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Saturday AM Schedule

Coffee Break: Saturday, 7:30 - 8:00 Regency Foyer/French Market

 

90. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                   Regency B, C

Eminent I-O Psychologists Look Back-and Forward

The presenters are eminent I-O psychologists who have made significant contributions to the areas of personnel assessment, leadership, selection, motivation, job satisfaction, and training.  They will discuss their contributions to the field of I-O psychology, how these contributions have withstood the test of time, and what advice they have for young people in the field.

Edwin A. Locke, University of Maryland, Chair

Douglas W. Bray, Development Dimensions International, Assessment Centers and Me

Edwin A. Fleishman, George Mason University, Contributions Made to Theory, Methodology, and Practice in I-O Psychology

Robert M. Guion, Bowling Green State University, Confessions of an Eminent Failure

Herbert H. Meyer, University of South Florida, Contributions in a Wide Variety of Activities in the Field

Patricia C. Smith, Bowling Green State University, Solid Lasting Contributions to the Field

Paul W. Thayer, North Carolina State University, Some Minor Contributions

Robert J. House, Wharton School-University of Pennsylvania, Discussant

91. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                  Regency G, H

Causes and Consequences of Emotions in the Workplace

I-O Psychologists have become increasingly interested in the causes and consequences of workplace emotions.  This symposium provides a review and update of contemporary emotion research.  Specifically, we examine the impact of the physical and social environment on emotional states.  We also explore the implications of emotions for work behavior. 

Yochi Cohen-Charash, University of California-Berkeley, Co-Chair

Russell S. Cropanzano, Colorado State University, Co-Chair

Varda Wasserman, The Hebrew University, Anat Rafaeli, Ohio State University, Avraham N. Kluger, Hebrew University, Aesthetics Symbols as Emotional Cues

Michael O'Shea, University of Queensland, Neal M. Ashkanasy, University of Queensland, Charmine E. J. Hrtel, University of Queensland, Cynthia Gallois, University of Queensland, On the Relationship Between the Work Environment and Work Attitudes and Behaviors: Laboratory Tests of Affective Events Theory

Alicia A. Grandey, Pennsylvania State University, Understanding Emotional Labor: Surface Acting, Deep Acting, and Their Relationships with Employee Burnout and Effective Service Work

Suzy Fox, Loyola University, Paul E. Spector, University of South Florida, Emotions as Mediators of Voluntary Behavior in Organizations

Thomas A. Wright, University of Nevada-Reno, Russell S. Cropanzano, Colorado State University, Further

Yochi Cohen-Charash, University of California-Berkeley, Envy at Work: An Exploratory Examination of

92. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                         Cabildo B

How Detrimental is Sexual Harassment? Broadening the Boundaries of Research

Sexual harassment research has primarily focused on the experiences of direct targets of harassment.  This symposium challenges and extends the boundaries of sexual harassment research; the papers examine the pervasive effects of sexual harassment beyond the direct target and offers alternative conceptualizations of the construct of harassment.

Theresa M. Glomb, University of Minnesota, Chair

Wendy L. Richman, William M. Mercer, Inc., Theresa M. Glomb, University of Minnesota, Charles L. Hulin, University of Illinois, How Are Men Affected by the Sexual Harassment of Women: Extending the Model of the Antecedents and Consequences of Ambient Sexual Harassment

Jana Raver, University of Maryland, Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland, The Impact of Sexual Harassment on Work Group Processes and Performance

Kurt Kraiger, University of Colorado-Denver, Donna Chrobot-Mason, University of Colorado-Denver, Understanding Bystander Sexual Harassment: Influences and Consequences

Kimberly T. Schneider, University of Texas-El Paso, Robert T. Hitlan, University of Texas-El Paso, Marco Delgado, University of Texas-El Paso, Debra Anaya, University of Texas-El Paso, Armando X. Estrada, University of Texas-El Paso, Hostile Climates: The Impact of Multiple Types of Harassment on Targets

Louise F. Fitzgerald, University of Illinois, Stephen Stark, University of Illinois, Oleksandr Chernyshenko, University of Illinois, Patrick A. Palmieri, University of Illinois, Linda L. Collinsworth, University of Illinois, Melanie Harned, University of Illinois, Fritz Drasgow, University of Illinois, Who Counts?  A Rational-Empirical Algorithm for Determining the Incidence of Sexual Harassment in Organizations

Kevin R. Murphy, Colorado State University, Discussant

93. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                         Cabildo C

Improving the Survey Effort: Methodological Questions and Answers

Surveys are widely used in industrial-organizational psychology, yet it is sometimes forgotten that the ultimate criterion for evaluating a research methodology is the quality of the data it produces.  This symposium presents research examining potential problems and solutions associated with the conduction of survey research.

Matthew Sederburg, Bowling Green State University, Co-Chair

Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University, Co-Chair

Stphane Brutus, Concordia University, John Tisak, Bowling Green State University, Jean B. Leslie, Center for Creative Leadership, Dana McDonald-Mann, Center for Creative Leadership, The Implication of Behavioral Specificity of Performance Items for Multi-Source Assessment

Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University, Empirical Distributions of Correlations as a Tool for Scale Reduction

Allan H. Church, W. Warner Burke Associates, Janine Waclawski, W. Warner Burke Associates, Is There a Method to our Madness? Survey and Feedback Method Effects Across Five Different Settings

Scott A. Young, Northern Illinois University, Diane L. Daum, Personnel Research Associates, Chet Robie, University of Houston, William H. Macey, Personnel Research Associates, Inc., Paper Versus Web Survey Administration: Do Different Methods Yield Different Results?

Lynn S. Summers, Performaworks, Inc., Leah Groehler, Performaworks, Inc., High-Tech Adventures in Boosting Response Rates

Matthew Sederburg, Bowling Green State University, Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University, David Mohr, Bowling Green State University, Melinda Scheuer, University of Toledo, Personality and the Decision to Participate in a Survey

James L. Farr, Pennsylvania State University, Discussant

94. Conversation Hour: Saturday, 8:00 - 8:50                       Poydras A

Multimedia Computer-Based Testing

Are you currently using multimedia CBT?  Are you interested in hearing what others are doing with multimedia CBT?  What are the advantages, disadvantages and challenges involved in incorporating multimedia into testing?  Join us for a lively conversation hour.

Betty A. Bergstrom, Computer Adaptive Technologies, Host

95. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                           Poydras B

The New I-O Millennium: Riding the Wave or Wipe Out?

SIOP faces many opportunities and challenges.  We will discuss some of the likely challenges we are seeing and extrapolate the trends, which do not bode well for Ph.D. I-O psychology programs.  We hope this leads to a better understanding of our conditions and how different ingredients could lead to positive outcomes.

Ronald G. Downey, Kansas State University, Chair

Mary Anne Lahey, American Institutes for Research, Panelist

Jeanne A. Phelps, Southwest Missouri State University, Panelist

Kirk L. Rogg, Aon Consulting, Panelist

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, Panelist

Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University of Central Florida, Panelist

96. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                Elysian Fields

Yesterdays HeroesThe Derailment of International Executives

Much of our workfor example, 360 feedback, coaching, selectionis aimed at preventing the derailment of talented executives.  This symposium brings together I-O psychologists and executives from global organizations to address the dynamics of international executive derailment, why the international context is unique, and the implications for preventing derailment.

George P. Hollenbeck, Hollenbeck Associates, Chair

Morgan W. McCall, University of Southern California, Heroes and Goats:  The Convoluted World of International Executive Derailment

Charles J. Corace, Johnson & Johnson, Credo, Coalitions, and ComplexityKey Challenges for the Global Executive

Arne Olsson, ABB, The What, How, and Why of Derailment at ABB

John D. Hofmeister, Shell International B.V., Derailment Dynamics in Shell International

William H. Mobley, PDI Global Research Consortia, Colonials, Compasses, Competencies Along the Silk Road: Derailment in Asia

George P. Hollenbeck, Hollenbeck Associates, Discussant

97. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                      Regency A

Using Technology to Streamline Public Sector Hiring

This forum will describe how three federal employers have used technology to deal with recruiting and hiring challenges.  A number of technology solutions will be discussed including internet recruiting and screening, computer adaptive testing, distributed computer-based testing, virtual reality testing, and the use of a wide area network.

