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81. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:00 9:50                Grande Ballroom A (E)

A Critical Examination of Zero-Tolerance Policies in the Workplace

In the wake of costly sexual harassment scandals and recent Supreme Court decisions, the concept of zero tolerance has been widely advocated.  Yet, little is known about its effectiveness or liabilities.  This interdisciplinary panel takes a critical view of zero tolerance and explores other strategies for effectively ending and preventing workplace sexual harassment and discrimination.

Margaret S. Stockdale, Southern Illinois UniversityCarbondale, Chair

Susan Bisom-Rapp, Thomas Jefferson School of Law, Panelist

Jane Goodman-Delahunty, U.S. Equal Opportunity Commission, Panelist

Barbara A. Gutek, University of Arizona, Panelist

Freada Klein, Klein and Associates, Panelist

Maureen OConnor, John Jay College of Criminal Justice, Panelist

82. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 9:50                           Grande Ballroom B (E)

Leaders of Diverse Work Groups: Understanding the Challenges
and Exploring Strategies for Success

Current research findings will be presented that highlight four major challenges facing leaders of diverse work groups: managing perceptions of diversity initiatives, managing cultural differences in work groups, developing multicultural competence, and understanding leadership in different cultures.  Data-driven recommendations for overcoming such challenges will be discussed.

Donna Chrobot-Mason, University of ColoradoDenver, Chair

Lori Anderson, Colorado State University, George C. Thornton, Colorado State University, Jeanette N. Cleveland, Pennsylvania State University, Support for Affirmative Action Initiatives among Diverse Groups: The Role of Ethnic Identity

Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University of Central Florida, Dianna L. Stone, University of Central Florida, Eduardo Salas, University of Central Florida, Mark Hartman, University of Central Florida, Elizabeth J. Muniz, University of Central Florida, Differences in the Work-Related Values and Behaviors of Hispanic-Americans and Anglo-Americans  

Donna Chrobot-Mason, University of ColoradoDenver, Developing Multicultural Competence to Improve Cross-Race Work Relationships  

Melenie J. Lankau, University of Georgia, Beth G. Chung, San Diego State University, A Comparison of American and International Prototypes of Successful Managers

Robert L. Dipboye, Rice University, Discussant

Bernardo M. Ferdman, California School of Professional Psychology, Discussant

83. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 9:50                                  Harbor Island I (E)

Expanding Turnover Research: Exploring Individual, Group,
and Organizational Linkages

The record high employment level and booming economy are putting increased pressure on organizations to retain their employees.  New lines of research on turnover and retention are presented from several vantage points: individual, group, and organizational levels.  While bridging across these levels, issues relevant to both theory and practice are represented.

James D. Westaby, Columbia University Teachers College, Co-Chair

Wendy L. Richman-Hirsch, William M. Mercer, Inc., Co-Chair

Thomas W. Lee, University of Washington, Terence R. Mitchell, University of Washington, Why People Stay: More on Job Embeddedness

Alain R. Salamin, University of Lausanne, Peter W. Hom, Arizona State University, Cross-Cultural Test of the Curvilinear Performance-Turnover Relationship: The Case of Swiss Bank Personnel

James D. Westaby, Columbia University Teachers College, John M. Perez, Columbia University, Using Accessible Reason Constructs to Gain New Insight into Turnover Processes

Naomi G. Dyer, University of Maryland, William P. Sipe, University of Maryland, Luis F. Parra, William M. Mercer, Inc., Richard A. Guzzo, William M. Mercer, Inc., Dynamics of Diversity: Consequences of the Changing Composition of Workgroups on Turnover

Douglas W. Dwyer, William M. Mercer, Inc., Wendy L. Richman-Hirsch, William M. Mercer, Inc., Stefan Gaertner, William M. Mercer, Inc., Making the Business Case: The Impact of Turnover and Intent to Quit on
Business Performance

Joseph G. Ross, University of Colorado, Discussant

84. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 9:20                                 Harbor Island II (E)

Integrating Image and Fit in Applicant Attraction Research

The likelihood that an individual will apply to an organization is related to the overall image that the potential applicant holds of the company and the compatibility between the individual and organization (P-O fit). This symposium contributes to applicant attraction research by integrating P-O fit and various conceptualizations of image.

Jerel Slaughter, Louisiana State University, Chair

Cynthia Kay Stevens, University of Maryland, Lisa Dragoni, University of Maryland, Christopher Collins, Cornell University, Familiarity, Organizational Images, and Perceived Fit as Antecedents to the Application Decisions of New Graduates

Jerel Slaughter, Louisiana State University, Michael Zickar, Bowling Green State University, Scott Highhouse, Bowling Green State University, David Mohr, Bowling Green State University, Derek A. Steinbrenner, Cambria Consulting, Jimmie K. OConnor, Bowling Green State University, Personality Trait Inferences About Organizations: Development of a Measure and Tests of the Congruence Hypothesis

Christine Scheu, Michigan State University, Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Achieving Recruitment Goals: Applying What We Know About Person-Organization Fit Across a Range of Recruitment Image

Annelies Van Vianen, University of Amsterdam, Agneta H. Fischer, University of Amsterdam, Person-Culture Fit: Attractiveness of Top Management Positions for Women

Daniel M. Cable, University of North Carolina, Discussant

Michele E. A. Jayne, Ford Motor Company, Discussant

85. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:00 9:20                  Harbor Island III (E)

Is There a Role for Strategic Evaluation in I-O Interventions?

Strategic evaluation assesses the effectiveness and utility of organizational programs against business strategy and desired outcomes. This practitioner forum is designed to share the nature and value of strategic evaluation with I-O practitioners, arguing that evaluation of this type is beneficial and essential to I-O psychology. Discussant Michael Campion will respond in what we expect to be an enlightening exchange of ideas.

Jennifer W. Martineau, Center for Creative Leadership, Chair

Dale S. Rose, 3D Group, If We Dont Evaluate Our Work, Who Will?

Jennifer W. Martineau, Center for Creative Leadership, Value Added: Evaluations Contribution to I-O Interventions

Jeanne Carsten, Chase Manhattan Bank, Realizing the Benefits of Strategic Evaluation in the New Economy

Steven D. Jones, Middle Tennessee State University, Translating Business Strategy into Performance Measures: A Tool or an Evaluation?

Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Discussant

86. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 9:50                                             Marina 2 (E)

Modern Analytic Techniques in the Study of 360-Degree Performance Ratings

Sophisticated methods are increasingly being used to evaluate the psychometric properties of 360-degree performance ratings. This symposium will demonstrate the use of IRT, CFA, and RWG to elucidate rater and source effects; IRT sampling requirements; and how Differential Item Functioning may be expected due to contextual complexity.

Robert B. Kaiser, Kaplan DeVries Inc., Co-Chair

S. Bartholomew Craig, Kaplan DeVries Inc., Co-Chair

James M. LeBreton, University of TennesseeKnoxville, Jennifer R. D. Burgess, University of TennesseeKnoxville, E. Kate Atchley, University of TennesseeKnoxville, Robert B. Kaiser, Kaplan DeVries Inc.,
Lawrence R. James, University of TennesseeKnoxville, True or False?: Different Sources of Performance Ratings Dont Agree

Rachel S. Tears, Auburn University, Ryan Shaemus OLeary, Auburn University, Jeffrey D. Facteau, Auburn University, Do Rating Sources Matter?  A Replication of Mount, Judge, Scullen, Sytsma, and Hezlett (1998)

Michael A. Barr, Illinois Institute of Technology, Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, IRT-Based Assessments of Rater Effects in Multiple Source Feedback Instruments

S. Bartholomew Craig, Kaplan DeVries Inc., Robert B. Kaiser, Kaplan DeVries Inc., Violating the Independent Observations Assumption in IRT-Based Analyses of 360-Degree Instruments: Can We Get Away With It?

Jim Penny, Center for Creative Leadership, DIF as a Natural Consequence: Maybe Some Clouds Do Have a
 Silver Lining

Francis J. Yammarino, SUNYBinghamton, Discussant

87. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 9:50                                             Marina 5 (E)

Person Perception in Organizations: The Heart and Mind of I-O Psychology

Person perception is the heart of many I-O psychology-based organizational processes. Presenters offer a model of person perception and then explore issues of social cognition and interpersonal judgment in employment interviews, assessment centers, promotion decisions, and executive coaching. Methods for enhancing interpersonal judgment in organizations are discussed.

Manuel London, SUNYStony Brook, Chair

Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, Lisa M. Donahue, George Mason University, Person Perception in Organizations: Basic Theory and Research

Charles K. Parsons, Georgia Tech, Robert C. Liden, University of IllinoisChicago, Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University, Person Perception in Employment Interviews

Valerie Sessa, Center for Creative Leadership, Perceptual Processes in Promotion Decisions

Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota, Kathleen Tuzinski, University of Minnesota, The Role of Dimensions and Exercises in Assessment Centers

James W. Smither, LaSalle University, Susanne P. Reilly, Right-Manus Consulting, Person Perception in
Executive Coaching Relationships

Milton D. Hakel, Bowling Green State University, Discussant

88. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 9:50                                             Marina 6 (E)

Understanding EmployeeOrganization Relationships:
Exchange Processes, Violation, and Psychological Contracts

The past decade has seen a growing interest in understanding the changing employment relationship.  This symposium presents new research addressing the measurement of exchange processes, factors underlying the development of employeeorganization exchanges, the effects of exchanges, and the impact of failure of organizations and employees to fulfill their obligations. 

