel discusses the assessment issues faced in creating a process to arm pilots.

Ann M. Quigley, Transportation Security Administration, Chair

Joyce C. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Panelist

James Fico, Private Practice, Panelist

Ryan A. Ross, Hogan Assessment Systems, Panelist

Deborah Gebhardt, Human Performance Systems, Inc., Panelist

Alana B. Cober, Transportation Security Administration, Discussant

Submitted by Joyce C. Hogan, jhogan@hoganassessments.com

119. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Chicago VII (Level 4)

Effects of Applicant Faking on Validity: Toward a Better Understanding

The papers in this symposium investigate a wide range of potential effects that the intentional distortion of noncognitive measures may have on validity. Collectively, the research presented demonstrates that effects of faking on validity are more complicated than typically characterized. 

Eric D. Heggestad, Colorado State University, Chair

Crystal Michele Harold, George Mason University, Lynn A. McFarland, George Mason University, Nicole M. Dudley, George Mason University, Eric Odin, George Mason University, Personality and Faking Behavior: Does Warning Moderate Validity?

Gary N. Burns, Central Michigan University, Neil D. Christiansen, Central Michigan University, Effects of Faking on the Linear Construct Relationships of Personality Test Scores

Dan J. Putka, HumRRO, Chad H. Van Iddekinge, HumRRO, Carl E. Eidson, Wilson Learning Corporation, Patrick H. Raymark, Clemson University, Demographic Moderators of ApplicantIncumbent Differences on the Big Five

Theodore L. Hayes, Transportation Security Administration, Nicholas L. Vasilopoulos, George Washington University, Jeffrey M. Cucina, George Washington University, Further Examinations of Cognitive Ability and Strategic Impression Management

Neil D. Christiansen, Central Michigan University, Renee F. Rozek, Central Michigan University, Effects of Socially Desirable Responding on Hiring Judgments

Chet Robie, Wilfrid Laurier University, Discussant

Submitted by Eric D. Heggestad, heggesta@lamar.colostate.edu

120. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Chicago X (Level 4)

Things, Data, and People: Fifty Years of a Seminal Theory

The impact of the Things, Data, People (TDP) taxonomy in Fines Functional Job Analysis (FJA) theory has been far-reaching (e.g., the Dictionary of Occupational Titles). A half-century later, FJA remains highly relevant to researchers and practitioners, particularly given the retirement of DOT and the limitations of its replacement, the O*NET.

Edwin A. Fleishman, George Mason University, Chair

Sidney A. Fine, Independent Consultant, The Theory

Steven F. Cronshaw, University of Guelph, Use of TDP Concepts in Theory Development, Research, and Practice

Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Tech, Empirical Foundations for the ThingsDataPeople Taxonomy of Work

Sidney A. Fine, Indepedent Consultant, Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Tech, Steven F. Cronshaw, University of Guelph, FJA Strategies for Addressing O*NET Limitations in a Post-DOT Environment

Milton Hakel, Bowling Green State University, Discussant

Miguel A. Quinones, University of Arizona, Discussant

Submitted by Robert J. Harvey, rj@pstc.com

121. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Sheraton I (Level 4)

Assumptions and Conventions in Data Analysis: Toward New Approaches

Current analytic techniques (e.g., multiple regression and SEM) require assumptions about data, such as multivariate normality and interval-level measurement. This symposium offers analytic alternatives for circumstances where conventional uses are untenable. Approaches reviewed address nonnormal data in SEM, missing data in longitudinal designs, interpreting correlated predictors, and poor scale calibration.

Daniel A. Newman, Pennsylvania State University/Alliant International University, Chair

James L. Farr, Pennsylvania State University, Co-Chair

Hock-Peng Sin, Pennsylvania State University, David A. Harrison, Pennsylvania State University, Assessing Fit in Covariance Structure Analysis When Data are Nonnormal

William M. Rogers, Grand Valley State University, Using Optimal Scaling Techniques to Detect Erroneous Scale-Point Definitions

James M. LeBreton, Wayne State University, Robert T. Ladd, University of Tennessee, Some Monte Carlo Comparisons of Relative Importance Statistics

Daniel A. Newman, Pennsylvania State University/Alliant International University, Missing Data in Longitudinal Designs: Enhancing Imputation with Auxiliary Variables

David Chan, National University of Singapore, Discussant

Submitted by Daniel A. Newman, dan148@psu.edu

122. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Sheraton II (Level 4)

Formal Mentoring Programs: Bridging the Gap Between Research and Practice

An increasing number of organizations are implementing formal mentoring programs. However, there is little existing empirical research to guide the design of these programs. This symposium assembles four papers on formal mentoring that address this gap. Discussion will focus on stimulating a dialogue between mentoring researchers and practitioners.

Tammy D. Allen, University of South Florida, Chair

John J. Sosik, Pennsylvania State UniversityGreat Valley, 
Veronica Godshalk, Pennsylvania State UniversityGreat Valley, Effects of Formality, Gender, and Supervisory Status in Mentoring Relationships

Tammy D. Allen, University of South Florida, Kimberly OBrien, University of South Florida, Do Formal Mentoring Programs Enhance Attraction to the Organization?

Connie R. Wanberg, University of Minnesota, John D. Kammeyer-Mueller, University of Florida, Marc C. Marchese, Kings College, Antecedents and Outcomes of Formal Mentoring Quality

Lillian T. Eby, University of Georgia, Angie Lockwood, University of Georgia, Proteges and Mentors Reactions to Participating in Formal Mentoring Programs

Lisa Finkelstein, Northern Illinois University, Discussant


Matthew S. Montei, S. C. Johnson, Discussant

Submitted by Tammy D. Allen, tallen@luna.cas.usf.edu

123. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Sheraton III (Level 4)

360, the Next Generation: Innovations in Multisource Performance Assessment

360 performance assessment lives! Far from having stagnated, 360 continues to evolve with creative extensions of the basic concept emerging regularly. Presenters will use real data to demonstrate four innovations in multisource performance assessment, discuss the promises and pitfalls of each, and consider the future of 360 assessment.

S. Bartholomew Craig, North Carolina State University, Chair

Andrew N. Garman, Rush University, Increasing the Sensitivity of 360-Feedback Systems to Individual Needs

Jennifer W. Martineau, Center for Creative Leadership, Measuring the Impact of Leadership Training: How can it be Best Accomplished?

Robert B. Kaiser, Kaplan DeVries Inc., Robert E. Kaplan, Kaplan DeVries, Inc., Overlooking Overkill: On the Folly of Linear Rating Scales for a Nonlinear World

S. Bartholomew Craig, North Carolina State University, Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Tech, Using CAT to Reduce Administration Time in 360 Performance Assessment

Cynthia D. McCauley, Center for Creative Leadership, Discussant

Submitted by S. Bartholomew Craig, bart_craig@ncsu.edu

124. Education Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Sheraton IV (Level 4)

Teaching Workplace Coaching, Applying Blooms Taxonomy

Coaching is becoming an essential tool for I-O psychologists. Educators are challenged to facilitate student learning in acquiring the knowledge and skills of effective coaching. Blooms taxonomy of cognitive and affective domains offers a conceptual framework from which to build a class that integrates the theory, practice, and application.