Suzanne Tsacoumis, HumRRO, Co-Chair

Beverly A. Dugan, HumRRO, Co-Chair

Sharon Fletcher, Federal Aviation Administration, Jess Robinson, Federal Aviation Administration, Using

      Automation to Improve the Hiring of FAA Electronic Technicians

Mary Anne Nester, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service, Technology in the Hiring Process for U.S.

Brian OLeary, U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Using the Internet for Personnel Selection: The Federal

98. Conversation Hour: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                       Regency F

Teaching Idea Exchange:  Creating Realistic Class Assignments

Participants are invited to this informal discussion session to share teaching tips and suggestions.  We will discuss ways to create realistic class assignments that maximize the transfer of skills from the classroom to the corporate office.  Participants are encouraged to bring a 2-page summary of their teaching idea.

Daniel Sachau, Minnesota State University-Mankato, Co-Host

Daniel De Neui, Elon College, Co-Host

99. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                         Cabildo A

Whats Really in the P of Team I-P-O Effectiveness Models

Despite the wealth of recent articles about team effectiveness, there is little agreement about the meaning of team process. The goal of this symposium is to bring some clarity to the process box in Input-Process-Outcome models.  Panelists will demonstrate the importance of team processes in the workplace and make suggestions for future research.

John E. Mathieu, University of Connecticut, Co-Chair

Michelle A. Marks, Florida International University, Co-Chair

Paul Tesluk, University of Maryland, Charlotte R. Gerstner, Applied Psychological Techniques, Results from a Field Study Linking Team Leadership, Processes, and Effectiveness: Expanding Basic Input-Process-Outcome Models

K. Etty Jehn, University of Pennsylvania, Mary J. Waller, University of Illinois, Task-Based Conflict and Time to Resolution: Human and Technological Factors in Control Crew Performance

Christopher Hall, Johnson County Government, Michael M. Beyerlein, Center for Study of Work Teams, Douglas A. Johnson, University of North Texas/PDI, Relationship of Team Support Systems to Team Performance

Michelle A. Marks, Florida International University, John E. Mathieu, University of Connecticut, Stephen J. Zaccaro, George Mason University, A Theory and Taxonomy of Team Processes

100. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                     Toulouse

Pathways and Barriers to Successful Employment of Workers with Disabilities

What are the pathways and barriers to successful employment of workers with disabilities? Panelists (a lawyer, a representative of a Disability and Technical Assistance Center, and research/practitioners) and participants will discuss recent applied research and research-driven products, services, and programs for workers with hearing impairments or mental illness.

Adrienne J. Colella, Texas A & M University, Co-Chair

Paul D. Geyer, University of Arkansas, Co-Chair

Rita R. Handrich, University of Texas at Austin, Panelist

Lauretta Murray, Mill Neck Services, Panelist

Wendy Wilkerson, Southwest Disability and Business Technical Assistance Center, Panelist

101. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                        Gentilly

Im Teaching, Are You Interested in Learning?
The Role of Motivation in Increasing Training Program Impact

Organizations rely heavily upon training programs to develop skills needed to function in today's dynamic, often novel, work environment.  However, no matter how well grounded the training might be, ensuring the full commitment of participants continues to be problematic.  This symposium explores the factors that promote or reduce motivation during training, and offers suggestions for controlling such forces. 

Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, Chair

Kenneth N. Wexley, Wexley Consulting, HRD, Increasing Trainee Motivation During Training: A Practitioners Perspective

AnJanette Agnew Nease, Rice University, Miquel A. Quiones, Rice University, Heidi Schweingruber, Rice University, Do Motives Matter? Examination of Reasons for Attending Training and Their Influence on Training Effectiveness

Edward J. Hertenstein, University of Illinois, Joseph J. Martocchio, University of Illinois, Goal Orientation and Cognitive Ability: Influence on Task-Specific Self-Efficacy and Declarative Knowledge

K. Lee Kiechel, George Mason University, Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, The Role of

Raymond A. Noe, Ohio State University, Discussant

102. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                       Audubon

Meeting Employee Needs and Organizational Goals through Benefits Surveys

From assessing job satisfaction and other job attitudes, surveys are now being conducted on specialized topics.  The employee benefit survey covering health care, retirement, insurance, and other employee benefits is one type of special topic survey.  These surveys help organizations to contain benefit costs while considering employee preferences and needs.

Steven Marcus, William M. Mercer, Inc., Chair

Joseph A. Parente, William M. Mercer, Inc., Arlene Weissman, William M. Mercer, Inc., David Youssefnia, William M. Mercer/Baruch College, Rachel Gonzalez, William M. Mercer/Baruch College, Benefit Satisfaction Surveys: An Overview and Introduction

Angela Watson, William M. Mercer, Inc., Ed Avant, AARP, Mary Redmond, William M. Mercer, Inc., Using the

Kristain Mills, William M. Mercer, Inc., Michael O'Malley, William M. Mercer, Inc., Susan Kessler-Sklar, William M. Mercer, Inc., Angela D. Sinickas, William M. Mercer, Inc., Using Communication Surveys, Focus Groups and Audits to Design and Evaluate Benefits Communication Strategy

Allen I. Kraut, Baruch College/Kraut Associates, Discussant

103. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                  Carrollton

The Meaning and Measurement of Work Ethic: Another Look

The meaning and measurement of work ethic has received little recent attention in I-O psychology.  However, the concept continues to be a source of concern among members of the business community.  Four papers are presented that reexamine the work ethic construct, both conceptually and operationally.  A new measure of work ethic is presented along with supporting construct-related validity data.

David J. Woehr, University of Tennessee, Chair

David J. Woehr, University of Tennessee, Michael J. Miller, Western International University, Development and Evaluation of the Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile

Natasha A. Hudspeth, Texas A & M University, David J. Woehr, University of Tennessee, Expanding the

Alana Blumental, University of Akron, Dennis Doverspike, University of Akron, Richard T. Cober, University of Akron, Diane M. Monaghan, University of Akron, Is Generation X Motivated? A Comparison of Work Ethic Between Generation X and Individuals Over Age 35

Timothy Mann, PRIDE Enterprises, Work Ethic of Prison Inmates Who Participate in Correctional Industries Programs

Philip L. Roth, Clemson University, Discussant

104. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                  Esplanade C

Differential Prediction in Personnel Selection: Past, Present, and Future

Increased workforce diversity demands attention to differential prediction (e.g., by race or gender) in personnel selection.  This symposium covers: (a) the pastreviewing statistical power in previous differential prediction studies, (b) the presentweighting cognitive and non-cognitive tests in differential prediction, and (c) the futureusing synthetic validity and SEM in differential prediction.

Frederick L. Oswald, Purdue University, Chair

Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver, James C. Beaty, Colorado State University, Charles A. Pierce, Montana State University, Statistical Power of Differential Prediction Analysis: A 30-Year Review

Harold W. Goldstein, Baruch College, CUNY, Kevin Ruminson, CUNY Graduate School & University Center, D. Brent Smith, Cornell University, Ken Yusko, Arlington County Government, The Impact of Test Composite Score Weighting Procedures on Black-White Subgroup Differences

Jeff W. Johnson, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Gary W. Carter, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, H. Kristl Davison, GTE, David H.  Oliver, GTE, A Synthetic Validity Approach to Testing Differential

Richard P. DeShon, Michigan State University, Using SEM to Overcome Limitations of the Regression Test for Differential Prediction

Craig J. Russell, University of Oklahoma, Discussant

105. Special Event: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                   Delgado

Effective Use of Web-Based Training

The use of web-based training (WBT) is growing rapidly.  Focusing on practitioners, this session will provide information on the current uses and effectiveness of WBT, as well as the future of WBT.  Actual WBT web sites will be demonstrated throughout the session.  Audience participation will be strongly encouraged.