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston, Co-Chair

Lynn M. Shore, Georgia State University, Co-Chair

Lynn M. Shore, Georgia State University, Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston, Sandy J. Wayne, University of Illinois at Chicago, William H. Bommer, Georgia State University, The Role of Social and Economic
Between Employees and Organizations

Neta Moye, University of Maryland, Kathryn M. Bartol, University of Maryland, Re-Framing the Psychological Contract: Social Exchange-Based Dimensions and Their Relationship to Identification and Performance

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston, Lynn M. Shore, Georgia State University, William H. Bommer, Georgia State University, Sandy J. Wayne, University of IllinoisChicago, Effects of Perceptions of Employers Failure to Keep their Promises: An Application of ELVN-P

Kyle Lewis, University of TexasAustin, M. Susan Taylor, University of Maryland, Reciprocity from the Organizations Side: How Manager-Agents React to Employee Psychological Contract Breach

Denise M. Rousseau, Carnegie Mellon University, Discussant

89. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 9:50                                           Spinnaker (E)

Soft Factors in a Soft Area: Emotions in Service Encounters

We assume that service encounters are mainly driven by emotions and therefore will ask: Which emotions matter in different service environments?  How emotions are exchanged in service-providerclient-interactions? How can we explain the (un-)pleasantness of the power dimension? What is the relationship between managers personalities and service atmosphere?

Avraham N. Kluger, Hebrew UniversityJerusalem, Chair

Michael Frese, University of GiessenGermany, Chair

Avraham N. Kluger, Hebrew UniversityJerusalem, Anat Rafaeli, TechnionIsrael Institute of Technology, Can Happiness Be Bad for Business?

Angelo Giardini, University of GiessenGermany, Michael Frese, University of GiessenGermany, Affective
Complementarity in Service Interactions

Varda Wasserman, Hebrew UniversityJerusalem, Avraham N. Kluger, Hebrew UniversityJerusalem, Power-Related Emotions Expressed Towards Aesthetics of Service Organizations

Seth Hayes, University of Maryland, Mina Huang, University of Maryland, Amy N. Salvaggio, University of Maryland, Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland, Manager Personality and Climate for Service

David E. Bowen, Thunderbird, Discussant

90. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:00 9:50       Bel Aire Ballroom North (W)

I-O Psychologists in Organizations: Making a Difference, Gaining Respect

Is it true that I-O psychologists dont get no respect? This panel will examine ways in which I-O psychologists can gain influence and respect as practitioners in a variety of organizations, private and public, without losing their I-O identity.  Implications for education and training will be included.

Lynn R. Offermann, George Washington University, Chair

Marilyn K. Gowing, U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Panelist

Laurie A. Broedling, LB Organizational Consulting, Panelist

Jeffrey J. McHenry, Microsoft Corporation, Panelist

Mirian M. Graddick-Weir, AT&T, Panelist

Irwin L. Goldstein, University of Maryland, Panelist

91. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 9:50                           Grande Ballroom C (E)

Stress, Integrated Health and Well-Being in a Global Work Context

This symposium extends psychologys concern for stress, health, and well-being.  Four presentations consider new research on the happy/productive worker, a Mind-Body Disequilibrium (MBD) homeopathic model of integrated health, the benefits of organizational commitment on worker health, and offers guidelines for stress and coping in a global work context.

James Campbell Quick, University of Texas at Arlington/U.S. Air Force Reserve, Co-Chair

Joanne H. Gavin, University of Texas at Arlington,

Thomas A. Wright, University of NevadaReno, Laurie G. Larwood, University of NevadaReno, A Further Look at the Happy/Productive Worker Thesis

W. John Diamond, Triad Medical Center, The Contribution of the Workplace to Mind/Body Dysfunction

Russell S. Cropanzano, Colorado State University, J. Ragan Ward, Colorado State University, Patricia A. Aloise-Young, Colorado State University, Organizational Commitment, Worker Health, and Life Satisfaction: An Identity Theory Approach

Rabi S. Bhagat, University of Memphis, Stress and Health in Organizational Contexts: An International Perspective

92. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:30 9:50                               Seabreeze (E)

Going Postal: The Truth About Violence in the Postal Service

A comprehensive, independent study of violence in the U.S. Postal Service and USPSs efforts to prevent violence and improve the work environment are presented. The discussion addresses the most extensive examination of workplace violence ever conducted, as well as an innovative dispute resolution process in the United States second largest employer.

Richard D. Arvey, University of Minnesota, Chair

Naomi Goldstein, U.S. Postal Service, Panelist

Laree Martin, U.S. Postal Service, Panelist

Suzanne Milton, U.S. Postal Service, Panelist

Ann M. Quigley, U.S. Postal Service, Panelist

93. Poster Session: Saturday, 8:30 9:50                                Exhibit Hall (E)

Teams, Leadership, and Conflict


The Conflict Dynamics Profile: A Multirater Behavioral Measure Of Conflict

Mark H. Davis, Eckerd College

Sal Capobianco, Eckerd College

Linda A. Kraus, Certified Mediator

This paper describes a new multi-rater instrument for measuring conflict behaviorthe Conflict Dynamics Profile (CDP).  Unlike existing style-based measures, the CDP focuses on 15 specific, concrete behavioral responses to conflict.  Evidence is presented which supports both the reliability and validity of the instrument.


The Influence of the Temporal Nature of Relationship
Development on LMX, OCBs, and Performance

Michael Hepperlen, University of NebraskaOmaha

Roni Reiter-Palmon, University of NebraskaOmaha

Despite recent growing interest in leader-member exchange (LMX) theory, few researchers have examined the underlying processes involved in LMX development. The present field study examined the temporal nature of relationship development and its interrelationship with LMX, OCBs, leader-member similarity, and both subjective and objective performance assessment.


Best of Both Worlds: Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches
to Assessing Breach and Retaliation

Sandra Rever-Moriyama, SMED International/University of Calgary

Jean Wallace, University of Calgary

This paper discusses the advantages to using the retrospective report method and combining quantitative and qualitative approaches to assessing psychological contract breach and retaliatory behaviors.  The results suggest that participant responses differ significantly depending on which method is used.  The methodological implications of these results are discussed.  


Should I Stay or Should I Go? Predicting Team Viability

Mahmut Bayazit, Cornell University

Elizabeth A. M. Mannix, Cornell University

Teams with low relationship conflict, high efficacy, and high performance are found to have high team viability. The interaction hypothesis that team members may be willing to tolerate relationship conflict if they perceive high team efficacy is not supported. Implications for research and practice are discussed.


The Influence of Impression Management on Organizational
Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

Nhung T. Nguyen, Virginia Commonwealth University

Michael A. McDaniel, Work Skills First, Inc.

A meta-analytic investigation on 69 correlation coefficients across 8,650 people revealed a moderate positive effect for impression management across organizational outcomes: performance rating, promotability, supervisor liking, peer liking, interview rating, and Leader-Member-Exchange quality. However, the effect was moderated by specific impression management tactics used as well as specific organizational outcome. 


Airline Employee Satisfaction and Airport Station Performance

Delbert M. Nebeker, Alliant University

Hamady D. Diallo, Alliant University

Agnieszka M. Czekajewski, Alliant University

Philipp D. Werenfels, Alliant University

Bernardo M. Ferdman, Alliant University

Licia Busso, Alliant University

Satisfaction data from 12,842 airline employees at 60 airport stations was used to explore the relationship between station satisfaction levels and airport station performance.  Results indicate that employee satisfaction is related to performance and that traffic volume and employee affective commitment interacts in determining customer satisfaction.


Assessing General Attitudes about Workgroups:
Scale Development and Validation

Rebecca A. Henry, Purdue University

Tatana Olson, Purdue University

This research summarizes the development of a measure of general attitudes about working in groups.  Three dimensions are theorized, each reflecting a distinct potential benefit of working collaboratively (intrinsic, task, and social benefits). Results from two studies support this conceptualization and provide good evidence of the scales construct validity. 


A Meta-Analytic Investigation of the Relationship Between
Individual Differences and Leader Effectiveness

Robyn Maldegen Youngjohn, Texas A&M University

David J. Woehr, University of TennesseeKnoxville

This meta-analysis investigated the relationship between individual differences and leader effectiveness.  It found individual characteristics differentially predicted leader effectiveness with correlations ranging from .1271.  The variables most highly correlated with leader effectiveness were charisma, management skills, decision making, and dominance.  Leader level and the type of criterion measure used were found to moderate the relationship between individual characteristics and leader effectiveness.


Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Leadership: A New Paradigm

Michael J. McCormick, University of HoustonClear Lake

David J. Woehr, University of TennesseeKnoxville

The relationship between leader self-confidence and leadership success has long been noted.  Yet, absent from the literature is a theoretical explanation.  A new leadership paradigm is proposed based on Banduras (1986) social cognitive theory that can explain this relationship.  Implications for leadership research are discussed. 


Need for Cognition as an Intrinsic Motivator in Collective Performance

Brian N. Smith, Virginia Commonwealth University

Michael J. Markus, Virginia Commonwealth University

Natalie A. Kerr, Virginia Commonwealth University

Mark F. Stasson, Virginia Commonwealth University

The present study examined whether need for cognition moderates social loafing effects. As predicted, high need for cognition individuals did not engage in social loafing on a cognitively engaging task.  Low need for cognition individuals, on the other hand, performed significantly better in the coactive than in the collective condition.


The Interactive Effects of Pro-Political Behavior and Politics Perceptions

Wayne Hochwarter, University of Alabama

It was hypothesized that political behavior and perceived politics would interact such that those who reported greater use of these tactics would be more satisfied and committed when work environments were viewed as political in nature.  Data gathered from 131 police officers provided strong support for this hypothesis. 


Predicting Supervisor Support for Empowered Work Teams

Madeline Wu, University of Western Australia

John Cordery, University of Western Australia

David Morrison, University of Western Australia

The relative efficacy of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior (two versions) were assessed in explaining and predicting supervisor intentions in facilitating employee empowerment. Data from 502 supervisors indicated that the second version of the theory of planned behavior provided the best fit to the data.


Effects of Cognitive Ability, Self-Monitoring,
and Emotional Intelligence on Performance

Sophia Cho, Pennsylvania State University

Previous research has demonstrated that cognitive ability and personality differentially predict task and contextual performance.  The current study examined self-monitoring and emotional intelligence as predictors of contextual performance.  Results indicated that cognitive ability predicted task performance and emotional intelligence predicted contextual performance; self-monitoring did not predict contextual performance.


Disentangling Sources of Egocentric Bias in Negotiation

Robert D. Yonker, University of MissouriSt. Louis

Paul W. Paese, University of MissouriSt. Louis

This research disentangled the sources of the egocentric bias in negotiation by improving upon the methodology of previous experiments.  Results indicated that, while judgments of a fair settlement point were the most egocentric under conditions that allowed for selective encoding, these conditions were not necessary for the bias to occur.


Restrictiveness and Effectiveness of Downward Influence Tactics

Dimitri Liakhovitski, Mercer Delta Consulting/International Survey Research

Scott J. Behson, Fairleigh Dickinson University

Two studies empirically tested a theoretical model of downward influence tactics (ITs) effectiveness.  The model states that ITs differ in the degree of their restrictiveness.  Perceived ITs restrictiveness is expected to influence subordinates reactions (commitment, mere compliance, or resistance) to their superiors influence attempts.  Overall, the data supported the model.


Pygmalion Effects Among Outreach Supervisors and Tutors:
Extending Gender and Ethnic Generalizability

Gloria Natanovich, Tel Aviv University

Dov Eden, Tel Aviv University

Randomly assigned supervisors were told that their subordinates were ideally qualified; control supervisors were told nothing.  The experimental supervisors provided better leadership and experimental subordinates increased their self-efficacy.  Better performance among experimental subordinates confirmed the Pygmalion hypothesis.  These effects were replicated in all four supervisor-subordinate gender combinations and among Arab women.


An Experimental Study of Affect and Gender in Leader-Member Exchange

Neal M. Ashkanasy, University of Queensland

Michael Newcombe, University of Queensland

Five hundred thirty-seven participants viewed videotapes of leaders giving positive and negative feedback with congruent and incongruent emotional expressions.  Results supported hypotheses that positive and message-congruent affect leads to higher ratings of leader-member exchange quality.  When giving negative feedback accompanied by negative affect, female leaders were rated lower than males. 


The Acceptance of Femininity: Sex, Gender, Identification and Leadership

Ronit Kark, University of Michigan

Boas Shamir, Hebrew University

Using carefully matched samples of bank managers, differences between men and women managers in leadership styles, perceived femininity and masculinity, and subordinates identification with the manager were studied. Findings, showing that perceived femininity was related to transformational leadership and subordinates identification, are discussed as supporting the current thesis about the feminization of management.


A Reexamination of Interrelationships Among
French and Ravens (1959) Power Bases

William C. Roedder, University of TennesseeKnoxville

James M. LeBreton, University of TennesseeKnoxville

Michael C. Rush, University of TennesseeKnoxville

French and Ravens (1959) taxonomy of reward, coercive, legitimate, expert, and reverent power represents one of the most popular frameworks of power. The current study examines the relationships of these five power bases with one another. Results are discussed regarding alterations made to the original French and Raven (1959) concepts.


Towards a New Model of Perceptions of Intergroup Resource
Allocation During Organizational Change

Malgorzata Tluchowska, University of Queensland

Victor J. Callan, University of Queensland

Cynthia Gallois, University of Queensland

The project examines the role group processes play in predicting judgments of intergroup resource allocation during organizational change.  A model integrating two frameworks (the social identity theory and the behavioral interaction model) was tested.  Results revealed evidence for the greater relative importance of intergroup versus intra-group processes in explaining in-group bias. 


Entrepreneurship and Leadership: Common Trends and Common Threads

Robert P. Vecchio, University of Notre Dame

The continued treatment of entrepreneurship as a separate area of study that is distinct from other broader domains (e.g., leadership and interpersonal influence) is questioned.  Reviews of related research on personality, demographics, fit, and cognitive framing/bias reveal mixed findings and a lack of sufficient evidence to warrant a distinctly different view of entrepreneurship.  Instead, a recognition of common trends and common threads of thought is encouraged. Finally, a model is proposed that integrates both process issues and level issues in explaining differential effectiveness in launching, managing, and exiting a new firm. 


Effectiveness of Combining Classroom and Distance Learning
Modes for Executives

Jillian A. Peat, University of TennesseeKnoxville

Peter J. Dean, University of TennesseeKnoxville

Michael J. Stahl, University of TennesseeKnoxville

Dave L. Sylwester, University of TennesseeKnoxville

Research on executive education has generally focused on comparing distance learning with traditional techniques.  Instead, this study examined the difference between using only traditional classroom methods and using a combination of traditional and distance techniques. The results indicated that it is beneficial to use multiple modes of delivery in executive education.


Antecedents of Job-Related Behavior Within Path-Goal Theory

Michael A. Gillespie, University of South Florida

The effects of leadership style, task structure, and subordinate LOC on job satisfaction and motivation to perform were examined.  Main effects were found for both job satisfaction and motivation to perform for leadership style and LOC but not for task structure.  Convincingly significant interactions were not obtained.


Techniques for Reducing Errors: Redundancy and Division of Labor

Ira T. Kaplan, Hofstra University

William Metlay, Hofstra University

Deborah A. Shurberg, Hofstra University

Organizations commonly employ redundant observers to reduce errors.  However, the present experiment found that dividing a monitoring task among three observers, with no redundancy, yielded a higher detection probability than assigning the task to three redundant observers.  Visual search and redundancy models were used to explain the results.


Comparing Outcomes to Hybrid Forms of Dispute Resolution Procedures

Donald Conlon, Michigan State University

Henry Moon, Michigan State University

K. Yee Ng, Michigan State University

This study compared two hybrid dispute resolution procedures: mediation-arbitration and arbitration-mediation.  Our results demonstrate that more mediated settlements occurred under arbitration-mediation, but the time taken to settle the dispute was shorter for mediation-arbitration.  Also, disputants rated process control more favorably for mediation-arbitration, but rated informational justice more favorably for arbitration-mediation.


Using Biodata to Assess Adaptability Related Constructs in Leaders

Andrea S. Vincent, University of Oklahoma

Mary Shane Connelly, University of Oklahoma

Brian Decker, University of Oklahoma

Michael D. Mumford, University of Oklahoma

Jorge L. Mendoza, University of Oklahoma

Adaptability-related constructs are assessed using rationally scaled biodata in a sample of 1,818 U.S. Army officers.  A conceptual structure of adaptability was tested in examining the reliability and validity of these measures.  Results suggest that general adaptive capacity and emotional regulation are two adaptability factors contributing to leader performance.


Empowerment at Work: The Role of Transformational
Leadership and Relationships to Work Outcomes

Kimberly Bishop Brossoit, Development Dimensions International

Using theoretical frameworks proposed by Thomas and Velthouse (1990) and Bass (1985), data collected from a Fortune 100 organization suggest that transformational leaders positively influence employee cognitions of empowerment, which in turn translate into increased levels of employee work satisfaction and to a lesser degree increased levels of employee work effectiveness.   


The Effects of Interdependence Efficacy on Group Goals and Performance

Shannon Sowers, California State UniversitySan Bernardino

Janelle Gilbert, California State UniversitySan Bernardino

This research examined the effects of collective interdependence efficacy on the difficulty of self-chosen group goals and performance levels. Data from 108 participants indicated that teamwork interdependence KSAs were important in the development of collective efficacy perceptions. Collective efficacy was found to be related to goal level and performance levels.