Jennifer Thompson, Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Chair

Nancy Newton, Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Co-Chair

Nancy J. Davis, Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Co-Chair

Fiona Moane, Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Discussant

Hilary Gallanter, Chicago School of Professional Psychology, Discussant

Submitted by Jennifer Thompson, jthompson@csopp.edu

125. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Sheraton V (Level 4)

The How and Why of Fairness: Mediators/Moderators of Justice Effects

While the effects of organizational justice have been well-documented, two questions remain unexplored: how does justice affect attitudinal and behavioral reactions, and when are those effects strongest? The papers in this symposium examine these questions by identifying mediators and moderators of justice effects, including social exchange, stress, personality, and emotions.

Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida, Chair

Jason A. Colquitt, University of Florida, Co-Chair

Michael R. Bashshur, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Deborah E. Rupp, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Social Exchange as a Mediator of Justice Effects Across Cultures

Catherine S. Daus, Southern Illinois UniversityEdwardsville, Stress as a Mediator of Justice Effects on Job Satisfaction

Jason A. Colquitt, University of Florida, Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida, Brent Scott, University of Florida, John C. Shaw, University of Florida, Broad and Narrow Personality Traits as Moderators of Justice Effects

Zinta S. Byrne, Colorado State University, Deborah E. Rupp, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Krista D. Mattern, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Tasha Leigh Eurich, Colorado State University, Emotions and Affectivity as Moderators of Justice Effects

Jerald Greenberg, The Ohio State University, Discussant

Submitted by Jason A. Colquitt, colquitt@ufl.edu

126. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Ohio (Level 2)

Another I-O: Keys to Successful InsiderOutsider Practitioner Collaboration

Increasingly, I-O practitioners have to create and implement simple but highly effective ways to strategically impact the business. Accomplishing this often involves insideroutsider partnerships. A panel of six diverse, seasoned practitioners will discuss particular challenges and keys to successful collaboration between these groups, highlighting the changing role of I-O practitioners.

Leo F. Brajkovich, Mindful Leadership Solutions, Inc., Chair

Allan H. Church, PepsiCo, Co-Chair

Ricardo Aparicio, General Mills, Panelist

David W. Bracken, Mercer Delta, Panelist

Paul H. De Young, Deloitte & Touche, Panelist

Michelle Thomas, Abbott Laboratories, Panelist

Janine Waclawski, Pepsi-Cola Company, Panelist

William E. Werhane, International Survey Research LLC, Panelist

Submitted by Leo F. Brajkovich, brakenship@astound.net

127. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Mississippi (Level 2)

Emerging Workplace Diversity Issues: 
Ethnicity, Bilingualism, and Workplace Exclusion

Workplace conflict based on employee ethnicity is the focus of this symposium. We discuss employees ethnic harassment experiences, exclusion due to ethnicity, and conflict based on employees use of non-English languages in the workplace. We also present an integrative paper describing aspects of organizational climate that affect employee social cognition.

Kimberly T. Schneider, Illinois State University, Chair

Jennifer L. Berdahl, University of Toronto, Celia Moore, University of Toronto, Phani Radhakrishnan, University of Toronto, Ethnic Harassment: A Male-on-Male Project?

Mindy E. Bergman, Texas A&M University, Kristen M. Watrous, Texas A&M University, Katherine Marie Gaulke, Texas A&M University, Bilingualism in the Workplace

Robert Hitlan, University of Northern Iowa, Jennifer Harden, University of Northern Iowa, The Impact of Workplace Exclusion and Personality on Workplace Attitudes and Behaviors

Lisa M. Leslie, University of Maryland, Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland, The Effect of Organizational Climate on the Attribution to Discrimination Process

Lilia M. Cortina, University of Michigan, Discussant

Submitted by Kimberly T. Schneider, ktschne@ilstu.edu

128. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Arkansas (Level 2)

Challenges and Opportunities Designing and Implementing New Performance Management Systems

The forum presents current thinking and best practices related to designing and implementing a best-in-class performance management system. Critical legal and measurement issues related to the performance management system design will be discussed. Practitioners who were actively involved in two recent ongoing large-scale implementation interventions will discuss their lessons learned.

Stephen A. Dwight, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Chair

Janet L. Barnes-Farrell, University of Connecticut, How Are We Doing? Important Considerations for Evaluation of Performance Appraisal Programs

Kathleen Kappy Lundquist, Applied Psychological Techniques, John C. Scott, Applied Psychological Techniques, Legal Considerations When Auditing Your Performance Management System

Tina M. Everest, Home Depot, Implementing Performance Management to Attract, Motivate, and Retain a High-Performing, Diverse Workforce

Stephen A. Dwight, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Dennis Walls, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Jane Luciano, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Lessons Learned While Implementing a New Global Performance Management System

Submitted by Stephen A. Dwight, stephen.dwight@bms.com

129. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Colorado (Level 2)

Demonstrating the Impact and ROI of Assessment Programs: Issues, Challenges, and Approaches

I-O psychologists often implement assessment programs for personnel selection and promotion. The purpose of this panel is to discuss how I-O psychologists demonstrate the impact and return on investment (ROI) of such programs to their customersthe decision makers who evaluate such interventionsand the associated issues and challenges.

Ken Lahti, Colorado State University, Chair

James C. Beaty, ePredix, Panelist

Paul D. DeKoekkoek, Sprint, Panelist

Joel B. Vaslow, Sprint, Panelist

Jana Fallon, American Express, Panelist

Craig J. Russell, University of Oklahoma, Panelist

Submitted by Ken Lahti, ken.lahti@epredix.com

130. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:3011:20 Missouri (Level 2)

Do Borders Really Matter? Issues in Multinational Selection

As corporations shift focus from domestic to global markets, knowledge of international business practices and employment laws is no longer a specialty but a necessity. Without an understanding of the legal context and other factors that impact selection, practitioners will face many challenges when working with diverse and multinational organizations.

Jamie L. Borich, Hogan Assessment Systems, Chair

Stephen T. Murphy, Hogan Assessment Systems, Co-Chair

Rostaslav Benak, University of Prague, Panelist

Sally A. Carless, Monash University, Panelist

Filip De Fruyt, Ghent University, Panelist

Hunter Mabon, Stockholm University, Panelist

Jean-Pierre Rolland, Paris X University, Panelist

Submitted by Jamie L. Borich, jborich@hoganassessments.com

131. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Michigan A (Level 2)

Making Meta-Analysis Easier and More Accurate

Meta-analysis is an invaluable methodology for summarizing and advancing our scientific understanding. However, it is a technique that continues to evolve. This symposium introduces programs that make it easier and techniques that improve its accuracy. These innovations range from a computerized coding platform to a maximum-likelihood validity generalization technique.