Rudolph J. Sanchez, Portland State University, Chair

Kenneth G. Brown, University of Iowa, What do we Know About the Effectiveness of Web-Based Training (WBT)? Two Answers and a New Question

Ann Williams Howell, Strategic Interactive, Current Use of Web-Based Training

Robert B. Most, Mind Garden, Inc., The Challenges and Possibilities of Web-Based Training

Marcia J. Simmering, Louisiana State University, Creating Web-Based Training for Web-Savvy Learners


106. Poster Session: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                   French Market

Statistics, Methods, and Decision Making

106-1

The Statistical Power of Moderated Multiple Regression for
Detecting Joint Dichotomous Moderators

Dimitri Liakhovitski, International Survey Research

Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University of Central Florida

Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to examine the effects of score reliability, effect size, sample size, and the proportion of cases in moderator-based subgroups on statistical power of Moderated Multiple Regression (MMR) for detecting joint dichotomous moderators.  The manipulated parameters had considerable main and interactive effects on MMR power.

106-2

The Statistical Power of Alternative Strategies for
Detecting Joint Dichotomous Moderators

Dimitri Liakhovitski, International Survey Research

Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University of Central Florida

James J. Jaccard, University at Albany-SUNY

Monte Carlo simulations were conducted to compare statistical power of Moderated Multiple Regression (MMR) and Jones (1968) procedure for detecting joint dichotomous moderators under conditions of heterogeneity of within-group error variances.  In most study conditions, Jones procedure only slightly outperformed MMR in terms of power.

106-3

Relative Importance of the Dimensions of Applicants Work Experience

Ann Arendell Adams, Rice University

Miguel A. Quiones, Rice University

A policy-capturing approach was employed to examine whether raters are sensitive to differences among job applicants on multiple dimensions of work experience.  Amount and type-based measures were most influential on decisions about five of six dependent variables.  Older applicants tended to receive lower ratings on all dependent variables.

106-4

Testing the Empirical Distinction Between Self-Efficacy,
Collective Efficacy, and Team Potency

Adam Meade, University of Georgia

Lillian T. Eby, University of Georgia

Self-efficacy, collective efficacy, and team potency are important predictors of team performance.  However, these constructs have been inconsistently measured and operationalized in previous research.  Confirmatory factor analysis illustrated that these constructs are empirically distinct, in addition to being theoretically distinct.  Implications for theory, research, and applied practice are discussed.


106-5

Mathematical and Theoretical Limits in the Search for Moderator Effects

William M. Rogers, Grand Valley State University

Much has been written of the difficulties in detecting moderator effects.  By deriving relationships among several important regression factors, and clarifying the nature of theoretical expectation, it is demonstrated that strong moderator effects are not being detected because they cannot mathematically exist at levels of predictability common in applied psychology.

106-6

An Application of Lightfoots Cross-Validation and
Internal Validation (CV*IV) Procedure

Brian Katz, HumRRO/George Washington University

Mary Ann Lightfoot, HumRRO

The present study tested Lightfoots cross-validation and internal validation (CV*IV) procedure for estimating cluster structures.  The CV*IV procedure was used to replicate a study which grouped entry-level Navy jobs using an exploratory clustering technique.  Differences in the results are examined in terms of the advantages of using a statistical clustering technique as opposed to an exploratory clustering procedure.

106-7

Analysis of Multitrait-Multimethod Data in Assessment Centers:
Methodological and Substantive Issues

Filip Lievens, University of Ghent, Belgium

James M. Conway, Central Connecticut State University

This study compares the performance of different SEM models applied to 24 assessment center MTMM matrices.  The correlated uniqueness model scored best in terms of fit and admissible solutions.  In this model dimension variance equaled exercise variance and was significantly influenced by number of dimensions, assessor type, and exercise similarity.

106-8

Effects of Advisor Agreement Trends and Background on Decision Making

Keith D. McCook, Louisiana State University

Timothy Buckley, U.S. Office of Personnel Management

The effects that ascending or descending conditions of agreement from advisors with different backgrounds have on participants advice-taking strategies were investigated.  Results indicated that people perceive advisors who agree with them early on and who are presented as more expert as more able, and take advice more from them.

106-9

Predicting Students Willingness to Join Unions:
Antiunion and Prounion Attitudes

David LaHuis, University of Connecticut

Steven Mellor, University of Connecticut

This study assessed the independence of antiunion and prounion attitudes in predicting students willingness to join unions (N = 1245).  Structural equation modeling results indicated that antiunion and prounion attitudes exhibited a moderate negative correlation and that both sets of attitudes significantly predicted willingness to join.


106-10

Policy Capturing: A Brief Tutorial

Lynda Aiman-Smith, North Carolina State University

Steven E. Scullen, North Carolina State University

Policy-capturing has been used in organizational research to determine what people find most important when they make decisions.  It has been difficult, however, for researchers to find advice on the proper approach to this research method.  This paper proposes a tutorial on designing, executing, interpreting, analyzing, and reporting policy-capturing research.

106-11

Establishing Anchors: An Evaluation of the Magnitude Estimation Technique

Anthony R. Paquin, Illinois Institute of Technology

Dana Moore, Illinois Institute of Technology/Ameritech

Maria L. Sanchez-Ku, Texas A & M University

The primary purpose of the study was to see if scale anchor values have changed over time.  Magnitude estimation was used to estimate scale values of 44 expressions of amount and 39 expressions of frequency.  Results were compared to Bass, Cascio, and OConnor (1974).  Significant differences and implications are discussed.

106-12

An Empirical Comparison of the Criterion-Related Validities of
Additive and Referent-Shift Operationalizations of Team Efficacy

Winfred E. Arthur, Texas A & M University

Maria L. Sanchez-Ku, Texas A & M University

Bryan Edwards, Texas A & M University

Dennis Gettman, U.S. Air Force Academy

Winston Bennett, Airforce Research Laboratory

The criterion-related validities of additive and referent-shift operationalizations of team efficacy were compared.  Data obtained from 63 dyadic teams trained to perform a complex perceptual motor skill task within a dyadic protocol showed that the referent-shift operationalization of team efficacy was a better predictor of team performance.

106-13

Are Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy Different? A Validation of Scales

David Zweig, University of Waterloo

Jane Webster, University of Waterloo

This paper describes the development of an instrument to measure the three factors of goal orientation as well as computer learning self-efficacy.  The results of exploratory factor, reliability, and confirmatory factor analysis suggest that the instrument operationalizes three separate factors of goal orientation that are distinct from computer learning self-efficacy.

106-14

Expectations, Voice, and Outcome: Framing Effects on
Perceptions of Fairness Judgments

Zinta S. Byrne, Colorado State University

Deborah E. Rupp, University of West Florida

We examined the effects of framing, outcome favorability, and voice (2x2x2) on perceptions of procedural, interactional, and distributive justice, using data from 286 undergraduates.  A negative framing with an unfavorable out-

come resulted in lower judgments of procedural and interactional justice.  A main effect for outcome, and an unexpected framing by voice interaction was revealed for distributive justice.

106-15

Estimating the Internal Consistency of a Conceptually Multidimensional Scale

Mark E. Tubbs, University of Missouri-St Louis

Debra Gilin, University of Missouri-St. Louis

Amit Geva, University of Missouri-St. Louis

Although coefficient alpha was designed for use with unidimensional scales, a review of recent literature indicates that it is also routinely used with multidimensional scales.  It is suggested that the internal consistency of multidimensional scales should be based on within-subdimension correlations, rather than on both within and between-subdimension correlations, as is the case when alpha is used in that context.  An alternative, more appropriate for use with multidimensional measures, is described and empirically compared with alpha to demonstrate the differential influence of interdimensional covariation on the two indices.

106-16

Effect of Item Placement on Faking a Personality Measure

Lynn A. McFarland, Michigan State University

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University

Aleks Ellis, Michigan State University

This study was conducted to determine if randomizing items that measure the same construct throughout a test, a procedure frequently followed with personality tests, results in less faking than when items are grouped together.  Results indicated that the grouped format was generally more fakable.  Additionally, scale reliabilities differed across formats.

106-17

Using Multifacet Rasch Analysis to Examine the Effectiveness of Rater Training

Casey Mulqueen, American Institutes for Research

David P. Baker, American Institutes for Research

P. Key Dismukes, NASA

Multifacet Rasch analysis was used to examine the effectiveness of rater training for individuals that are required to conduct end-of-training work performance evaluations.  The results are presented with emphasis on the additional information provided by this technique, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of this approach vis--vis other methods of analysis.