The Role of Transformational Leadership in Salespeoples Motivation

Thomas Rogers, Illinois Institute of Technology

Roya Ayman, Illinois Institute of Technology

One hundred automotive salespeople and their supervisors participated in this study.  Results showed that transformational leadership (TFL) was not related to subordinates effort when effort was assessed by their managers.  Although TFL was related to extra effort, its relationship with self-rated effort was moderated by subordinates job involvement.


Cooperation and Negotiation Outcomes in Virtual Negotiations :
A Meta-Analysis

Alice F. Stuhlmacher, DePaul University

Maryalice Citera, SUNYNew Paltz

In negotiation, communication media are assumed to influence both process and outcomes.  This paper meta-analytically reviewed studies that compared face-to-face with virtual negotiation (e.g., audio, e-mail).  Face-to-face negotiations were more cooperative and resulted in higher outcomes than virtual negotiations. Moderators of the media effect on cooperation and outcome were found.


Verbal Communication and Performance in a Dyadic Training Protocol

Travis C. Tubr, University of Southern Mississippi

Winfred E. Arthur, Texas A&M University

Theresa L. McNelly, Texas A&M University

The extent to which verbal communication between trainees was related to performance in a dyadic training protocol was examined.  Results indicated a significant, negative relationship between ones performance and communication on the part of ones partner, such that poor performance resulted in increased partner-communication rather than resulting from increased communication. 


Comparative Validity of Different Statistical Operationalizations
of Team Ability as a Function of Task Type

Bryan Edwards, Texas A&M University

Eric Anthony Day, Ohio State University

Bruce A. Miyashiro, Texas A&M University

Winfred E. Arthur, Texas A&M University

Travis C. Tubr, University of Southern Mississippi

Amber Hanson Tubr, Texas A&M University

We examined the comparative validity of different statistical operationalizations (mean, standard deviation, minimum, and maximum) of team ability in 157 four-person teams in predicting performance across four team-level criterion tasks.  The mean operationalization produced the strongest correlation with performance on all four tasks. 


Organizational Mentoring: What about Protg Needs?

Janine E. U. Knackstedt, University of Waterloo

Whereas research in organizations has solely measured mentoring occurrences, this study on 387 health care professionals has demonstrated the importance of examining mentoring needs from the protgs perspective.  Exploratory analyses using a dyadic approach reveal that the strongest needs are expressed by female protgs who have a male mentor.


Autonomous Teamwork and Psychological Well-Being

Christel G. Rutte, Eindhoven University of Technology

Heleen Van Mierlo, Eindhoven University of Technology

Few studies investigated the assumed positive effects of autonomous groups on individual psychological well-being. The present questionnaire study investigated (and supported) the hypotheses that (a) group autonomy is positively related to psychological well-being; (b) this relationship is mediated by individual autonomy, individual task variety, individual workload, and social support.


Collectivism and Team Effectiveness: Mediators and Boundary Conditions

Jason A. Colquitt, University of Florida

Raymond A. Noe, Ohio State University

Christine L. Jackson, University of Florida

This study examined the relationship between collectivism and team effectiveness (absenteeism, productivity, quality) in a sample of automotive parts manufacturing teams. The results showed that collectivism was significantly related to team absenteeism and productivity, effects that were mediated by instrumentality and conflict. Team autonomy and task interdependence moderated these effects.


Attitudinal Diversity and Team Outcomes:
Do Interdependence and Size Moderate?

Brian R. Dineen, Ohio State University

Raymond A. Noe, Ohio State University

Carolyn Wiethoff, Ohio State University

The impact of team attitudinal diversity was examined using 1,313 manufacturing employees in 116 teams.  Task interdependence and team size were also examined as potential moderators.  Results revealed interactions of task interdependence and two measures of diversity on cohesion, as well as size and one measure of diversity on performance.   


An Examination of the Leader Mood State and Team Performance Relationship

Jason Smith, Pennsylvania State University

John E. Mathieu, University of Connecticut

The influence of leader positive and negative mood states on multiteam process and performance was examined within the context of a multiteam low fidelity flight simulation.  Positive leader mood was significantly related to both multiteam action process and performance.  Action processes mediated the relationship between positive mood and performance.


Creating Cohesive Teams: Analyzing the Effects of Teamwork Skills Training

Kari R. Strobel, Old Dominion University

Robert M. McIntyre, Old Dominion University

The primary objective of this study was an attempt to train team members on fundamental teamwork concepts so as to develop measurable improvements in team cohesion.  Results indicated that compared to the control group, the experimental group demonstrated greater cohesiveness immediately following training and at one-month follow-up. 


Role of Emotional Intelligence in the Leader-Member Exchange Relationship

Scott Finlinson, Ohio University

Peter Y. Chen, Colorado State University

Denise Haeggberg, HR Directions

Rowland P. Hanley, Ohio University/IBM Global Employee Research

We examined the role of emotional intelligence in the leader-member exchange (LMX) relationship.  Overall, there were positive relationships between both subordinates and supervisors reported level of emotional intelligence and their reported level of leader-member exchange quality.   However, null correlations were found between perceived LMX relationships of supervisors (or subordinates) and emotional intelligence of correspondent subordinates (or supervisors).


Predicting Team Performance: Analytic Techniques
for Assessing Shared Mental Models

Jacqueline A. Isenberg, University of TennesseeChattanooga

Tonia S. Heffner, Army Research Institutes

The best analytic technique for assessing shared mental model data gathered via similarity ratings has not yet been determined. This project, using existing data, compared UCINET and Pathfinder to determine which is a better predictor of team performance. Results indicate that UCINET may be the better analytic tool.


Military Work Team Personality Composition, Norms, and Effectiveness

Terry Halfhill, University of North Texas

Eric Sundstrom, University of Tennessee

Tjai M. Nielsen, The E-Group, Inc.

A Web-based field study examined personality composition in 40 military teams and found group average agreeableness correlated with supervisor-rated group performance, group average conscientiousness correlated with aggregate individual performance, and both personality variables related to group social norms and group cohesion.


Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Recalling Virtual Team Contributions

Lori Foster Thompson, East Carolina University

Jonathan K. Probber, East Carolina University

Many workplace teams rely on computer-mediated communication, yet we know little about the consequences of virtual collaboration. This study investigates sixteen intact teams operating in face-to-face or computer-mediated environments. Results support the predictions that virtual teams have trouble recalling members contributions, even in the absence of rapid consensus norms.


An Examination of the Multidimensionality of Supervisor
Perceptions of Leader-Member Exchange

John M. Ford, Louisiana State University

Gary J. Greguras, Louisiana State University

The current study developed a multidimensional scale (SLMXMDM) to measure supervisor LMX perceptions based on Liden and Maslyns (1998) multidimensional subordinate LMX scale (LMXMDM).  Confirmatory factor analyses supported a multidimensional conceptualization of LMX.  Regression analyses demonstrated incremental validity for the SLMXMDM over other LMX measures on outcome variables. 


Group and Personality Influences on Withdrawal Behavior

Jason D. Shaw, University of Kentucky

Michelle K. Duffy, University of Kentucky

Eric M. Stark, Washington & Jefferson College

We examined personality moderators of the relationship between group and individual absence and social loafing behavior among members of 143 groups.  Framed with SIP and social-learning theories, we found that conscientiousness attenuated the cross-level absenteeism, but not the social loafing, relationship.  Predicted moderating effects of self-esteem were not supported.


Team Coordination in High-Velocity High-Uncertainty Environments

Sharyn Gardner, University of Maryland

Samer Faraj, University of Maryland

Yan Xiao, University of Maryland

We discuss a qualitative study of a level-1 trauma center.  Based on 6 months of intensive observation, shadowing, and interviews we found that use of technology, communication, and coordination integrate to create work processes characterized as composed improvisation.  Coordination must be fluid and flexible to match levels of environmental uncertainty.

94. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 9:50                  Bel Aire Ballroom South (W)

Predicting Performance: The Interface of I-O Psychology
and Educational Research

Popular opinion and legal decisions regarding selection are heavily influenced by highly publicized college admission procedures.  Building on recent research on work performance, this symposium focuses on the construct of college performance and its predictors.  A multidimensional model of student performance and comprehensive meta-analyses of criterion-related validities are presented.

Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, Co-Chair

Sarah A. Hezlett, University of Minnesota, Co-Chair

Nathan R. Kuncel, University of Minnesota, John P. Campbell, University of Minnesota, Sarah A. Hezlett, University of Minnesota, Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, Performance in College: The Criterion Problem

Sarah A. Hezlett, University of Minnesota, Nathan R. Kuncel, University of Minnesota, Meredith Vey, University of Minnesota, Allison Ahart, University of Minnesota, Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, John P. Campbell, University of Minnesota, Wayne J. Camara, The College Board, The Predictive Validity of the SAT: A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis

Meredith Vey, University of Minnesota, Sarah A. Hezlett, University of Minnesota, Nathan R. Kuncel, University of Minnesota, Allison Ahart, University of Minnesota, Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, John P. Campbell, University of Minnesota, Wayne J. Camara, The College Board, Bias and the SAT: A Meta-Analysis of Differential Prediction by Race and Gender

Allison Ahart, University of Minnesota, Sarah A. Hezlett, University of Minnesota, Nathan R. Kuncel, University of Minnesota, Meredith Vey, University of Minnesota, Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, John P. Campbell, University of Minnesota, Wayne J. Camara, The College Board, A Meta-Analysis of High School Performance Predicting College Performance

95. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 9:50                                         Terrace A (W)

Quasi-Experimentation in Organizations: Results, Dilemmas, and Solutions

Three quasi-experiments will be discussed.  An interrupted time-series examination of stress and job satisfaction, supervisory training evaluated by participants and their subordinates, and a Solomon 4group evaluation of attitude training each presented unique dilemmas.  Presenters will describe the challenges of implementing such designs in organizational settings. 

Kimberly T. Schneider, State Farm Insurance Company, Chair

Julie A. Fuller, Bowling Green State University, Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University, Gwenith G. Fisher, Bowling Green State University, Christiane Spitzmueller, Bowling Green State University, Steven Russell, Bowling Green State University, Patricia C. Smith, Bowling Green State University, Quasi-Experimentation in Organizational Research: An Example Using an Interrupted Time Series Design

Kimberly T. Schneider, State Farm Insurance Company, Randall C. Overton, State Farm Insurance Company, A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness of First Line Supervisor Training

Sharon Goto, Pomona College, Phanikiran Radhakrishnan, University of TorontoScarborough, Planning for Situational Constraints: Effects on Behavioral Intentions and Training Effectiveness

96. Roundtable: Saturday, 8:30 9:50                                         Catalina (W)

Organizational Decision Making with Multirater Instruments

This roundtable discussion will review what we know about the reliability, validity, and utility of using 360 methodology for organizational decision making.  More specifically, we will describe how 360 methodology can be used in conjunction with personality, cognitive ability, and assessment center methods to make better succession planning decisions.

Robert E. Lewis, Personnel Decisions International, Host

Gordon J. Curphy, Personnel Decisions International, Presenter

Dianne Nilsen, Personnel Decisions International, Presenter

Chet Robie, Niagara University, Presenter

97. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 9:50                                     Point Loma B (W)

Raising and Extending Self-Efficacy Research to New Levels and Domains

The role of self-efficacy in organizational settings has been widely studied, yet much remains to be learned. The research presented in this symposium contributes to self-efficacy research by developing and testing multilevel models of efficacy beliefs, describing new techniques of measuring self-efficacy, and extending self-efficacy theory into new research domains.

Dov Eden, Tel Aviv University, Chair

Lance E. Anderson, Caliber Associates, Stephan J. Motowidlo, University of Minnesota, Norman G. Peterson, American Institutes for Research, Development of Three Self-Efficacy Measures and Evaluation of their Incremental Validity Relative to Traditional Predictors

Wendy J. Casper, Caliber Associates, Measuring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control of the WorkNonwork Interface

Gilad Chen, George Mason University, Paul D. Bliese, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Steve M. Jex, University of WisconsinOshkosh/W Reed, Examination of the Predictors of Self-Efficacy and Collective Efficacy: Evidence for Discontinuity across Levels of Analysis

Stanley M. Gully, Rutgers University, Aparna Joshi, Rutgers University, Kara Incalcaterra, George Mason University, Relationships among Team-Efficacy, Self-Efficacy, and Performance: A Meta-Analysis

John E. Mathieu, University of Connecticut, Discussant  

Coffee Break:  Saturday, 10:00 10:30                                  Multiple Locations


98. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 12:20                        Grande Ballroom A (E)

The Three-Component Model of Commitment: Advances in Theory and Research

The research presented in this session addresses (a) previously under investigated aspects of the Three-Component Model of organizational commitment, including the development of normative commitment and the interactive effects of the components on behavior, and (b) the generalizability of the model to other commitment foci, including supervisors, work groups, and organizational change.

John P. Meyer, University of Western Ontario, Chair

Greg Irving, Wilfrid Laurier University, D. Ramona Bobocel, University of Waterloo, The Ties That Bind: Psychological Contracts and Normative Commitment

Ian R. Gellatly, University of Alberta, Andrew A. Luchak, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Commitment and Propensity to Withhold Effort: Evidence for Interaction Effects

Christian Vandenberghe, Catholic University of Louvain, Kathleen Bentein, Catholic University of Louvain, Florence Stinglhamber, Catholic University of Louvain, Application of the Three-Component Model to Multiple Commitment Foci

Lynne Herscovitch, University of Western Ontario, John P. Meyer, University of Western Ontario, Commitment to Organizational Change:  An Extension of the Three-Component Model

Lynn M. Shore, Georgia State University, Discussant

99. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 12:20                       Grande Ballroom B (E)

HR.COM: Human Resource Management Strategies for the Dot-Com World

Internet- and intranet-based communication is quickly transforming the practice of human resource management.  These studies examine the effect of information technology on human resource managers and employees, with particular attention to training and recruiting functions.

Carolyn Wiethoff, Ohio State University, Chair

Sharyn Gardner, University of Maryland, David Lepak, University of Maryland, Kathryn M. Bartol, University of Maryland, Virtual HR: The Impact of Information Technology on the Human Resource Professional

Kenneth G. Brown, University of Iowa, Theresa M. Ironside, University of Iowa, Christopher F. Linn, University of Iowa, Bridget L. Johnson, University of Iowa, An Inductive Exploration of Barriers to Participation and Completion of E-Learning Opportunities

Marcia J. Simmering, Lousiana State University, Gabriele Piccoli, Cornell University, Motivation to Learn in an Online Course: What Predicts Training Effectiveness?

Brian R. Dineen, Ohio State University, Steven R. Ash, Franklin University, Raymond A. Noe, Ohio State University, Internet-Based Recruitment: Does Interactive P-O Fit Feedback Matter?

Daniel M. Cable, University of North Carolina, Discussant

100. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 12:20                     Grande Ballroom C (E)

Applications of Pathfinder to Understanding Cognition in
Organizational Psychology

The purpose of this symposium is to describe applications of the Pathfinder scaling program (Schvaneveldt, 1990) to the study of cognition in I-O Psychology.  The presentations will focus on diverse areas in I-O, including leadership, negotiation, and culture, each of which has its theoretical basis in connectionist architectures.

Paul J. Hanges, University of Maryland, Chair

Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland, Chair

Lisa H. Nishii, University of Maryland, Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland, Culture and Leadership Schemas: The Structure of Schemas in the U.S., Germany, Singapore, and Thailand

Beng Chong Lim, University of Maryland/Ministry of Defense, Relationship Between Leadership Schema Structure and Leader Behavior

Ellen G. Godfrey, University of Maryland, Lisa H. Nishii, University of Maryland, Jana L. Raver, University of Maryland, Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland, Metaphoric Maps in Negotiation

Paul J. Hanges, University of Maryland, Marianne Higgins, University of Maryland, Virginia Smith-Major, University of Maryland, Naomi G. Dyer, University of Maryland, Peter W. Dorfman, New Mexico State University, Felix C. Brodbeck, University of Munich, Jon P. Howell, New Mexico State University, Leonel Prieto, New Mexico State University, Influence of Cultural Values on Leadership Schema Structure

101. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 12:20                             Harbor Island I (E)

Recent Innovations in Personality Measurement

Researchers have begun deriving alternative personality measurement systems that can be used in place of, or to complement, existing self-report systems.  This symposium introduces 4 new measurement systems and demonstrates how existing measurement systems (e.g., self-reports) may be integrated with these new systems.

James M. LeBreton, University of TennesseeKnoxville, Co-Chair

Michael D. McIntyre, University of TennesseeKnoxville, Co-Chair

James C. Whanger, University of TennesseeKnoxville, Conditional Reasoning and Performance Appraisal  

William R. Walton, University of TennesseeKnoxville, Justification of Antisocial Behavior: Development of a Conditional Reasoning Reading Comprehension Test  

James M. LeBreton, University of TennesseeKnoxville, Michael D. McIntyre, University of TennesseeKnoxville, Use of Differential Framing to Measure Personality

Leonard White, U.S. Army Research Institutes, Mark C. Young, U.S. Army Research Institutes, Validation of a Faking-Resistant Measure of Temperament Constructs

Mark N. Bing, University of TennesseeChattanooga, James M. LeBreton, University of TennesseeKnoxville, Debrah Z. Migetz, University of TennesseeKnoxville, David Vermillion, University of TennesseeKnoxville, H. Kristl Davison, University of Tennessee Chattanooga, Lawrence R. James, University of TennesseeKnoxville, The Integrative Model of Personality Assessment for Achievement Motivation and Fear of Failure: Implications for the Prediction of Effort, Attribution, and Performance

Lawrence R. James, University of TennesseeKnoxville, Discussant

102. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 11:50                            Harbor Island II (E)

Presenting Selection Information to Applicants:
Theoretical and Practical Implications

Presenting information to applicants about the selection process could provide a practical strategy for organizations who want to improve applicant perceptions.  This symposium explores how different approaches to presenting selection information affect applicant reactions and considers what the limits of such approaches might be.