John D. Kammeyer-Mueller, University of Florida, Chair

Piers Steel, University of Calgary, Co-Chair

John D. Kammeyer-Mueller, University of Florida, MetaExel Analysis and MetaExcel Coding 

Scott B. Morris, Illinois Institute of Technology, Estimating the Standardized Mean Difference With Heterogeneous Variance

Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, An Evaluation of Maximum-Likelihood Estimation in Validity Generalization

Allen I. Huffcutt, Bradley University, Assessing the Stability of Meta-Analytic Mean Estimates

Kevin R. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University, Discussant

Submitted by Piers Steel, Piers.Steel@Haskayne.UCalgary.ca

132. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Michigan B (Level 2)

Traditional Versus Virtual Assessment Centers: 
Case Studies in Organizational Change

Sprint and Toyota have both recently shifted to distance learning models and introduced virtual assessment centers. Assessment centers are embedded in Sprints culture but new to Toyota. Practical and research-based issues will be discussed from these unique perspectives including the business case for change, participant reaction, and lessons learned.

Kirk L. Rogg, Aon Consulting, Chair

Matthew R. Smith, Aon Consulting, Jessica L. Kane, Aon Consulting, The History and Recent Trends in the Use of Virtual Assessments

Ben Terrill, Sprint, Traditional and Virtual Assessment Centers in Sprints University of Excellence

Jay H. Steffensmeier, Clemson University, Traditional and Virtual Assessment Center Effectiveness: Let the Data Speak!

John Azzara, Toyota Financial Services, Its the Communication, Stupid! Organizational Change and Virtual Assessment

Submitted by Kirk L. Rogg, Kirk_Rogg@aon.com

133. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Superior A (Level 2)

Creating Great Coaches at Motorola: A Cascading Model

Motorola developed an innovative program that trains and certifies internal master coaches in nine countries on four different continents. This practitioner forum examines three components of Motorolas Global Coaching Project: (a) the conceptual framework; (b) the process; and (c) the execution of a complex global initiative.

Tjai M. Nielsen, RHR International Company, Chair

Alejandro Reyes, Motorola, The Conceptual Model: Motorolas Business Rationale and the Three Pillars

Anna Marie Buchmann, RHR International Company, The Process: Certifying Master Coaches and Developing Change Agents

Zenglo Chen, Motorola, Execution: Challenges in Implementing a Global Consulting Partnership

Eric Sundstrom, University of Tennessee, Discussant

Submitted by Tjai M. Nielsen, tnielsen@rhrinternational.com

134. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Superior B (Level 2)

PO Fit: Recent Advances in Theoretical 
Perspectives and Research Methodology

The degree to which individuals fit within their organizational contexts has important consequences for individuals and organizations. Shedding light on some of the complexities, new research presented in this session explores methodological and cultural factors along with the particular variable sets that may serve as the basis for assessing fit.

Edward L. Levine, University of South Florida, Chair

Michael T. Brannick, University of South Florida, Co-Chair

Karen J. Jansen, Pennsylvania State University, Amy L. Kristof-Brown, University of Iowa, Judd H. Michael, Pennsylvania State University, The Role of Enabling Environments for PersonGroup Fit

Mark Alan Smith, University of South Florida, Edward L. Levine, University of South Florida, Effects of SubordinateSupervisor Personality Fit on Subordinate Attitudes and Turnover Propensity

Erica C. Lutrick, TMP Worldwide/Monster.Com, Michael T. Brannick, University of South Florida, Selecting for Fit in Organizational Culture/Climate

Kevin H. C. Cheng, University of Hong Kong, C. Harry Hui, University of Hong Kong, Congruency Between Organizational Service Climate and Personal Value to Service: A Study of the Service Industry in Hong Kong

Jeffrey R. Edwards, University of North Carolina, Discussant

Submitted by Michael T. Brannick, mbrannic@luna.cas.usf.edu

135. Roundtable: Saturday, 10:3011:20 Erie (Level 2)

Designing and Implementing Successful Survey Initiatives in Global Settings

With continued economic globalization, an increasing number of companies have employee populations crossing national boundaries. This session brings together experts from corporate, consulting, and academic settings to share and discuss issues that can impact multinational survey initiatives. Challenges in survey development, implementation, communication, and action planning will be addressed.

Joseph D. Abraham, A&M Psychometrics, LLC, Host

M. Evelina Ascalon, Erasmus UniversityRotterdam, Co-Host

Steven R. Gordon, Wilson Learning Corporation, Co-Host

Jerry Halamaj, John Deere, Co-Host

Linda L. Hoopes, ODR, Co-Host

Thomas Rauzi, Dell Inc., Co-Host

Lisa Sandora, Microsoft Corporation/IIT, Co-Host

Submitted by Joseph D. Abraham, JAbraham@ppicentral.com

136. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:20 Huron (Level 2)

Mergers and Acquisitions: Employee Impact and Creating Smooth Integration

Three practitioners discuss the impact of mergers and acquisitions on employees. They examine various aspects: employee opinion results and implications for action; organizational interventions that should help; and the reality of what is effective. The discussant will provide a critique of the presentations as well as discussion of related work.

Rhonda L. Gutenberg, Gantz Wiley Research, Chair

Rhonda L. Gutenberg, Gantz Wiley Research, To Be, or Not to BeAcquiredThat is the Question

Robert C. Barnett, MDA Consulting Group, Judy OHagan, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Organizational Change Practices That Work in Mergers and Acquisitions

Michael Beer, Harvard University, Discussant

Submitted by Rhonda L. Gutenberg, rgutenberg@gantzwiley.com

137. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:20 Ontario (Level 2)

Recent Enhancements to the Job Analysis Process

In this forum, several practitioners will present practical advice for obtaining helpful job analytic information. Tips for incorporating interviews, observational methods, and large-scale surveys will be presented. In addition, the panelists will discuss methods for collecting data over the Internet and solving measurement problems related to job analysis.

Allison M. Ahart, University of Minnesota, Chair

Timothy P. McGonigle, Caliber Associates, Co-Chair


Sid Teske, Hennepin County, Minnesota HR, Utilizing Interviews and Observations as Tools for Conducting Job Analyses

Allison M. Ahart, University of Minnesota, Administering Large-Scale Surveys to Obtain Job Analytic Information 

Jeanne Makiney, CPS Human Resource Services, Collecting Job Analysis Data Over the Internet

Timothy P. McGonigle, Caliber Associates, Measurement Problems in Small N Job Analysis Projects

Submitted by Allison M. Ahart, AMAhart@aol.com

138. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Mayfair (Level 3)

One CE Credit Available for Attending!
Register at the Session

Ethics in the Practice of Industrial and Organizational Psychology

This panel is designed to provide I-O practitioners with information on how the Ethics Code applies to the practice of I-O psychology. After a brief review of the current Ethics Code, a panel of experts will be presented with ethical dilemmas drawn from practitioners and suggest appropriate responses.

Nancy T. Tippins, Personnel Research Associates, Inc., Chair

Wanda J. Campbell, Edison Electric Institute, Panelist

Blake A. Frank, University of Dallas, Panelist

Alberto J. Galue, Verizon Communications, Panelist

Deirdre J. Knapp, HumRRO, Panelist

John R. Murray, Attitude Resources, Inc., Panelist

Submitted by Nancy T. Tippins, ntippins@pra-inc.com

139. Interactive Posters: Saturday, 10:3011:20 Parlor A (Level 3)

Interactive Posters: Motivation, Decision Making

139-1 What is Goal Orientation Anyway? Disentangling Goals, Traits, and Situations

We present and empirically test a conceptual model, which identifies three goal orientation domains and their respective constructs. Motivational traits and goal-oriented situations exerted main effects on contextualized goals. Partial support was found for predictions that goal-oriented situations would moderate the relationships between motivational traits and contextualized goals.