106-18

Modeling the Practical Effects of Applicant Reactions

Robert E. Ployhart, University of Maryland

Mark Ehrhart, University of Maryland

Research suggests improving applicant reactions can reduce subgroup test score differences but has not shown whether this will actually reduce adverse impact.  This Monte Carlo study suggests that across realistic levels of subgroup differences in test-taking motivation and selection ratios, enhancing test-taking motivation will not substantially reduce adverse impact.

106-19

A Meta-Analysis of Assessment Center Construct Validity

Marise Ph. Born, Vrije University-Amsterdam

Nanja J. Kolk, Vrije University-Amsterdam

Henk Van Der Flier, Vrije University-Amsterdam

The Assessment Center (AC) fails to demonstrate construct validity.  This study combines 25 AC construct validity studies into a meta-analysis to investigate whether efforts have resulted in improved construct validity.  Manipulations of AC attributes indeed result in better discriminant validity.  Convergent validity, however, is not affected.

106-20

Development and Preliminary Validation of a
Field Measure of Transactive Memory

Kyle Lewis, University of Texas at Austin

This study evaluated a field measure of transactive memory.  A 15-item measure was developed based on theory, and then preliminarily validated using statistical techniques.  Results provide evidence of a 3-factor structure (specialization, coordination, credibility), and a reliable measure.  Further, the measure was related to group communication, conflict (-), and performance.

106-21

Establishing Baserates for the Z3 and F2 Inappropriateness Indices

Steven R. Burnkrant, Virginia Tech

Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Tech

A simulation study was used to establish baserates for the Z3 and F2 inappropriateness indices for use with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.  Distortion estimates were unstable for theta values beyond 1.5 standard deviations, and neither index could distinguish between distortion rates of 25% or higher.

106-22

Biodata Item Attributes in Multiple Samples: Validity and Response Distortion

Sarah A. Stanley, University of Georgia

Janet E. Hecht, University of Georgia

Amy Montagliani, University of Georgia

Garnett S. Stokes, University of Georgia

Claudia R. Barroso, University of Georgia

O. Ragin Hause, University of Georgia

Maels (1991) taxonomy of biodata item attributes was examined.  Relationships between attributes and validity and attributes and response distortion were inconsistent across samples.  Results indicated that consistencies in validity were found only when criteria were divided into objective and subjective criteria.  Results for relationships with response distortion scales were mixed.

106-23

Modeling Performance Over Time

Michael J. Howard, Pennsylvania State University

Rick R. Jacobs, SHL

Traditional performance models take an implicitly static view of criteria.  Individual differences are assumed to have similar effects on performance independent of when criterion measures are taken.  This study uses multi-level modeling techniques to examine this issue.  Data suggest that validity coefficients change as individuals become proficient at a task.


106-24

A New Approach to Scoring Dynamic Decision-Making Performance on
High Fidelity Simulators: Reliability and Validity Issues

Gunnar Schrah, University of Illinois

Oleksandr Chernyshenko, University of Illinois

Michael R. Baumann, University of Illinois

Janet A. Sniezek, University of Illinois

Vadim Bulitko, University of Illinois

Scott Borton, University of Illinois

David C. Wilkins, University of Illinois

The increase in complexity of simulations creates a corresponding increase in the complexity of measuring individual performance.  This research describes the development of an Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based performance measure utilized in the DC-TRAIN 2.0 Damage Control Simulator, and a methodology by which to validate it.

106-25

Approximating ANCOVA Using the Welch-Aspin and Alexander (A) Procedures

William T. Robinson, Tulane University

William P. Dunlap, Tulane University

It has been shown that the Type I error rates for standard ANOVA as well as ANCOVA procedures are inadequate in the presence of unequal subgroup error variances, particularly when sample sizes are unequal.  The Welch-Aspin ANOVA procedure is modified to perform ANCOVA and shown to outperform standard procedures.

106-26

Applying Confirmatory Cross-Validation to the Development of Biodata Scales

Andrew L. Solomonson, Irwing & Browning, Inc.

Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) represents a useful step in psychometric scale development, in which scale structure is cross-validated using CFA of independent data.  This study demonstrates an application of the process to rationally and factorially developed biodata scales.  Results are compared across scale types and implications for construct validity are discussed.

106-27

Work Related Attitudes of Naval Officers Before and After Retirement

Kenneth S. Shultz, California State University-San Bernardino

Mary Anne Taylor, Clemson University

Robert F. Morrison, Navy Personnel Research and Development Center

Prospective and retrospective accounts are typically used in cross-sectional empirical studies of retirement.  Unfortunately little is known about the accuracy of these accounts.  Therefore, in the present study their consistency was assessed using data from 672 military retirees.  We found mixed evidence for the accuracy of these attitudes across time.

106-28

An Investigation of High Technology Survey Methods at Hewlett-Packard

Jennifer H. Frame, Colorado State University

James C. Beaty, Colorado State University

Research investigating the pros and cons of email and web-based survey techniques has not typically been directly applicable to surveys conducted on employees within organizations.  This study directly compared paper, email, and

web-based survey methodologies within an organization and found better response rates, speed, and satisfaction with electronic methods.

106-29

Ceilings on Validity: Exploring Potential Causes and Solutions

Jerel Slaughter, Bowling Green State University

The validity ceiling has long been recognized as a frustrating problem for I-O psychologists.  This paper reviews four categories of potential contributors to this problem: Criterion issues, predictor issues, situation effects, and methodological considerations.  Suggestions for research to explore potential solutions relevant to each category are discussed.

106-30

Person Negativity Bias? Commitment to People Versus
Objects within Escalation Dilemmas

Donald E. Conlon, Michigan State University

Henry Moon, Michigan State University

Within negatively framed situations, decision makers were found to be less committed to individuals than they were to objects.  Also, an interaction was found wherein individuals were less committed to than objects within low threat (gravity) situations.  These results are contrary to a person positivity bias found in the literature.

106-31

Interrater Agreement Reconsidered: The Role of Maximum Possible Variance

Reagan D. Brown, Western Kentucky University

Indices of interrater agreement do not adjust for the fact that a given variance is not equally meaningful across all scale means.  The concept of maximum possible variance at a scale mean is introduced along with revised formulas that allow for computation of interrater agreement without systematic over or underestimation.

106-32

A Qualitative Methodology for Integrating Cognitive Task Analyses Data

Donald E. Miles, University of South Florida

Kimberly A. Hoffman, University of South Florida

Lori L. Foster, East Carolina University

Thomas S. King, University of South Florida

Thomas R. Gordon, University of South Florida

Dawn L. Riddle, University of South Florida

Michael D. Coovert, University of South Florida

Linda R. Elliott, Veridian Engineering

Sam Schiflett, Air Force Research Laboratory

A qualitative meta-analysis was conducted to analyze functional teams within an Airborne Warning and Control Systems aircraft.  Behavioral and cognitive tasks were gleaned from various cognitive task analyses.  The tasks were sorted by two groups of subject matter experts into nine categories to develop an integrative model of team performance.

106-33

Exploiting the Data: A Rough Set Approach

Dawn L. Riddle, University of South Florida

Michael D. Coovert, University of South Florida

Thomas R. Gordon, University of South Florida

Thomas S. King, University of South Florida

Kimberly A. Hoffman, University of South Florida

Donald E. Miles, University of South Florida

Lori L. Foster, East Carolina University

Linda R. Elliott, Veridian Engineering

Sam Schiflett, Air Force Research Laboratory

Traditional statistical techniques have not been useful in handling complex data from dynamic command, control and communication (C3) environments.  Nevertheless, it is critical that we make effective decisions based on small samples of highly skilled personnel.  This paper introduces an alternative methodology capable of exploring data in the C3 environment.

106-34

An Empirical Examination of Artifact Distributions and
Availability in Meta-Analysis

Daniel J. Beal, Tulane University

This study examined the bias of the RBNL (1991) meta-analytic procedure using two realistic artifact distributions, and varied the percentage of reliability information, N, and K.  Results revealed relatively little bias for most situations, however, when r was large and K was small, large amount of bias were observed.

106-35

Information Search and Creative Problem Solving:

Effects of Personal Involvement

Jody J. Illies, University of Nebraska-Omaha

Roni Reiter-Palmon, University of Nebraska-Omaha

Research explored how to increase creative problem solving through information search behaviors and personal involvement.  Results revealed that high involvement due to the relevancy of a problem's outcome was beneficial to information search behaviors and creative problem solving whereas high involvement resulting from engagement of participants' values was detrimental.