Robert E. Ployhart, University of Maryland, Co-Chair

Donald M. Truxillo, Portland State University, Co-Chair

Russell S. Cropanzano, Colorado State University, Discussant David Ostberg, Portland State University, Donald M. Truxillo, Portland State University, Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University, Effects of Pre-Test Information on Applicants Perceptions of Selection Fairness

Seth Hayes, University of Maryland, Robert E. Ployhart, University of Maryland, Karen Ehrhart, University of Maryland, Using Attributions to Understand the Effects of Explanations on Applicant Reactions

Derek S. Chapman, University of Calgary, Robert E. Ployhart, University of Maryland, Gender and Perceptions of Justice Violations in the Magnitude of Perceived Injustice

Donald M. Truxillo, Portland State University, Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University, Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Matthew E. Paronto, Portland State University, Selection Information, Personality, and Applicant Reactions: A Field Quasi-Experiment  

103. Special Event: Saturday, 10:30 11:20                     Harbor Island III (E)

SIOPs Licensure Policy: Issues and Options

In the wake of developments in various states and potential action by APA on recommendations from its Commission on Education and Training Leading to Licensure in Psychology, the Executive Committee appointed this Task Force charged with reviewing SIOPs policy on licensure.  The Task Forces charge includes (a) defining acceptable licensure requirements for I-O, (b) drafting an implementation plan, and (c) developing a strategy to respond to decisions already taken by APA and State Boards.  The panel members will discuss their work to date on these issues.  The co-chairs will moderate a discussion with audience participation to facilitate (a) responding to questions regarding the existing situation and SIOPs options for response and (b) providing an opportunity for the Task Force to receive feedback from interested SIOP members.

Miguel A. Quiones, Rice University, Co-Chair

S. Morton McPhail, Jeanneret & Associates, Inc., Co-Chair

Laura L. Koppes, Eastern Kentucky University, Panelist

Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, Panelist

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Panelist

Kevin R. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University, Panelist

104. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:30 12:20                      Seabreeze (E)

Innovative Selection Practices in a Fast-Growth Company:
I Cant Drive Fifty-Five!

Todays fast-paced, high-growth business environment presents I-O psychologists and HR professionals with many challenges. We need creative solutions that balance the psychometric and legal standards of sound assessment processes with the business need for speed. The purpose of this forum is to share one companys learnings in striking that balance.

Amy Powell Yost, Capital One Financial Corp., Chair

Mark H. Ludwick, Capital One Financial Corp., Daniel A. Fontaine, Capital One Financial Corp., Development, Implementation, and Validation of a High-Fidelity Call Center Job Simulation: Measurement Principles Enabling High-Growth Business Strategy

Richard L. Hense, Capital One Financial Corp., Sharon Millhouse, Capital One Financial Corp., Implementation and Quality Assurance for a Front Line Manager Selection Process

Ivan Kulis, Capital One Financial Corp., Development and Implementation of an Internet-Based Biodata Screening Tool in a Financial Services Organization

Nancy D. Rusinak, Capital One Financial Corp., Going Global: Learnings from One Companys Whirlwind
International Start-Ups

105. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:30 11:50        Executive Center 3 (E)

Did Our 360 Feedback Program Actually Change Behavior or
Were the Surveys Just Fun to Complete?

360-degree feedback programs are rarely evaluated to document changes in participant behavior.  Three unique case studies will demonstrate how evaluation can be useful for organizations implementing such programs.  Specifically, organizations can use systematic evaluation to decide how to improve the existing 360 feedback processes in a way that maximally impacts participant behavior.

Dale S. Rose, 3D Group, Chair

Mark C. Healy, 3D Group, Benchmarking North American 360 Feedback Practices:  What is Really Going On Out There?

Jennifer Mattocks, Questar/Claremont Graduate University, Using a Linking Model to Evaluate a 360-Feedback Intervention from a Systems Perspective

Dale S. Rose, 3D Group, Nils P. Moe, 3D Group, Evaluating 360-Degree Feedback: Using Process Results to
Increase Program Impact

Lisa Sandora, Microsoft, Microsoft Competency 360: Uncovering Opportunities for Improvement  

Katherine E. Holt, Peak Insight, Discussant

106. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 12:20                                       Marina 2 (E)

New Directions for Leadership Theory and Research

A superstructure for assessing the state of the leadership field is integrated with a recent literature review.  Then three promising areas for the future are presented including new avenues for cognitive leadership research, a framework for developing and sustaining organizational leadership capacity, and a definition and approach to studying e-leadership. 

Kevin B. Lowe, UNCGreensboro, Chair

James G. Hunt, Texas Tech University, Kevin B. Lowe, University of North CarolinaGreensboro, William L. Gardner, University of Mississippi, Zeitgeist and the New Leadership

Robert G. Lord, University of Akron, Cynthia G Emrich, Purdue University, Future Directions in Cognitive Leadership Research

David V. Day, Pennsylvania State University, Understanding Systems Forces for Sustainable Leadership

Bruce J. Avolio, SUNYBinghamton, Surinder Kahai, Binghamton University, George E. Dodge, Texas A&M University, E-leadership: What is it and How will it Impact How We Study and Practice Leadership

Ramon J. Aldag, University of WisconsinMadison, Discussant

107. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 12:20                                       Marina 5 (E)

When Do Learning and Performance Orientations Enhance Learning Outcomes? Interactions with Individual and Contextual Variables

Goal orientation theory has been used to explain learning outcomes in a number of recent studies.  This symposium includes five empirical papers that investigated interactions among traitgoal orientations, individual and contextual variables in predicting goal orientation states, and attitudinal, cognitive, and behavioral outcomes.

Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch, Naval Air Warfare Center, Chair

Lori Rhodenizer, Co-Chair

Phil Mangos, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Debra Steele-Johnson, Wright State University, Paul Heintz Jr., Wright State University, Goal Orientation Effects on Task Motivation: Moderating Influences of Task Demands and Ability

William L. Cron, Southern Methodist University, John W. Slocum Jr., Southern Methodist University, Don VandeWalle, Southern Methodist University, The Role of Goal Disconfirmation, Emotion and Goal Orientation on Goal Setting

Bradford S. Bell, Michigan State University, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University, Heather W.
Dobbins, Michigan State University, Creating the Balanced Learner: Interactive Effects of Goals and Goal
Orientation on Multiple Training Outcomes

Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch, Naval Air Warfare Center, Lori Rhodenizer, Angelique M. Reynolds, N, The Moderating Effect of Leader Goals on the Relationship Between Team Member Traits and States During Training  

Aaron M. Schmidt, Michigan State University, Brad A. Chambers, Michigan State University, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University, Richard P. DeShon, Michigan State University, Can I Do It and Do I Care? Examining the Antecedents of State Goal Orientations

Stanley M. Gully, Rutgers University, Discussant

108. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:30 11:50                         Marina 6 (E)

Surviving a Mid-Life Crisis: Innovations in Assessment Centers

Since their birth approximately 50 years ago, assessment centers have demonstrated a strong track record of success.  However, some consider assessment centers outdated: yesterdays tool measuring yesterdays competencies at yesterdays slow pace.  This forum will focus on key innovations in assessment center methodology from both a research and applied perspective.

Barbara Gaugler-Blais, Organizational Development Strategies, Chair

Jeffrey D. Kudisch, University of Southern Mississippi, A Survey of Assessment Center Practices in Organizations Worldwide: Maximizing Innovations or Business as Usual?

Wayne Burroughs, University of Central Florida, Assessment Center Skills: How Quickly Can They Be Learned?

Douglas H. Reynolds, Development Dimensions International, Moving Assessment Centers to the Web

Stephanie Butler, Wilson Learning Corporation, Assessment Centers as an Integral Part of Organizational Change Efforts

Barbara Gaugler-Blais, Organizational Development Strategies, Discussant

109. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 11:50                                     Spinnaker (E)

Leadership Development: The Strategic and Systemic Use of Job Assignments

Research indicates the impact of standard classroom training is limited; the bulk of management development happens within the context of on-the-job experiences.  This symposium addresses the individual, organizational, and systemic factors that should be considered to best capture and maximize on-the-job leadership development opportunities.

Robert B. McKenna, Seattle Pacific University, Chair

Paul R. Yost, The Boeing Company, Mary Mannion Plunkett, The Boeing Company, Robert B. McKenna, Seattle Pacific University, Lessons of Experience: Personal and Situational Factors that Drive Growth

Ellen Van Velsor, Center for Creative Leadership, Christina A. Douglas, Center for Creative Leadership, Lessons of a Diverse Workforce: Comparing the Lessons of Experience of African-American and White Managers

Vidula V. Bal, Center for Creative Leadership, Laura Quinn, Center for Creative Leadership, The Development Dilemma: How Organizational Systems and Cultures Affect Sustainable Leadership Capacity  

110. Poster Session: Saturday, 10:30 11:50                          Exhibit Hall (E)

Personality, Creativity, and Research Methods


Comparing Meta-Analytic Moderator Search Techniques
Under Realistic Conditions

Piers Steel, University of Minnesota

John Kammeyer-Mueller, University of Minnesota

One of the most problematic issues in meta-analysis is the detection and interpretation of moderating effects. Using Monte Carlo analyses, the almost completely neglected weighted least square multiple regression is shown to be significantly superior to all other explored continuous moderator search methods, especially the predominantly used hierarchical subgrouping method.