Ragan Ward, Colorado State University

Eric D. Heggestad, Colorado State University

Submitted by Ragan Ward, ragan@lamar.colostate.edu

139-2 Examining the Factor Structure and Nomological Network of Goal Orientation

This study examined the factor structure and nomological network surrounding the goal-orientation construct. Exploratory factor analyses supported the factor structure of extant goal-orientation measures and correlational analyses indicated that the various goal-orientation factors were differentially related to both the global Big Five personality traits and their facets. 

Michael B. Hargis, Wayne State University

Jenell L. Senter, Wayne State University

James M. LeBreton, Wayne State University

Submitted by Michael B. Hargis, michaelbhargis@wayne.edu

139-3 Perceived Competence, Trait-Goal Orientation, and Self-Set Goal Level

Two hundred and seventy-one Chinese college students participated in this longitudinal survey study. We found that trait-like general self-efficacy moderated, while state-like task self-efficacy mediated the relationship between trait-goal orientation and self-set goals at various time points. 

Jinyan Fan, The Ohio State University

Hui Meng, East China Normal University

Robert S. Billings, The Ohio State University

Robert C. Litchfield, Washington & Jefferson College

Submitted by Jinyan Fan, fan.61@osu.edu

139-4 Goal Orientation, Task Interest, and Task Difficulty: An HLM Analysis

We measured self-set goals, task interest, and task difficulty for each class taken by 181 students. Using HLM, we found that performance-approach goal orientation enhanced the positive effect of task interest on normative goals, whereas performance-avoidance goal orientation enhanced the negative effect of task difficulty on nonnormative goals.

Michael Horvath, Clemson University

Hailey L. Ahlfinger, Clemson University

Robert L. McKie, Clemson University

Submitted by Michael Horvath, mhorvat@clemson.edu

140. Poster Session: Saturday, 10:3011:20 River Exb Hall A (Level 1)

Performance Appraisal, 360 Degree, Withdrawal

140-1 Electronic Performance Monitoring: The Effect of Age and Task Difficulty

Older and younger participants performed a simple or 
difficult computer data-entry task under two conditions: monitored or not monitored. Results indicated that EPM decreased performance and induced higher stress levels compared to nonmonitored conditions. In addition, older adults showed a trend of being more impacted by EPM compared to younger adults.

Anthony Traxler, Southern Illinois UniversityEdwardsville

Jason R. Mallo, Southern Illinois UniversityEdwardsville

Cynthia R. Nordstrom, Southern Illinois 
UniversityEdwardsville

Lynn K. Bartels, Southern Illinois UniversityEdwardsville

Submitted by Cynthia R. Nordstrom, cnordst@siue.edu

140-2 The Effects of Supervisory Positions on Absence Frequency Among Teachers

Does holding or being promoted to a supervisory position affect absenteeism? We analyzed government records of 52,056 Israeli schoolteachers in 2000 and 2001. Controlling for school year 2000 absenteeism, objective workload, and demographic variables, holding a supervisory position or having been promoted to one reduced school year 2001 absence spells.

Zehava Rosenblatt, University of Haifa

Arie Shirom, University of Tel Aviv

Submitted by Zehava Rosenblatt, 
zehavar@construct.haifa.ac.il

140-3 Reducing Attrition by Decision-Making Training: 
Social Exchange or Self-Determination?

This field experiment replicated the finding that decision-making training for job choice administered during entry reduced attrition among new entrants in the Air Force. The results favored the self-determination explanation for the DMT effect over the social exchange explanation. The benefits of decision-making training during socialization are discussed.

Asya Pazy, Tel Aviv University

Submitted by Asya Pazy, asyap@post.tau.ac.il

140-4 What Does It All Mean? Differences in Multisource Ratings

The purpose of this study was to test if ratings made by different rater groups (i.e., supervisors, peers, and subordinates) were related to different criteria. Results suggested that rater groups offer unique and meaningful evaluations of the targets behavior because each group attended to different, but overlapping sets of behaviors.

Katie Helland, University of Tennessee

Brian J. Hoffman, University of Tennessee

Elizabeth M. Smith, University of Tennessee

Submitted by Katie Helland, khelland@utk.edu

140-5 Effects of Night and Mixed Shift Work on Turnover

We examined turnover differences among employees working traditional and nontraditional work schedules (e.g., night work, mixed shift work). Turnover was higher among evening and night-shift workers. Perceived job opportunities (but not supervisor support) moderated the relationship between shift worked (day vs. evening/night) and turnover.

Kristin Charles, Portland State University

Robert R. Sinclair, Portland State University

James E. Martin, Wayne State University

Submitted by Kristin Charles, kristinc@pdx.edu

140-6 Effects of Variability and Feedback on Team Adaptability Training

We investigated the effects of variability and feedback on collective efficacy, SMMs, action processes, and performance in a team-adaptability training exercise. Variability contributed strongly to adaptive performance only when paired with constructive feedback, but had negative effects on some outcomes. A process model is proposed to guide future research.

Cary F. Kemp, George Mason University

Gabrielle M. Wood, George Mason University

Meredith Cracraft, George Mason University

Zachary Horn, George Mason University

Stephen J. Zaccaro, George Mason University

Submitted by Cary F. Kemp, ckemp1@gmu.edu

140-7 The Influence of Values on Feedback-Seeking Behaviors

This study aims to test the influence of cultural values on feedback-seeking behaviors. A set of hypotheses are outlined and tested empirically using samples from China, Canada, Mexico, the Netherlands, Spain, and the U.S. Results indicate that significant aspects of feedback seeking were predicted by values.

Stephane Brutus, Concordia University

Elizabeth Fraser Cabrera, Universidad Carlos III

Submitted by Stephane Brutus, brutus@jmsb.concordia.ca

140-8 Influence of Perceptions of Fairness on Performance Appraisal Effectiveness

This study examined the influence of fairness perceptions on performance appraisal effectiveness using data from 89 subordinates from a retail chain. Results indicated that fairness perceptions (distributive, procedural, interpersonal, informational justices) significantly, but differentially, influenced behavioral intentions and behavior change and accounted for significant variance in predicting behavioral intentions.

Cara Lundquist, University of Southern Mississippi

Jeffrey D. Kudisch, University of Maryland

Vincent J. Fortunato, University of Southern Mississippi

Submitted by Cara Lundquist, CaraLundquist@aol.com

140-9 The Effect of Training in Self-Persuasion on Incremental Implicit Beliefs

Incremental implicit theories about the malleability of personal attributes (e.g., ability and personality) positively affect both self-regulation and judgments about others. A 6-week longitudinal experiment found that, using principles of self-persuasion, entity theorists acquired and sustained incremental implicit beliefs.