106-36

The Effects of Stress on Creative Problem Solving

Lisa M. Kobe, University of Nebraska-Omaha

Roni Reiter-Palmon, University of Nebraska-Omaha

Little is known about the influence of stress on creative problem solving despite the expectation of creative solutions in today's stressful work environment.  Stress was found to be detrimental to the quantity but not the quality of solutions produced.

107. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 9:00 - 9:50                    Poydras A

Beyond Y2K: Technology-Based Recruiting and Assessment

Todays market conditions make the battle for talent a primary concern.  As a science, I-O psychology is supporting industrys need for high-powered tools capable of attracting, selecting, and retaining world-class employees.  This session will describe how I-O practitioners are utilizing the internet to deliver professional services.

Laura J. Shankster-Cawley, SHL, Chair

Helen Baron, SHL, John Austin, SHL, Psychometric Assessment Over the InternetOpportunities and

      Challenges
Brian D. Cawley, SHL, John E. Furcon, PricewaterhouseCoopers, LLP, Making the World a Little Smaller:

      International Recruiting via the Internet: A Case Study

Rich Baird, LAI TMP, Jurgen Bank, SHL, On-line Competency Assessment as Part of the Sourcing and Selection Strategy of a Midlevel Executive Search Firm: A Case Study

Coffee Break: Saturday, 10:00 10:30            Regency Foyer/French Market

 

108. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                Regency A

Critical Issues in Developing and Implementing
Organization-Wide HR Information Systems

HR professionals operating in todays fast-paced, competitive business environment have assumed new roles as management and organization consultants.  To carry out these roles, they need comprehensive HR information systems that provide workforce assessments real time. This forum describes some of the critical issues in developing and implementing such organization-wide systems.

Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, Chair

Cynthia A. Searcy, American Institutes for Research, Timothy P. McGonigle, American Institutes for Research, Karen Ury, American Institutes for Research, Wayne A. Baughman, American Institutes for Research, The Data Model: Decisions for Data Collection and Structuring

Donna M. Greenwood, Shippensburg University, Timothy Shea, American Institutes for Research, Gaining and Sustaining Organizational Support: Lessons Learned from a Socio-Technical Intervention

Joyce D. Mattson, American Institutes for Research, Nancy Matheson, American Institutes for Research, Robert P.  Michel, American Institutes for Research, Casey Mulqueen, American Institutes for Research, Cassandra Jessee, American Institutes for Research, Developing the System: Building the Descriptor Catalog and Obtaining Assessments

Sigrid B. Gustafson, American Institutes for Research, David W. Dorsey, Personnel Decisions Research Institute, Wayne A. Baughman, American Institutes for Research, Back to the Future: Validating an Organization-Wide HR Information System

109. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                             Regency B, C

Developing Complex Adaptive Skills: Individual- and
Team-Level Training Strategies

Jobs that demand complex adaptive knowledge and skills are increasingly prevalent, yet conventional training design approaches are poorly equipped to develop such skills.  This symposium presents research findings for theoretically based training strategies designed to develop complex adaptive knowledge and skills at the individual and team levels of analysis.

Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University, Chair

Stanley M. Gully, Rutgers University, Stephanie C. Payne, George Mason University, K. Lee Kiechel, George Mason University, Jon-Andrew Whiteman, Human Technology, Inc., The Impact of Error Training and Individual Differences on Training Outcomes: An Attribute-Treatment Interaction Perspective

Bradford S. Bell, Michigan State University, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University, Guiding

Michelle A. Marks, Florida International University, Mark Sabella, Florida International University, C. Shawn Burke, George Mason University, Stephen J. Zaccaro, George Mason University, A Two Sample Study of Cross-Training as a Strategy for Enhancing Team Effectiveness

Richard P. DeShon, Michigan State University, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University, Darin Wiechmann, Michigan State University, Karen R. Milner, Michigan State University, Cori A. Davis, Michigan State University, Aaron M. Schmidt, Michigan State University, Training and Developing Adaptive Performance in Teams and Individuals

C. Shawn Burke, George Mason University, Stephen J. Zaccaro, George Mason University, Leadership Effects on Team Adaptability: Implications for Leader and Team Training

110. Roundtable: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                               Regency F

Ask the Selection Experts

This session is designed to answer SIOP member questions.  Experts on personnel selection are available, as resources, to SIOP members to help members solve their own research and practice problems in the areas of personality testing, interviewing, cognitive ability assessment, biodata, adverse impact concerns, and methodological issues in selection.

Philip L. Roth, Clemson University, Host

Murray R. Barrick, Michigan State University, Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, Mark J. Schmit, Personnel Decisions, International, Personality

Allen I. Huffcutt, Bradley University, Tom T. Janz, Personnel Decisions International, Interviews

Michael A. McDaniel, Virginia Commonwealth University, Maynard Goff, Personnel Decisions International, Cognitive Abilities

Terry W. Mitchell, MPORT, Inc., Garnett S. Stokes, University of Georgia, Biodata

Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University, Fred S. Switzer, Clemson University, Methods Issues

Philip L. Roth, Clemson University, Jill E. Ellingson, Ohio State University, Adverse Impact

111. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                             Regency G, H

Specificity Versus Generality in Personality-Job Performance Linkages: Data Speak Louder than Words

Increasing appreciation for specificity in linking personality and job performance raises important questions regarding both constructs and situations in efforts to improve predictive validities.  Results of several studies are reported in support of the use of measures and situations that are more specific than those considered in traditional selection paradigms.

Joyce C. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Chair

Robert P. Tett, Wright State University, Jacquelyn R. Steele, University of Tulsa, Russell S. Beauregard, Wright State University, Broad and Narrow Measures on Both Sides of the Personality-Job Performance Relationship

David W. Anderson, Towers Perrin, Specificity in Linking Personality and Managerial Leadership: New Data on an Old Debate

Suzanne Farmer, Dell Computer Corporation, Neil D. Christiansen, Central Michigan University, Enhancing Criterion-Related Validity by Assessing Context-Specific Traits

Robert T. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Discussant

Rodney A. McCloy, HumRRO, Discussant

112. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                                   Cabildo A

Cross-Cultural I-O Psychology: Expanding Western Theories of Work Behavior

I-O Psychologists from several countries will examine theories that have been developed primarily in Western contexts (i.e., organizational commitment, conflict and negotiation, personality and performance, sexual harassment,

and role stress), and present theoretical and methodological developments that expand these theories to be more inclusive of other cultures around the globe. 

Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland, Chair

S. Arzu Wasti, Sabanci University, Istanbul, Culture Coded Commitment: A Turkish Example

Lisa H. Nishii, University of Maryland, Jana Raver, University of Maryland, Marianne Higgins, University of Maryland, Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland, Alexandria Dominguez, University of Maryland, Midori Toyama, Osaka University, Fumio Murakami, Osaka University, Culture and Negotiator Cognition: Self-Serving Biases in Negotiation in the U.S. and Japan

Harry Hui, University of Hong Kong, Kevin Cheng, University of Hong Kong, Gan Yiqun, Beijing University, Predicting Work Performance with a Contextual, Narrow-based Personality Questionnaire: The Chinese Experience

Lilia M. Cortina, Medical University of South Carolina, Louise F. Fitzgerald, University of Illinois, Fritz Drasgow, University of Illinois, Contextualizing Latina Experiences of Sexual Harassment: Preliminary Tests of a Structural Model

Lilach Sagiv, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Shalom Schwartz, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, A New Look at the Impact of National Culture on Organizations: Illustrative Applications to Role Stress

Miriam Erez, Technion, Discussant

113. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                                   Cabildo B

Competency Models and Emotional Intelligence: Are They Useful Constructs?

Issues in the definition and application of competency models and emotional intelligence will be addressed.  Opposing perspectives will be presented regarding the conceptualization, application, and validity of these two very popular concepts.  Practical issues in the definition and application of competency models and emotional intelligence, as well as implications for I-O psychologists, will be discussed.