Causal Indicator Analysis: An Alternative Measurement
Model for the Coping Construct

Shreya Sarkar-Barney, Bowling Green State University

Michael Zickar, Bowling Green State University

Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University

There has been a limited use of causal indicator models in the published literature. This technique can be useful for establishing construct validity of variables that do not fit traditional effect indicator models, which are the basic assumptions of conventional approaches such as internal consistency and factor analysis. Using one such construct, the coping response, this paper demonstrates the use of the technique.   


Enhancing Creative Performance: Effects of Expected Developmental
Assessment Strategies and Creative Personality

Jing Zhou, Texas A&M University

Greg R. Oldham, University of IllinoisUrbana Champaign

This study examined the independent and joint effects of expected developmental assessment strategies (self-administered, other-administered, and no assessment) and creative personality on individuals creativity.  Data from 68 participants indicated that individuals exhibited the highest creativity when they expected a self-administered assessment and had creative personalities.


Childhood Home Experiences and Adult Creativity in the Workplace:
The Role of Individuals Experiences at Work

Greg R. Oldham, University of IllinoisUrbana Champaign

Jing Zhou, Texas A&M University

Anne Cummings, University of Pennsylvania

Based on adaptation-level theory, we predicted that individuals workplace creativity would be enhanced when their relevant childhood home experiences (harmony, number of residents, bedroom privacy) matched their analogous workplace experiences (coworker harmony, number of coworkers, work area privacy). Results obtained from 75 office employees provided general support for our predictions.


Personality and Emotional Labor as Predictors of Turnover in Call
Center Customer Service John F. Binning, Illinois State University

Anthony J. Adorno, The DeGarmo Group, Inc.

Call center customer service representatives were screened for (a) the extent to which they are likely to experience emotional labor at work, and (b) their general negative and positive affectivity.  Both job-specific emotional labor and general emotional stability were significant predictors of various indices of withdrawal cognitions, job satisfaction, and withdrawal behaviors.


The Role of Qualitative Research in I-O Psychology

Monica Hemingway, The Dow Chemical Company

This study examined attitudes among 215 I-O psychologists towards the use of qualitative methods, experience using qualitative techniques, beliefs about published qualitative research, and familiarity with, use of, and teaching of specific techniques. Results revealed an appreciation for the value of qualitative research, but a lack of familiarity and use of qualitative techniques.


Using the Internet/Intranet to Collect Data for Organizational Research

Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University

Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University

This paper discusses the key issues to consider when planning and executing a research project involving Internet/Intranet data collection.  Some of the issues discussed include construction of materials; contacting and
recruiting research participants; authenticating participant responses; protecting the confidentiality and anonymity
of respondents; and avoiding spurious multiple responses.    


Using Motives, Interests, and Interpersonal Derailers to
Predict Feedback Receptivity

Kimberly R. Brinkmeyer, CDR Assessment Group

Fortune 500 technology company employees (N = 246) completed the Motives, Values, Preferences Inventory, the Hogan Development Survey, and the Feedback Opinion Survey.  Correlational analyses indicated that higher self-

confidence, attention-seeking tendencies, financial motives, and lower neuroticism and cynicism may lead to higher rates of acceptance of performance feedback.


Planning for Appropriate Sample Size: Precision or Power?

Matt L. Riggs, Loma Linda University

Jette L. Warka, Loma Linda University

Mark G. Haviland, Loma Linda University

As researchers learn to interpret practical as well as statistical significance, the simple goal of getting enough subjects to reach p < .05 becomes less adequate.  While power is relevant for statistical significance, precision is more appropriate if the goal is the accuracy of our estimates of effect magnitude. 


Using Uncertainty Avoidance to Predict Differential Item Functioning

Michael Horvath, Michigan State University

Brad A. Chambers, Michigan State University

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University

L. Allen Slade, Microsoft Corporation

Select items in three employee attitude scales administered to a large multinational organization were hypothesized to function differently between cultures differing in uncertainty avoidance.  Analyses showed some support for the utility of cross-cultural frameworks to predict DIF. 


The Mediating Role of Psychological Empowerment for Employee Creativity

Pamela Tierney, Portland State University

This study examined the mediating role of psychological empowerment in relation to locus of control, LMX, work climate (learning, job ownership, vision), and creative performance among 197 employees in a field setting.  The impact empowerment dimension fully mediated LMX and creativity and partially mediated locus of control and creativity.


Composite Dimensionality, Model Fit, and Parameter Recovery in SEM

William M. Rogers, Grand Valley State University

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University

This simulation study assessed the effects of composite multidimensionality and choice of indicator-formation rules on model fit and recovery of true structural relationships.  Results suggest that indicator-formation rules largely determine overall model fit, whereas parameter recovery is partly an interactive function of unmodeled structural relationships and sample size.


The Mutual Suppression of Anxiety and Depression Within Escalation Dilemmas

Henry Moon, Michigan State University

Stephen Humphrey, Michigan State University

Brian Maue, Michigan State University

We find evidence of a mutual suppression effect between anxiety and depression upon level of commitment to escalation dilemmas. On the one hand, our results demonstrate that a positive relationship between anxiety and level of

commitment is reliant upon the partialling of depression. On the other hand, our results demonstrate that a negative relationship between depression and level of commitment is reliant upon the partialling of anxiety. 


Exploratory Factor Analysis in Organizational Research

James M. Conway, Central Connecticut State University

Allen I. Huffcutt, Bradley University

To update and extend Ford, MacCallum, and Taits 1986 review, we surveyed exploratory factor analysis practices in three major organizational journals from 1985 to 1999.  Ford et al. concluded that researchers had often applied factor analysis poorly, but our results for 369 studies show reason for greater optimism.


Using Item Response Theory to Identify Beta Change over Time in
Likert-Scale Job Satisfaction Data 

Adam Meade, University of Georgia

Janet E. Hecht, University of Georgia

Gary J. Lautenschlager, University of Georgia

Claudia R. Barroso, University of Georgia

Garnett S. Stokes, University of Georgia

Recently, researchers have had considerable success establishing measurement equivalence of longitudinal measures using confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) techniques.  However, the use of item response theory (IRT) techniques can provide additional information regarding longitudinal measurement equivalence that is not attainable with CFA techniques.  This paper illustrates a promising new technique for identifying beta change over time with IRT methods utilizing a longitudinal assessment of job satisfaction.  


Group Size, ICC (2) Values, and the Magnitude of Cross-Level Correlations

Amy N. Salvaggio, University of Maryland

Mina Huang, University of Maryland

Seth Hayes, University of Maryland

Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland

This study investigated the effect of group size on cross-level correlations.  We found that group mean reliability (ICC (2) values) increased as group size increased.  Furthermore, small group sizes attenuated the cross-level correlation.  Implications for designing cross-level studies and analyzing data based on unequal group sizes will be presented.


Gender Differences in Ability and Self-Estimates of Ability

Margaret E. Beier, Georgia Tech

Kristy R. Bowen, Georgia Tech

Phillip L. Ackerman, Georgia Tech

Gender differences in self-concept and self-estimates of abilities are examined in the context of correlates with, and gender differences in, objective measures of ability and knowledge.  Three studies of adults (total N = 550), aged 1869 are reviewed, and implications for self-assessment and selection/recruitment are addressed.


Evidence Against the Five-Factor Model of Personality for Job Applicants

Mark A. Smith, University of South Florida/TMP Worldwide

Karen O. Moriarty, University of South Florida/TMP Worldwide

Jonathan M. Canger, TMP Worldwide

A large sample of job applicants (n = 7,788) took the NEO PI-R during the hiring process.  Initial analyses provided some evidence in support of the five-factor model.  However, specific item-level factor analyses did not support the traditional five-factor structure.  Two of the 5 factors were clearly impression management factors.


Facet Analysis of the NEO PI-R in an Applicant Sample

Mark A. Smith, University of South Florida/TMP Worldwide

Erica C. Lutrick, University of South Florida/TMP Worldwide

A large sample of job applicants (n = 7,788) took the NEO PI-R during the application process.  Exploratory factor analysis of all 240 personality items showed unique factors for 18 of 30 facets.   However, clear impression management factors also emerged, obscuring measurement of other facets (including most facets from Conscientiousness and Neuroticism).


Consistency of Personality Scale Scores Across
Selection and Development Contexts

Jill E. Ellingson, Ohio State University

Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota

This study investigated whether scale scores change as a function of the context in which personality measures are completed. Using a within-subjects organizational data set, we compared personality scale scores within and across contexts. Results suggest that individuals respond similarly to personality measures whether in a selection or development context. 