Peter A. Heslin, Southern Methodist University

Gary P. Latham, University of Toronto

Submitted by Peter A. Heslin, pheslin@mail.cox.smu.edu

140-10 An Event History Analysis of First-Term Soldier Attrition

This research was designed to assess the influence of attitude ambivalence on the prediction of U.S. Army soldier attrition from self-reported confidence that one would complete ones term of service. Evaluation of temporal changes in the strength of prediction showed that prediction was significant through the 3-year period of observation.

Jennifer K. Lee, George Mason University

Trueman R. Tremble, U.S. Army Research Institute

Submitted by Jennifer K. Lee, jles@gmu.edu

140-11 Longitudinal Effects of Feedback on Self-Efficacy and Performance

A longitudinal study examined the effect of feedback sign on performance. Participants perception of test result feedback was measured at Time 1 and their performance about 4 weeks later. Feedback sign showed a positive effect to test performance, and this effect was fully mediated by self-efficacy.

Veronica Marie Dendinger, University of 
WisconsinOshkosh

Simon Moon, University of WisconsinOshkosh

Gary A. Adams, University of WisconsinOshkosh

Submitted by Simon Moon, moonm@uwosh.edu

140-12 What Do You Want to Know? Feedback Seeking About Self-Related Attributes

A lab experiment was set up in which 129 students could decide on which self-related attributes they sought feedback. People especially sought feedback about their best and most important skills. Interestingly, people were equally interested in feedback about certain and uncertain skills.

Frederik Anseel, Ghent University

Filip Lievens, Ghent University

Submitted by Filip Lievens, filip.lievens@ugent.be

140-13 Assessing Performance: Investigation of the Influence of Item Context Using IRT

IRT methods for DIF detection were applied to the investigation of rating bias on task and contextual performance. Responding to contextual items first decreased the relatedness of task items to its underlying construct. Traditional methods lack the sensitivity to detect the item-level bias that we identified using IRT methods.

Daniel C. Kuang, American Institutes for Research

Lynne Steinberg, Portland State University

Submitted by Daniel C. Kuang, danielk@pdx.edu

140-14 Feedback-Sending Behavior: The Role of Implicit Theories of Human Abilities

This study investigates the dynamics of informal feedback sending in organizations. Using 160 supervisors-employees dyads, the role of the implicit theories of supervisors were found to be related to feedback giving. However, this effect was opposite to what was hypothesized. These results are discussed. 

Caroline E. Marchionni, Town of Mount Royal

Stephane Brutus, Concordia University

Submitted by Stephane Brutus, brutus@jmsb.concordia.ca

140-15 Performance Evaluation: Assimilation Effects, Source Credibility, and Field Dependence/Independence

Field dependent (FD) and independent (FI) participants received previous performance information indirectly from sources differing in credibility before observing a lecturers performance, or did not receive indirect performance information. When source credibility was low, no assimilation effects occurred; when source credibility was high, FIs exhibited weaker assimilation effects than FDs. 

Sebastiano A. Fisicaro, Wayne State University

Karen Jagatic, GuideStar Research

Swati Buddhavarapu, Wayne State University

Scott M. Reithel, Wayne State University

Submitted by Swati Buddhavarapu, ag4546@wayne.edu

140-16 An Empirical Examination of Accountability for Performance Development

The current study provides an empirical examination of 
London, Smither, and Adsits (1997) model of 
accountability. A lack of research on accountability suggests the developmental nature of feedback systems lowers individual accountability. The path model analyzed examines variables associated with the actor, forces, and mechanisms and their effects on accountability.

Kelly Rutkowski, Florida Institute of Technology

Richard L. Griffith, Florida Institute of Technology

Lisa A. Steelman, Florida Institute of Technology/Burke Inc.

Submitted by Lisa A. Steelman, lsteelma@fit.edu

140-17 PersonGroup Fit as a Correlate of Aggregate OCB and Turnover

This study examined if an aggregate measure of persongroup fit predicted unit-level organizational citizenship behavior and group turnover rates. Furthermore, it examined if unit OCB predicted turnover rates. Data from 197 grocery departments supported these hypotheses; however, the relationship between OCB and turnover was moderated by task interdependence.

Amy Nicole Salvaggio, University of Tulsa

Submitted by Amy Nicole Salvaggio, 
amy-salvaggio@utulsa.edu

140-18 A Meta-Analytic Investigation of Moderators of 
Performance Appraisal Reliability

This meta-analysis of performance appraisal literature finds 
three moderators of performance appraisal reliability: job complexity (unskilled/semiskilled, skilled, professional, managerial), appraisal method (ratings, rankings, BARS), and measure of reliability (alpha or test-retest). Job complexity accounted for the most variance. More complex jobs were generally had less reliable performance appraisals. 

Carl L. Thornton, Wright State University

Corey E. Miller, Wright State University

Submitted by Corey E. Miller, corey.miller@wright.edu

140-19 Number of Performance Appraisal Dimensions and Reliability of Global Ratings

The current study analyzed previous research concerning performance appraisals and found a relationship between the number of dimensions and global reliability. These findings suggest that increasing the number of dimensions rated leads to an improvement of global rating reliability. Cognitive processes that might cause this effect are discussed.

Corey E. Miller, Wright State University

Carl L. Thornton, Wright State University

Megan Leasher, Wright State University

Esteban Tristan, Wright State University

Submitted by Corey E. Miller, corey.miller@wright.edu

140-20 Cronbachs Accuracy Components and Concerns About the Performance Appraisal Literature

Cronbachs accuracy components are the most frequently used measures of rating accuracy. However, conceptual concerns about their validity have been raised. Twenty-three studies were meta-analyzed to provide empirical evidence of these concerns. Results indicate that conclusions based on Cronbachs components of accuracy are likely biased, especially for differential accuracy.

Neil M. A. Hauenstein, Virginia Tech

Eugene J. Kutcher, Virginia Tech

Submitted by Eugene J. Kutcher, ekutcher@vt.edu

140-21 Sources of Silence: Why Subordinates Dont Voice Concerns to Management

Although three whistleblowers from Worldcom, the FBI, and Enron were named Times 2002 Persons of the Year, recent events (e.g., 9/11, Columbia explosion) suggest that many employees still fail to speak up. This paper reviews several reasons why subordinates hold back (e.g., fear of reprisal, workload, groupthink, and bureaucratic barriers).

Renee Eileen DeRouin, University of Central Florida

Dana E. Sims, University of Central Florida

Kaoruko M. Nakano, University of Central Florida

Eduardo Salas, University of Central Florida

Submitted by Renee Eileen DeRouin, renee@derouin.com

140-22 Group Performance Ratings: Investigating Behavioral and Rating Accuracy

This study explores the role of group discussion and consensus in determining the behavioral and rating accuracy of performance ratings. Results suggest that the anticipation of discussion increases behavioral but not rating accuracy and that discussion improves behavioral and rating accuracy only if groups are required to reach consensus.

Sylvia G. Roch, University at Albany, SUNY

Submitted by Sylvia G. Roch, roch@albany.edu

140-23 Affective Reactions to Performance Feedback: The Role of Self-Esteem

This study shows that performance feedback influenced both positive and negative affect within individuals and that feedback indicating goal nonattainment (i.e., negative feedback) influenced negative affect more strongly than it influenced positive affect. Weak support is found for the moderating role of self-esteem in the relationship between feedback and affect.