Ronald C. Page, Page & Associates, Chair

Lyle Spencer, Spencer Research & Technology, Competencies: Developing Models for Superior Performance

Cary Cherniss, Rutgers University, Emotional Intelligence: What It Is and Why It Matters

Gerald V. Barrett, University of Akron/Barrett & Associates, Emotional Intelligence: The Madison Avenue Approach to Professional Practice

Ronald C. Page, Page & Associates, Competencies and Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Their Definition and Application

Wayne F. Cascio, University of Colorado, Graduate School of Business, Discussant

114. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                                   Cabildo C

The Effect of Team Composition on Team Process and Performance:
Whats the Mix? Whats the Measurement? Whats the Message?

This symposium focuses on the impact of team composition variables on team processes and outcomes.  The empirical studies involve a diversity of individual difference variables (gender, ability, experience, personality), team tasks (additive, conjunctive), methods of aggregation (mean, minimum), and research contexts (lab, field).  Theoretical, methodological, and practical issues are discussed.

Susan Mohammed, Pennsylvania State University, Chair

Dawn Burnett, Wright State University, Joan R. Rentsch, University of Tennessee, He Thinks, She Thinks: Sex Effects on Personality and Team Member Cognitions

Michael J. Stevens, University of Missouri-St. Louis, Robert G. Jones, Southwest Missouri State University, What Happens Between Composition and Performance: Team Role Taking Norms

Janice Langan-Fox, University of Melbourne, Sharon Code, University of Melbourne, Sean Bodar, University of Melbourne, Team Composition: Personality and Ability as Predictors of Team Performance

Susan Mohammed, Pennsylvania State University, John E. Mathieu, University of Connecticut, Bart Bartlett, Pennsylvania State University, Team Effectiveness, and Contextual Performance: Considering the Influence of Teamwork and Taskwork Composition Variables

Eric Sundstrom, University of Tennessee, Discussant

115. Special Event: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                            Poydras A

Cutting-Edge Web Applications: Preview and Discussion of
Recruitment, Selection, and Development Procedures

The field is calling for our tools and practices to move online because they want streamlined procedures, efficient data management, and HR realignment.  This session will preview live applications and provide useable information in response to these global issues.  A lively discussion concerning online HR applications will be facilitated.

Nathan J. Mondragon, DDI, Chair

Greg Jordan, graymattermedia, Inc., Strategic Recruitment on the World Wide Web: Importance, Overview, and Samples

Douglas H. Reynolds, DDI, Implementing a Web-Based Job Application and Screening System

Nathan J. Mondragon, DDI, Beyond Text-based Training: Interactive, Multimedia, Assessment and Development Modules Delivered Online

L. Allen Slade, Microsoft Corp, Discussant

116. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                      Poydras B

The State of Research and Practice in Creativity and
Innovation in Organizations

Practitioners and researchers have been concerned with the issue of creativity and innovation in organizations.  Panelist will discuss the current state of research and practice, identify coherent themes and emerging issues facing organizations, identify practices that help facilitate creativity and innovation in organizations, and discuss future trends.

Roni Reiter-Palmon, University of Nebraska-Omaha, Co-Chair

Michael West, University of Aston, Co-Chair

Michael D. Mumford, University of Oklahoma, Panelist

Greg R. Oldham, University of Illinois, Panelist

Katherine J. Klein, University of Maryland, Panelist

Christina E. Shalley, Georgia Institute of Technology, Panelist

Cameron M. Ford, University of Central Florida, Panelist

Richard W. Woodman, Texas A & M University, Panelist

117. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                                   Toulouse

On the Margins: Studying Neglected Populations in I-O Psychology

The population of respondents included in typical organizational studies is disproportionately male, white, affluent, and educated.  The investigation of neglected populations by I-O psychologists is important for theoretical and policy-related issues.  The papers in this symposium discuss four different populations that have received scant attention by organizational researchers.

Michael Zickar, Bowling Green State University, Chair

Michael Zickar, Bowling Green State University, Scott A. Davis, Ohio State University, Nightshift Workers: A Population Neglected by I-O Psychologists?

Virginia E. Schein, Gettysburg College, Researching Poor Women and Work: Outcomes and Opportunities

Kecia M. Thomas, University of Georgia, The African American Organizational Experience: A New Research Agenda

Michael Zickar, Bowling Green State University, The Experience of Multiple Jobholders

Jeanette N. Cleveland, Colorado State University, Discussant

118. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50               Elysian Fields

Academics in the Organization: Breaking into Field Research

Professors and students desiring to combine science and practice can participate in a discussion with research-practitioner panelists who describe how to overcome challenges associated with gaining entry into organizations, contracting with and engaging management, designing field studies, reporting findings, and making field research mutually beneficial for researchers and organization management. 

Andrea M. Markowitz, University of Baltimore, Chair

Richard A. Guzzo, William M. Mercer, Inc., Panelist

Paul M. Mastrangelo, University of Baltimore, Panelist

Lynn R. Offermann, George Washington University, Panelist

Nicholas L. Vasilopoulos, George Washington University, Panelist

119. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                                     Gentilly

What is Organization Development? An Overview of
Approaches, Tools, and Techniques for I-O Psychologists

While organization development (OD) is one of the most widely used frameworks for implementing organizational change, paradoxically, it is also one of the least understood fields by managers, executives and even I-O psychologists.  This session offers a variety of perspectives from scientist-practitioners for exploring OD research, tools, and techniques.

Janine Waclawski, W. Warner Burke Associates, Inc., Co-Chair

Allan H. Church, W. Warner Burke Associates, Inc., Co-Chair

Janine Waclawski, W. Warner Burke Associates, Inc., Allan H. Church, W. Warner Burke Associates, Inc.,

      Organization Development: A Data-Driven Process for Organization Improvement and Change

Vicki V. Vandaveer, The Vandaveer Group, Inc., OD and I-O: Art and Science in Global Organization

Karl W. Kuhnert, University of Georgia, Scott Mondore, University or Georgia, Using Survey Data to Drive

Bernardo M. Ferdman, California School of Professional Psychology, Erin Lockhart O'Connell, California School of Professional Psychology, Steven D. Jones, Jones & Associates Consulting, Diversity Initiatives and Organization Development

Kenneth L. Murrell, University of West Florida, Organization Development and Change: Appreciative Inquiry and Workplace Spirit

W. Warner Burke, Teachers College, Columbia University, Discussant

120. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                                     Audubon

Employee-Employer Reciprocity: Within and Beyond the
Employment Relationship

This interactive symposium explores the role of reciprocity in shaping individual attitudes and behaviors through repeated employer-employee interactions occurring prior to, during, and possibly beyond the employment relationship.  We examine the nature and consequences of reciprocal actions as it applies to organizational entry, the psychological contract, socialization, tenure, and organizational exit.

Joel H. Neuman, SUNY-New Paltz, Co-Chair

Jacqueline Coyle-Shapiro, London School of Economics, Co-Chair

Jacqueline Coyle-Shapiro, London School of Economics, Ian Kessler, University of Oxford, Exploring

Neil Conway, Birkbeck College, University of London, Rob B. Briner, Birkbeck College, University of London, Employee Reactions to Transgressed Psychological Contracts: A Daily Diary Study

Kristin B. Backhaus, SUNY-New Paltz, The Give-and-Take of Fitting in: Reciprocity and Organizational

Joel H. Neuman, SUNY-New Paltz, The Role of Reciprocity in Both Pro- and Anti-Socialization of the Workforce

Steven Blader, New York University, Tom R. Tyler, New York University, Beyond Reciprocity: The Role of  Relationship Orientation in Explaining Cooperative Organizational Behavior

121. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                              Carrollton

Business Necessity: Can Employment Standards be Higher than Minimum?

Legal and psychometric issues addressed: regulatory support for relative qualifications in Uniform Guidelines; the conflicted; relative qualifications; legislative history of the CRA 1991; court trends interpreting; business necessity; the linearity of cognitive and physical employment constructs; and psychometric implications for both the practice of, and the science underlying industrial psychology.

James C. Sharf, Sharf and Associates, Chair

James C. Sharf, Sharf and Associates, Regulatory Requirements and Legislation Addressing Relative Qualifications

Ronald A. Schmidt, Thelen Reid & Priest, The Legislative History of Business Necessity in the Civil Rights Act of 1991

Keith M. Pyburn, McCalla Thompson, The Precedent of Case Law Trends Addressing Business Necessity

Frank L. Schmidt, University of Iowa, Fallacious Psychometric Reasoning Required to Justify a Minimum Cut Score

Mary L. Tenopyr, Consultant, Minimum Standards Will Further Distance Practitioners from the Science

122. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                              Esplanade C

Conceptual and Methodological Advances in Research on
Fit, Similarity, and Agreement

Fit, similarity, and agreement are fundamental to numerous areas of research, such as met expectations, person-organization fit, self-other agreement, and psychological contracts.  This symposium draws together research from these areas, highlighting conceptual advances and illustrating analytical techniques that overcome problems with commonly used methods (e.g., difference scores, profile similarity indices).

Jeffrey R. Edwards, University of North Carolina, Chair

Greg Irving, Wilfrid Laurier University, Overcoming Methodological Limitations in Met Expectations Research: The Use of Polynomial Regression Analysis

Lisa Schurer Lambert, University of North Carolina, Jeffrey R. Edwards, University of North Carolina, Daniel M. Cable, University of North Carolina, An Exploration of the Cognitive Comparisons Leading to Breach in the Psychological Contract

Francis J. Yammarino, SUNY-Binghamton, Leanne E. Atwater, Arizona State University West, Self-Other

Jeffrey R. Edwards, University of North Carolina, Daniel M. Cable, University of North Carolina, Ian O. Williamson, University of North Carolina, The Phenomenology of Fit: Linking the Person and Environment to the Subjective Experience of Fit


123. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                         Delgado

How to Get a Job: The Experts Share Their Secrets

This panel discussion provides both academic and applied job search advice.  Panelists will offer tips and pointers on how to develop effective job hunting survival skills.  Additionally, the session provides a unique opportunity for the audience to learn about behind the scenes occurrences that directly influence employers selection decisions.

Lori L. Foster, East Carolina University, Co-Chair

Dawn L. Riddle, University of South Florida, Co-Chair

Steven D. Ashworth, Sempra Energy, Panelist

Ann Howard, DDI, Panelist

Allen I. Kraut, Baruch College/Kraut Associates, Panelist

Gary P. Latham, University of Toronto, Panelist

Cynthia Kay Stevens, University of Maryland, Panelist

124. Poster Session: Saturday, 11:00 - 12:20                French Market

Job Analysis, Performance, Training, and Pay

124-1

The Effectiveness of Computer-Assisted-Instruction for
Adult Learners: A Meta-Analysis

Scott Shadrick, Western Kentucky University

A meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of Computer-Assisted-Instruction (CAI) on learning outcomes for adults.  Overall CAI was significantly more effective than traditional instruction (avg. r  = .119).  Moderator analysis showed learning gains could be attributed to poor design quality.  The effectiveness of CAI after controlling for design quality was 0.045.

124-2

The Effect of Organizational Factors on Intended Rating Behavior

Laura E. Thomas Davis, Jeanneret & Associates, Inc.

A conceptual model was developed to examine the relationship between intended rating behavior and rater perceptions of the appraisal process.  Results indicated that perceptions of appraisal characteristics; the purpose of the appraisal; rewards, consequences, and trust in the system: the supervisor-subordinate relationship; and organizational variables significantly influenced intended rating behavior.

124-3

Rating Effects Based on Candidate Race and Interview Panel Composition

Katherine A. Jackson, Center for Business & Economic Development

John G. Veres, Center for Business & Economic Development

Assessor rating panels of varying racial compositions were formed to assess candidates videotaped responses.  It was expected that (a) assessors would give more favorable ratings to candidates of the same race as the assessor and (b) interview scores would differ as a function of racial composition of the panel.


124-4

Employee and Supervisor Perceptions of a Performance Appraisal System

David Mohr, Bowling Green State University

Shahnaz Aziz, Bowling Green State University

Jerel Slaughter, Bowling Green State University

Derek A. Steinbrenner, Bowling Green State University

Michael Zickar, Bowling Green State University

Employee and supervisor attitudes toward components of a performance appraisal system were measured using a scale developed for this study.  Unidimensional scales measuring these attitudes predicted satisfaction with the system and, to a limited extent, supervisor compliance with the performance appraisal format.

124-5

The RCMP Promotion System: Performance Appraisal of
Behavior-Based Competencies

Victor M. Catano, Saint Mary's University

Catherine Campbell, Royal Canadian Mounted Police

Wendy Darr, Saint Mary's University

A new performance appraisal system, developed for promotions in the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, fairly differentiated among candidates.  Members (N=6500) illustrated their performance on core competencies with behavioral examples.  Supervisors and then review boards used a BARS procedure to reliably rate performance.  Both candidates and supervisors supported the system.

124-6

g-Based Optimal Pairing Strategies in a Team Training Protocol

Winfred E. Arthur, Texas A & M University

Travis C. Tubre, Texas A & M University

Amber Hanson, Texas A & M University

Winston Bennett, Air Force Research Laboratory

Cognitive ability (g) was used, on an a priori basis, to create high-, low-, and mixed-ability teams that were trained to perform a complex perceptual motor skill task within a dyadic protocol.  Performance differences at the team level were examined as a function of team ability.

124-7

Effects of Upward Ratings on Subsequent Downward Ratings

Denise Haeggberg, Ohio University

Peter Y. Chen, Liberty Mutual Research Center

The effects of upward ratings on subsequent downward ratings under anonymous and non-anonymous conditions were investigated in a team decision-making simulation.  It was found that leaders reciprocated the upward ratings.  Furthermore, the reciprocation of the upward ratings was pervasive under the non-anonymous condition, compared to that under the anonymous condition.


124-8

Job Task Analysis: An IRT Application

Betty A. Bergstrom, Computer Adaptive Technologies

David Blitz, Computer Adaptive Technologies

Job task analyses provide a link between performance on the job and examination content.  This paper describes a methodology that utilizes item response theory to place job task analysis data on an equal interval scale that allows for quantitative comparisons between tasks and provides a method for quantifying a test blueprint.

124-9

An Examination of the Stability of Team Performance

Ronald S. Landis, Tulane University

Studies of the stability of individual task performance over repeated trials have generally produced the phenomenon known as the superdiagonal stability, or simplex, matrix.  Using archival performance data from professional basketball teams, the current study demonstrates that the superdiagonal matrix also exists, in a modified state, at the team level.

124-10

The Personality-Contextual Performance Relationship in
Strong Versus Weak Situations

James C. Beaty, Colorado State University

Jeanette N. Cleveland, Colorado State University

Kevin R. Murphy, Colorado State University

This study investigated the extent to which the strength of behavioral cues for task and contextual performance moderate the relationship between personality and contextual performance.  Results from a laboratory and field study indicated that personality-contextual performance correlations varied across situations that had different cues and expectations for performance.

124-11

Defining Dimensions of Performance for Special Forces Soldiers

Tara D. Carpenter, U.S. Army Research Institute

Michelle M. Zazanis, U.S. Army Research Institute

Robert N. Kilcullen, U.S. Army Research Institute

Performance ratings for Special Forces soldiers were analyzed to minimize statistical overlap in the performance dimensions.  Ratings were grouped using factor analysis, then cluster analysis was used to further identify subgroups.  Results suggest a six-dimension solution: Reasoning Skills, Facility with Others, General Soldiering, Effort, Physical Fitness, and Intercultural Skills.

124-12

Decoupling Elements of Negative Feedback: Credibility,
Accuracy and Interactional Justice

Marcus M. Stewart, University of Georgia

Quinetta M. Roberson, Cornell University

Contrary to the predictions of goal and control theories, empirical investigations of negative feedback suggest that recipients regard negative feedback as inaccurate and experience decreased motivation as a result.  The present field study establishes a link between negative feedback and behavior and highlights the roles of source credibility, feedback accuracy, and interactional justice in the feedback process.

124-13

Contrast Versus Assimilation Effects: Rating Versus
Not Rating Previous Performance?

Janice Bajor, Wayne State University

Sebastiano A. Fisicaro, Wayne State University

Research has suggested that, in rating current job performance, contrast effects occur if previous performance was viewed and rated, whereas assimilation effects occur if previous performance was viewed but not rated.  The present investigation obtained evidence for contrast, but not assimilation effects.  A novel hypothesis regarding context effects is presented.