Remus Ilies, Michigan State University

Irene E. de Pater, University of Amsterdam

Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida

Submitted by Irene E. de Pater, i.e.depater@uva.nl

140-24 Investigation of 360 Ceiling Effects: An Exploratory RASCH Approach

A 360-degree assessment was investigated for the presence of a ceiling effect. Through application of RASCH item and person calibration, it was determined that item-difficulty distributions did not parallel manager-ability distributions across five rating categories. This effect is thought to be even more pronounced in other rating instruments.

John Kulas, Saint Cloud State University

Kelly Hannum, Center for Creative Leadership

Submitted by John Kulas, jtkulas@stcloudstate.edu

140-25 Relationship Between Rater Negative Affect and Performance Rating Accuracy

The purpose of this research was to extend previous work on the relationship between affect and performance evaluation ratings. Although none of the correlations between negative affect (NA) and performance rating accuracy measures were significant, results showed that self-monitoring and positive affect moderate the relationship between trait NA and accuracy.

Angela K. Pratt, Wayne State University

Boris B. Baltes, Wayne State University

Submitted by Angela K. Pratt, apratt@sun.science.wayne.edu

140-26 Factors Affecting Assessment Center Feedback Acceptance: An Expanded View

This study examined a variety of dimensions that have been suggested as being important to the acceptance of assessment center feedback. Results indicated that the dimension Insight Added by Feedback Giver had the strongest relationship to feedback acceptance with the dimension Perceived Favorability of Feedback being the weakest.

Mark Rose, Wilson Learning Corporation

Carl E. Eidson, Wilson Learning Corporation

Jay H. Steffensmeier, Clemson University

Jeffrey D. Kudisch, University of Maryland

Submitted by Carl E. Eidson, carl_eidson@WLCmail.com

141. Community of Interests: Saturday, 10:3011:20 River Exb Hall A (Level 1)

Community of Interests: Individual Assessment 

Participants can come and go as they like, and chat with others conducting similar projects.

142. Symposium: Saturday, 11:3012:50 Missouri (Level 2)

Diversity Beliefs and Attitudes and the Effects of Group Diversity

Beliefs about the extent to which there is value in diversity and attitudes towards diversity may influence the effects of work group diversity. The four presentations in this symposium explore the impact of diversity beliefs and attitudes and the value of these concepts for diversity theory and organizational practice.

Daan Van Knippenberg, Erasmus UniversityRotterdam, Chair

Daan Van Knippenberg, Erasmus UniversityRotterdam, Work Group Diversity, Group Identification, and Group Functioning: The Moderating Role of Value-in-Diversity Beliefs

Astrid C. Homan, University of Amsterdam, Daan Van Knippenberg, Erasmus UniversityRotterdam, Gerben A. van Kleef, University of Amsterdam, Carsten K. W. De Dreu, University of Amsterdam, Managing Group Diversity Beliefs to Increase Performance in Diverse Teams

Paul B. Paulus, University of Texas at Arlington, Toshi Nakui, University of Texas at Arlington, Nivi Parthasarathy, University of Texas at Arlington, Joshua Baruah, University of Texas at Arlington, Preference for Diverse Workgroups and its Relationship to Perceptions and Performance in Diverse Groups

Anne Sheehan, University of Queensland, Robin Martin, University of WalesCardiff, On Being Different: Understanding Diversity Influences

Submitted by Daan Van Knippenberg, dvanknippenberg@fbk.eur.nl

143. Master Tutorial: Saturday, 11:3012:50 Huron (Level 2)

Three Dimensions for Assessing Supreme Court Affirmative Action Rulings

Major Supreme Court affirmative action (AA) rulings from Bakke (1978) through Gratz and Grutter (2003) are analyzed using three dimensions: (a) sources of AA, (b) Title VII versus constitutional claims, and (c) remedial needs (discrimination) versus operational needs (diversity). Critical implications for recruitment and selection are discussed.

Arthur Gutman, Florida Institute of Technology, Presenter

Submitted by Arthur Gutman, artgut@aol.com

144. Interactive Posters: Saturday, 11:3012:20 Parlor A (Level 3)

Interactive Posters: Performance Appraisal, 360 Degree, Withdrawal

144-1 The Influence of Groups in the Multirater Feedback Process

This paper focuses on the relationship between the multirater feedback process and the rater as moderated by rater group size. Results indicate that concern for anonymity and rater perceptions of accuracy are influenced by the size of the rater group.

Gary A. Kustis, OBrien, Passen & Associates, Inc.

Robert H. Faley, Kent State University

Cathy L. Z. DuBois, Kent State University

Debra S. Gatton, Tiffin University

Submitted by Gary A. Kustis, garyk@obpa.com

144-2 Factors Affecting the Emphasis Placed on Multisource Feedback Ratings 

Policy-capturing methodology was used to examine the weight feedback recipients placed on multisource feedback and to compare these results to self-reported emphasis placed on each source. In addition, the role of observational opportunity and liking of the sources were examined in relation to the weight placed on feedback source.

Lori Anderson, Colorado State University

George C. Thornton, Colorado State University

Submitted by Lori Anderson, lori@lamar.colostate.edu

144-3 Individual Differences and Peer Feedback: 
Personalitys Impact on Behavior Change

Although multisource feedback is frequently used for individual coaching and development, little has been reported on the role individual differences play in reactions to multisource feedback information. This study found that the traits openness to experience and possibly conscientiousness moderated behavior change in response to peer feedback.

Peter G. Dominick, Stevens Institute of Technology

Richard R. Reilly, Stevens Institute of Technology

John Byrne, Pace University

Submitted by Peter G. Dominick, aaitalk@aol.com

144-4 Multisource Feedback: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis Approach to Measurement Equivalence

This paper demonstrates the utility of parameter-nested sequential analysis (Vandenburg and Lance, 2000) to evaluate and pinpoint conceptual and psychometric measurement inequivalence in a multisource feedback (MSF) instrument. The sequential approach demonstrated significant measurement inequivalence across rating sources. The implications of this measurement inequivalence across rating sources are discussed.

Amanda Baugous, University of Tennessee

Submitted by Amanda Baugous, amichael@utk.edu

145. Poster Session: Saturday, 11:3012:20 River Exb Hall A (Level 1)

Groups, Teams

145-1 Development and Initial Validation of a Team Task-Analysis Questionnaire

A task-analysis questionnaire using team relatedness and workflow items was designed to assess the extent to which a group of tasks or a job is team based. The questionnaire demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties and differentiated between predetermined individual- and team-based tasks. Job-level ratings of workflow were related to performance.

Winfred Arthur, Texas A&M University

Bryan D. Edwards, Tulane University

Suzanne T. Bell, Texas A&M University

Anton J. Villado, California State UniversitySan 
Bernardino

Winston Bennett, Air Force Research Laboratory

Submitted by Suzanne T. Bell, sbell@tamu.edu

145-2 Meeting Deadlines in Work Groups: Implicit and Explicit Mechanisms

We examined whether groups were better able to meet deadlines when members shared time perceptions (STP). Congruence in pacing preferences and the exchange of temporal reminders both promoted STP, although at different stages of collaboration. The effect of STP on meeting deadlines was moderated by the content of pacing preferences.