124-14

Performance Evaluation: Assimilation Effects,
Rater Self-Esteem, and Rating Experience

Karen Jagatic, Wayne State University

Sebastiano A. Fisicaro, Wayne State University

Participants received information regarding a lecturer's previous performance (good or poor) prior to viewing and rating a videotape of an average lecture.  Participants completed measures of self-esteem and rating experience.  Results revealed assimilation effects for both performance conditions, which decreased as self-esteem increased, but did not vary with rating experience.

124-15

Designing Diversity Training: Influence of
Group Composition and Trainee Experience

Loriann Roberson, Arizona State University

Carol T. Kulik, Arizona State University

Molly Pepper, Arizona State University

Despite the popularity of diversity training in corporate America, the lack of systematic evaluation has left managers with little guidance on how to design programs.  This research examines how group demographics and trainee experience interact to enhance diversity training.  Findings indicate that heterogeneous groups are not essential to effective training.

124-16

Self-Ratings in Training Programs: Level of Performance and Feedback

Sally A. Carless, Monash University

Geoff P. Roberts-Thompson, Monash University

This study examined level of agreement (mean differences and correlations) between self, peer and training staff ratings; accuracy of ratings by (a) comparing the mean ratings of outstanding, average and below-average performers, and (b) correlating difference scores with a measure of performance; and the effects of negative feedback on self-perceptions.

124-17

The Quality-Quantity Relationship: A Multidimensional Approach

Miriam T. Nelson, Assessment Solutions, Inc.

Clifford R. Jay, Assessment Solutions, Inc.

Seymour Adler, Assessment Solutions, Inc.

 

The relationship between customer service quality and productivity measures of performance was analyzed.  Calls for 362 customer service representatives of a cellular phone company were monitored.  A positive relationship was found between communication skills and quantity, and a tradeoff was found between problem-solving focus and quantity.

124-18

Applying the Social Relations Model to Evaluations in Team Settings

Chet Robie, University of Houston

Gary J. Greguras, Louisiana State University

Marise Ph. Born, Vrije University-Amsterdam

We used Kennys (1994) social relations model (SRM) to examine self and peer performance evaluations in team settings.  The social relations model is described and then used to analyze a data set from 14 groups of students (N = 59) who completed performance ratings of themselves and the other group members.

124-19

A Comparison of Managerial Effectiveness Models Across Four Rating Sources

Jeffrey D. Facteau, Auburn University

Wendy Gradwohl Smith, Auburn University

Between-source disagreements in performance ratings may occur when different rater groups define effectiveness differently.  We examined the performance models used by self, peer, superior, and subordinate raters and found important differences in the effectiveness models they employed.  We discuss the implications of our results for both theory and practice.

124-20

Individual Difference Variables as Predictors of Training Motivation

Michael S. Cole, Auburn University

Wendy Gradwohl Smith, Auburn University

Stanley G. Harris, Auburn University

Research suggests the need to identify a larger set of individual differences that predict training motivation.  Using a change-oriented measure of training motivation, results showed that learning goal orientation and positive affectivity predicted training motivation.  In addition, leadership self-schema explained incremental variance in training motivation after other variables were controlled.

124-21

Interdisciplinary Contributions to Strategic Work Modeling

Matthew Barney, Motorola University

An approach based on Schippmanns (1999) Cheshire Strategic Job Modeling technique is proposed as an alternative to traditional job analysis or competency modeling.  Frameworks from industrial engineering, accounting, Russian engineering, cognitive science and instructional design are integrated into an analytic method of defining work and worker attributes toward realizing organizational goals.

124-22

Organizational Context and Merit Pay

Cynthia J. Maahs, U.S. Office of Personnel Management

Christelle La Police, U.S. Office of Personnel Management

The current study examined the impact of merit pay systems on employee attitudes.  Approximately 3,800 employees covered by a merit pay system were surveyed over two time periods.  Regression analyses indicated pay-for-performance perceptions impacted three employee attitudes.  Also, two organizational context variables were found to predict pay-for-performance perceptions.

124-23

Is a Raters Opportunity To Observe Over-rated? A Test of the
Effects of Observational Opportunity on Rater Agreement

James R. Van Scotter, University of Memphis

Robert P. Steel, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Two studies examined the influence of raters opportunity to observe ratees performance on the agreement among ratings.  Two supervisors rated the job performance of (N = 254 and N = 303) Air Force enlistees.  Both studies showed opportunity to observe correlated weakly with rater agreement (i.e., rs = -.11 and .12).

124-24

MultiRater Agreement on Leaders Performance:

Gender, Self-monitoring, and Organizations Type

Eleni Speron, Ameritech/Illinois Institute of Technology

Roya Ayman, Illinois Institute of Technology

Karen Korabik, University of Guelph

The level of agreement between Canadian men and women leaders self-ratings and their subordinates ratings of their performance was examined using two methods to calculate agreement.  Results showed that agreement varied as a function of the leaders gender and self-monitoring style and the type of organization.

124-25

Learning From Our Mistakes: Error Management Training for Mature Learners

Kelly A. Chillarege, Illinois State University

Cynthia R. Nordstrom, Illinois State University

Karen B. Williams, Illinois State University

Valeri Farmer-Dougan, Illinois State University

Sixty-seven trainees (age 40-80 years) participated in one of four computer training programs (error management/learning goal; error management/performance goal; error avoidant/learning goal; error avoidant/performance goal).  Results indicated beneficial effects for both error management training and learning goals including enhanced performance, increased learning, and requests for assistance and higher intrinsic motivation.

124-26

The effects of source attributes on feedback seeking: A field study

Henry F. Thibodeaux, University of Southern Mississippi

Jeffrey D. Kudisch, University of Southern Mississippi

This field study replicates Vancouver and Morrisons (1995) work on the effects of source attributes on feedback-seeking and integrates it with the LMX literature.  Source attributes (referent, reward & expert power; accessibility) varied with group status.  While in-group members used more inquiry; there was no difference in use of monitoring.

124-27

Factors Associated with Willingness to Participate in Upward Feedback

Austin Smith, University of Southern Mississippi

Jeffrey D. Kudisch, University of Southern Mississippi

Henry F. Thibodeaux, University of Southern Mississippi

Factors associated with willingness to participate in an upward feedback system were examined.  Participation was negatively related to fear of retaliation, and positively related to role appropriateness, perceived benefits, rating ability, in-group status, knowledge of upward feedback, organizational support, sex, and feedback-seeking.  The relative importance of predictors was also examined.

124-28

Rewarding Good citizens: The Relationship Between
Citizenship Behavior, Gender, and Organizational Rewards

Tammy D. Allen, University of South Florida

The relationship between organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and two organizational rewards, salary and promotion, was examined.  Employee gender was also tested as a moderator.  Findings indicated OCB was related to promotions and gender was a moderator.  Specifically, the relationship between OCB and promotion was stronger for males than for females.

124-29

Comparison of Self- and Other-Ratings of Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Henry Phillips, University of Houston

John W. Wilson, University of Houston

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston

Self- (employed undergraduate) and other- (supervisor or coworker) reports of five OCB scales were compared in latent variable models using data from 174 dyads.  A five factored structure fit a two-group confirmatory model, and latent variances appeared similar, but loadings differed across groups.

124-30

Choice Shift in Performance Appraisals: The Validation of Doubt Hypothesis

D. Apryl Rogers, Jeanneret & Associates

Jerry N. Lackey, Stephen F. Austin State University

The effects of group discussion on performance ratings and confidence in ratings is examined.  Group discussion led to decreases in individual ratings, regardless of the nature of information exchanged.  Also found was a trend toward increased confidence in ratings when groups were allowed full discussion.

124-31

Effects of Training Method and Goal Orientation on Training Errors

Richard Perlow, Clemson University

Mary Ann Hooten, Clemson University

We studied the effects of error-based training and goal orientation constructs on performance errors.  Trainees receiving error-based training made fewer commission errors and more omission errors than trainees receiving standard training.  People higher in performance orientation made fewer omission errors than trainees lower in performance orientation.

124-32

Relationships Among Context, Goal Orientation, and
Self-Efficacy on Performance and Feedback-Seeking

Myungho Moon, University of Akron

Paul E. Levy, University of Akron

Goal orientation has received little attention in the feedback-seeking area.  This study investigated the effects of goal orientation and self-efficacy on feedback seeking and performance in

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