Josette M. P. Gevers, Eindhoven University of Technology

Christel Rutte, Eindhoven University of Technology

Wendelien van Eerde, Eindhoven University of 
Technology/Tech Management

Submitted by Josette M. P. Gevers, j.m.p.gevers@tm.tue.nl

145-3 The Effects of Goal Orientation and Expected Evaluation on Creativity

We examined the effects of expected evaluations and goal orientation on creativity. Informational evaluations enhanced ideation for individuals with a mastery goal orientation, and controlling evaluations enhanced creativity processes for individuals with a performance-prove (PP) orientation. Intrinsic motivation mediated the effect of the PP expected evaluation interaction. 

Adam B. Butler, University of Northern Iowa

Roni Reiter-Palmon, University of NebraskaOmaha

Submitted by Adam B. Butler, adam.butler@uni.edu

145-4 Organizational Values and Procedures for Goal Interdependence and Interdepartmental Effectiveness

CEOs in China completed measures of their organizations values and interdependent structures and their vice-presidents completed measures of the departments cooperative, competitive, and independent goals and effectiveness. Structural equation analysis suggested that values and interdependent structures promote cooperative but not competitive or independent goals that result in interdepartmental effectiveness.

Dean W. Tjosvold, Lingnan UniversityHong Kong

Quoquan Chen, Tsinghua University

Submitted by Dean W. Tjosvold, tjosvold@ln.edu.hk

145-5 Breaking Routines: A Study on Time Pressure

This study examined several factors that influence breaking of routines at work, a necessary condition for creativity and learning. The behavior of 70 students on a complex task was examined. Results indicated that time pressure and high self-efficacy hindered routine-breaking while motivation facilitated it.

Sandra Ohly, Technical University of Braunschweig

Sabine Sonnentag, Technical University of Braunschweig

Submitted by Sandra Ohly, s.ohly@tu-bs.de

145-6 The Effects of Reactions to Feedback on Team Performance

Few studies examine team feedback reactions and their relationship to performance. Using numerous teams from multiple organizations, we examined two reactions to team feedback, blaming and strategizing, and their relationship with team performance. We found performance improvements were positively related to strategy formation and negatively related to blaming and excuse making.

Joel Philo, Texas A&M University

Satoris S. Youngcourt, Texas A&M University

Robert D. Pritchard, University of Central Florida

Submitted by Satoris S. Youngcourt, syoungcourt@tamu.edu

145-7 An Alternative Framework for Understanding When Membership Changes Impede Teamwork

Research is inconclusive as to whether membership change stimulates or impedes teamwork. We propose that it is not so much whether membership changes but rather whether contextual factors support adaptation. We hypothesize that tenure and supervisory encouragement moderate the relationship between membership change and teamwork. Forty-one teams were surveyed.

Giles Hirst, Aston University

Submitted by Giles Hirst, g.hirst@aston.ac.uk

145-8 On the Hunt for Teamwork: The Role of Planning Processes

We examined the impact of preplanning and three dimensions of planning process on team coordination and performance using 38 teams competing in an experimental scavenger hunt. Preplanning improved deliberate planning process and performance. Deliberate and contingency planning predicted coordination. Reactive planning explained incremental variance in coordination and performance.

Leslie A. DeChurch, Florida International University

Craig Haas, Florida International University

Alexander Alonso, Florida International University

Paul J. Gregory, Florida International University

Laura C. Batista, Florida International University

Jessica Gonzalez, Florida International University

Angela Leano, Florida International University

Alex Matos, Florida International University

Submitted by Leslie A. DeChurch, dechurch@fiu.edu

145-9 Shared Values as a Moderator of the TurnoverPerformance Relationship

Relationships between work group and management turnover, shared values, and performance improvement following an intervention were examined using data from 50 work units in multiple organizations. Direct management turnover negatively related to performance improvement. Shared values and work group and overall management turnover showed significant interactions in predicting performance improvement.

Kristen M. Watrous, Texas A&M University

Ann H. Huffman, Texas A&M University

Robert D. Pritchard, University of Central Florida

Submitted by Kristen M. Watrous, kristen-watrous@tamu.edu

145-10 Crafting a Model of Error Identification in Transactive Memory Systems

Prior transactive memory research has paid little attention to why members fail to identify errors in groups. This article provides a model outlining the motivational process preceding individual error-detection behavior. It also identifies factors affecting the motivational process and actual behavior with the aim of encouraging future empirical research.

Zhike Lei, University of North CarolinaChapel Hill

David A. Hofmann, University of North CarolinaChapel 
Hill

Submitted by Zhike Lei, Leiz@kenan-flagler.unc.edu

145-11 Will They Share? Team Problem Solving in Computer-Mediated Environments

The current investigation extended co-located Information Sampling theory research by Stasser and Titus (1987) to the computer-mediated cooperative team domain. Data from 37 three-person teams indicate that, despite its criticality, information not shared equally by all team members is frequently discounted and often ignored during team discussions.

Lori A. Ferzandi, Pennsylvania State University

Amie L. Skattebo, Pennsylvania State University

Ivanna S. Terrell, Pennsylvania State University

Priya Bains, Pennsylvania State University

Submitted by Lori A. Ferzandi, laf192@psu.edu

145-12 You Cant Always Get What You Want

The performance of developmental tasks positively influences ones career opportunities. This study shows that after the allocation of tasks between men and women who initially chose to perform the same type of tasks, women end up with less developmental tasks than their male counterparts. 

Irene E. de Pater, University of Amsterdam

Annelies E. M. Van Vianen, University of Amsterdam

Ron Humphrey, Virginia Commonwealth University

Randall G. Sleeth, Virginia Commonwealth University

Nathan S. Hartman, Virginia Commonwealth University

Agneta H. Fischer, University of Amsterdam

Submitted by Irene E. de Pater, i.e.depater@uva.nl

145-13 Understanding Team Adaptability: A Conceptual Framework

Due to the complex environments in which many work teams operate, a teams capacity to effectively respond to unanticipated circumstances is essential. The purpose of this paper is to provide a conceptual framework for team adaptability and highlight some of its key contributing variables. 

Dana L. Kendall, University of Central Florida

Eduardo Salas, University of Central Florida

C. Shawn Burke, University of Central Florida

Kevin C. Stagl, Institute for Simulation & Training

Submitted by Dana L. Kendall, dkendall@ist.ucf.edu

145-14 Managing Distance by Interdependence: 
Successful Management Practices in Virtual Teams

A field study of 31 virtual teams in two business organizations examined management practices related to goal, task, and outcome interdependence. Consistent with expectations, quality of goal setting, task interdependence, and team-based rewards were positively related to team effectiveness. Moreover, these effects were partially mediated by motivational processes.

Guido Hertel, University of Kiel

Udo Konradt, University of Kiel

Borris Orlikowski, AMESUR GmbH

Submitted by Guido Hertel, hertel@psychologie.uni-kiel.de

145-15 Cyclical Group Development and Team Leadership Emergence: An Integrated Model

Cyclical models of group development may be integrated with an interactive model of leadership emergence in autonomous teams. This paper examines the interaction of leader traits and situational factors during the cycling of an autonomous team within and between the storming, norming, and performing phases of group development.

Joy Karriker, Virginia Commonwealth University

Submitted by Joy Karriker, karrikerje@vcu.edu

145-16 What if Being Oneself Isnt Very Funny?

This study examined the impact of encouraging humor on satisfaction, stress, and performance. Perception that one was not allowed to be oneself was correlated with decreased satisfaction and stress. Sense of humor served as a buffer against stress. Many subjects failed to spontaneously create humor, because being humorous is difficult.

Stuart D. Sidle, University of New Haven

Douglas F. Cellar, DePaul University

Submitted by Stuart D. Sidle, ssidle@newhaven.edu

145-17 When Teams are More Effective Than Workgroups

This longitudinal quasi-experimental study showed that implementing teams had positive effects on five of six process criteria of effectiveness. The effectiveness of teams, however, depends upon organizational context. In conditions where the organizational reward, educational, and information systems were good, teams produced negligible effects on effectiveness criteria.

Michael Johnson, Michigan State University

Frederick P. Morgeson, Michigan State University

Gina J. Medsker, HumRRO

Michael A. Campion, Purdue University

Troy V. Mumford, Utah State University

Submitted by Michael Johnson, john1781@msu.edu

145-18 Decision Change and the Devils Advocate in Group Decision Making

We incorporated decision change in a model of devils advocacy and demonstrated how the effect of decision change stemming from a devils advocate critique was moderated by the initial plans considered by groups. Specifically, decision change was positively related to decision quality only when the groups initial plans were faulty.

Tansy Diaz, University of Oklahoma

Eric Day, University of Oklahoma

Jazmine Espejo, University of Oklahoma

Submitted by Eric Day, eday@ou.edu

145-19 Antecedents and Consequences of Team-Member Exchange

The present study examined the antecedents and consequences of team member exchange. The feedback environment (predicted antecedent) was positively correlated with TMX. Team OCB and team job performance were predicted consequences of TMX. TMX had a significant positive correlation with team OCB but no significant correlation with team job performance.

Albert Murillo, Florida Institute of Technology

Lisa A. Steelman, Florida Institute of Technology/Burke Inc.

Submitted by Albert Murillo, albertgmurillo@hotmail.com

145-20 Effects of Mood Similarity on Belief Similarity in Teams

This research examined the relationship between mood similarity and belief similarity in teams. Data from 37 groups indicated that mood similarity was positively related to belief similarity. Group mood awareness moderated this relationship such that the positive relationship became stronger when group members were aware of each others mood states.

Ece Tuncel, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign

Lorna M. Doucet, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign

Submitted by Ece Tuncel, etuncel@uiuc.edu

145-21 Team Attitudes and Social Loafing: 
Moderating Effects of Competitiveness Dimensions

Relationships among team attitudes, competitiveness, and social loafing were examined in a longitudinal study. The results show that team attitudes (group-work preference and team-reward attitude) relate negatively to loafing when motivation for new learning is low, while winning orientation exacerbates the relationship between team-reward attitude and loafing.

Eric M. Stark, James Madison University

Jason D. Shaw, University of Kentucky

Michelle K. Duffy, University of Kentucky

Submitted by Nina Gupta, ngupta@walton.uark.edu

145-22 Mood and Pooling of Unshared Information in Group Decision Making

The effects of induced mood on pooling of unshared information in a group decision-making task were examined. Group members were given shared and unshared information prior to group discussion. Group members in positive moods pooled, discussed, and repeated unshared information to a greater extent than group members in negative moods.

Won-Hyun So, University at Albany, SUNY

Kevin J. Williams, University at Albany, SUNY

Submitted by Won-Hyun So, ws7253@albany.edu

145-23 Dispositional Trust and Team-Member Exchange in the Virtual Environment

Trust is a concern of both academicians and practitioners interested in virtual teams. Three hundred eighty-five students participated in a semester-long virtual simulation. Team-member exchange TMX was related to some measures of objective performance and attitudinal variables. 
Dispositional trust constructs were related to TMX measured later in the semester.

Rudolph J. Sanchez, California State UniversityFresno

Julie B. Olson-Buchanan, California State UniversityFresno

Paula L Rechner, California State UniversityFresno

James M. Schmidtke, California State UniversityFresno

Submitted by Rudolph J. Sanchez, rjsanchez@csufresno.edu

145-24 The Nature of Tasks: Taking Group Brainstorming to New Levels

Typical group brainstorming research indicates that nominal groups consistently outperform face-to-face groups. However, the tasks traditionally used may be confounding the results. The current study tests this hypothesis. Results indicate that face-to-face brainstorming groups greatly outperform nominal groups when the task is ambiguous and complex, requiring inductive thinking.

Adam Pollard, Saint Louis University

Thomas J. Kramer, Saint Louis University

Submitted by Adam Pollard, adam_pollard@hotmail.com

145-25 Paradigm Shifts and Age of Adopters

This research uses citation analysis to test the hypothesis that is there a significant difference in age among those who adopt a new paradigm and those who do not. The results support this hypothesis.

Rosemarie Reynolds, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Submitted by Rosemarie Reynolds, 
orlandorose@earthlink.net

145-26 Predicting Innovation: Synergies Between Leadership and Self-Related Variables

This field study examined two leadership styles (transformational leadership and active-corrective transactional leadership) and two self-related factors (organization-based self-esteem and self-monitoring) as predictors of innovative behavior and task performance. Regressions based on data from 161 managersubordinate dyads demonstrated the predictive power of all four variables and revealed several significant interactions.

Johannes D. Rank, University of South Florida

Nicole Nelson, University of GiessenGermany

Xian Xu, University of South Florida

Submitted by Johannes D. Rank, jrank@mail.usf.edu

145-27 Effects of Team Inputs and Processes on Embryonic Venture Perseverance

This study looked at new-venture teams, which are often neglected by the literature. The results showed that presence of a distinct leader and educational background diversity were positively related to team satisfaction and viability, respectively. Social integration and open communication were positively related to both team viability and member satisfaction. 

Maw-Der Foo, National University of Singapore

Hock-Peng Sin, Pennsylvania State University

Lee-Pen Yiong, National University of Singapore

Submitted by Hock-Peng Sin, hpsin@psu.edu

145-28 Determinants of Accurate Perception of Facial Expressions in the Boardroom

We investigated gender, age, and emotional intelligence as predictors of emotion recognition in the boardroom. One hundred fifty-nine participants viewed a video of a board meeting, rated facial expressions, and completed an ability measure of emotional intelligence. Females were more accurate than males, but this was mediated by emotional intelligence.

Jean Althoff, University of Queensland

Neal M. Ashkanasy, University of Queensland

Submitted by Neal M. Ashkanasy, n.ashkanasy@uq.edu.au

146. Community of Interests: Saturday, 11:3012:20 River Exb Hall A (Level 1)

Community of Interests: Adaptability

Participants can come and go as they like, and chat with others conducting similar projects.


Program Table of Contents