Effects of Disposition and Positive Mood Induction on Teacher Evaluations

Mark D. Mincy, University of Southern Mississippi

Vincent J. Fortunato, University of Southern Mississippi

The present study was designed to examine the effects of disposition and a positive mood induction on student evaluations of teachers. Findings indicate that positive affectivity and a positive mood induction both related positively with evaluation measures. Implications for organizations and suggestions for future research are discussed. 


Modeling the Effects of Social Desirability on Goal Orientation

James A. Tan, University of Akron

Rosalie J. Hall, University of Akron

This research examined the extent to which social desirability contaminates the goal orientation construct. Our results indicated that social desirability biases both the learning and performance-avoid goal orientation scales but not the performance-prove scale. Also, our results indicated that social desirability differentially affects the relationship between goal orientation constructs.


Reducing Bias in the Schmidt-Hunter Meta-Analysis

Michael T. Brannick, University of South Florida

Steven M. Hall, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

The Schmidt-Hunter method of meta-analysis tends to overestimate the amount of variance due to sampling error.  We introduce a simple correction for the number of studies in the meta-analysis.  Monte-Carlo simulation is used to compare unit-weighted, Schmidt-Hunter uncorrected, and Schmidt-Hunter corrected variance estimates.  With small numbers of studies, the corrected formula is appreciably less biased than the original.


Comparison of Two Random-Effects Methods of Meta-Analysis

Michael T. Brannick, University of South Florida

Steven M. Hall, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Monte Carlo methods were used to compare the Schmidt-Hunter method of meta-analysis with the method described by Hedges and Vevea (1998).  We examined the accuracy of estimates of the mean, standard deviation, and credibility intervals of underlying (true, unattenuated) correlations for both methods.  The Schmidt-Hunter estimates were more accurate except when the number of studies and population variance of effect size were small.


Individual Differences in Work Preferences: The Development
of the Preferred Work Action Pattern Scale

Tracy Kantrowitz, Georgia Institute of Technology

Ruth Kanfer, Georgia Institute of Technology

The Work Orientation Inventory (WOI) is developed based upon Predigers (1982) conceptualization of vocational interests as people, things, data, and ideas and shows initial validity evidence in relation to personality, ability, and work preference measures in a sample of 177 adults.   The WOI scales are suggested to provide more proximal measurement of person determinants of performance than cross-situational personality measures.    


Good Feelings, Bad Decisions: Mood Induction and Escalation of Commitment

Ellyn G. Brecher-Kellerman, Temple University

Donald A. Hantula, Temple University

This research investigated the effects of mood on escalation of commitment. Escalation of commitment occurs when decision-makers continue to invest resources in a failing course of action.  Participants who experienced a positive mood state and received highly equivocal feedback on prior decisions invested more money than other participants did.


Personality and Job Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis

Timothy A. Judge, University of Iowa

Daniel Heller, University of Iowa

Michael K. Mount, University of Iowa

Using the five-factor model as an organizing framework, this study cumulated 271 correlations from 116 studies in meta-analyzing the relationship between the Big Five traits and job satisfaction. The estimated population correlations with job satisfaction were: Neuroticism =  .29, Extraversion = .26, Openness to Experience = .02, Agreeableness = .18, and Conscientiousness = .28.


The Relationship between Personality and the Proclivity to Sexually Harass

Karen Larrimer, Ohio University

Paula M. Popovich, Ohio University

The current research examined the relationship between personality and the proclivity to sexually harass. Specifically, the personality constructs of Narcissism and the Big Five were investigated.  Data from 197 students revealed that there was a relationship between several of these personality variables and ones proclivity to sexually harass.


Moderators of the Openness to ExperienceJob Performance Relationship

Lisa Burke, Louisiana State University

Lawrence A. Witt, Tulane University

Contrary to expectation, the relationship between openness to experience and performance has been nonsignificant in prior research.  We proposed and ultimately demonstrated, using a sample of 114 financial services employees, that other personality variablesincluding extraversion and emotional stabilitymoderate this relationship and help to account for prior findings.


Toward Integrating Broad and Narrow Reasoning for Personality
Effects in Problem-Solving Groups

Chantell Nicholls, University of Western Ontario

Mitchell Rothstein, University of Western Ontario

We used a construct-oriented approach to develop hypotheses relating personality to theoretically relevant work group variables. The results of a study with 57 problem-solving groups indicated that, in some cases, facet traits may be better predictors than the Big Five of work group variables.


The Interactive Effects of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness
on Job Performance

Lawrence A. Witt, Tulane University

Lisa Burke, Louisiana State University

Murray R. Barrick, Michigan State University

Michael K. Mount, University of Iowa

We hypothesized that the conscientiousnessjob performance relationship is stronger among persons high than low in agreeableness in jobs characterized by cooperative interaction.  Results indicated that among the highly conscientious workers in five samples requiring cooperative interaction, those high in agreeableness received higher performance ratings than those low in agreeableness.


Extroverts Low in Conscientiousness Produce the Greatest Sales Volume

Lawrence A. Witt, Tulane University

Meta-analytic results suggest that the extroversion-sales performance relationship cannot be distinguished from zero (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, in press).  Analyses of matched data on 491 sales representatives indicated that conscientiousness moderated the relationship between extroversion and objectively measured sales volume.  Extraverts low in conscientiousness produced the greatest volume of sales.


Organizational Support and Agreeableness as Predictors of
Organizational Citizenship

Lawrence A. Witt, Tulane University

K. Michele Kacmar, Florida State University

Moderated multiple regression analyses of matched data on 66 male and 27 female employees of a private sector organization indicated that agreeableness moderated the relationship between perceptions of organizational support and supervisor ratings of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB).  The supportOCB relationship was stronger among individuals high in agreeableness.


Leader Effectiveness among Patterns of Personality
Types and Creativity Styles

Melissa Gratias, Protective Life Corporation

Roseanne J. Foti, Virginia Tech

A person-centered approach was taken to the examination of the relation between multisource ratings of leader effectiveness and personality patterns based on MBTI and KAI preferences.  The pattern-focused approach suggested that indicators other than what would be predicted based on variable-centered studies also contribute to perceptions of leader effectiveness.   


The Role of Conscientiousness and Neuroticism in Predicting Police Corruption

Michael J. Cullen, University of Minnesota

Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota

This study was conducted to test the hypotheses that the personality variables related to conscientiousness and neuroticism are effective predictors of police officer corruption. The results generally support the conclusion that these two personality dimensions are effective predictors of corruption.  The results also suggest that more specific traits such as impulsivity, intolerance, and pessimism are effective predictors of police officer corruption.


Bimodal Score Distribution and the MBTI: Fact or Artifact?

Tammy L. Bess, Virginia Tech

Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Tech

Examination of item-response theory scores from 12,000 managers on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) revealed that past reports of distribution bimodality were essentially artifacts caused by using a small number of quadrature points in BILOG.  This finding raises questions regarding the MBTIs type-based view of the structure of personality.


Personality Profiles of Effective Service Providers

Ho-Chul Shin, Hogan Assessment Systems/University of Tulsa

This research attempted to identify personality profiles of effective service providers. The Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI) served as the predictor, and a composite of performance scales was used as the criterion.  Results indicate that service performance is associated with a distinct personality profile.


Normative Versus Ipsative Measures for Selection Purposes

Chieh-Chen Bowen, Cleveland State University

Beth A. Martin, John Carroll University

Steven T. Hunt, SHL

The study uses empirical data comparing responses on ipsative and normative versions of a 30-scale Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ). The results of profile analysis support the proposition that ipsative and normative measures could get very similar results. Ipsative measures showed high effectiveness in guarding against response distortions in selection situations.


Some Questions About the Relationship Between
Conscientiousness and Performance

Barbara Griffin, University of Sydney

Beryl Hesketh, University of Sydney

This research examined the relationship of domain and facet levels of conscientiousness with adaptability. Data on 260 university students showed that, unlike overall conscientiousness and other facets, Order and Deliberation did not predict adaptability in performance and did not correlate with other predictors of flexibility.


The Variance Architecture Approach to the Study of
Organizational Constructs

Dan J. Putka, Ohio University/Development Dimensions International

Jeffrey B. Vancouver, Ohio University

A novel approach for studying and classifying organizational constructs is introduced.  The approach focuses on delineating the relative dispersion of variance in constructs across the multiple levels on which they vary.  Unlike most methods in I-O psychology, single constructs are of focal interest, rather than the relationship among multiple constructs.


Affectivity, Personality, and Competency Correlates of Proactive Personality

Hsien-Yao Swee, National University of Singapore

Yee-Shiun Hong, National University of Singapore

David Chan, National University of Singapore

In order to establish the construct validity of proactive personality, this study examined associations between proactive personality and several individual difference variables (affective dispositions, personality, and competencies).  Convergent and discriminant validity evidence confirmed the hypothesized associations between proactive personality and the individual difference variables examined.


The Measurement of the Social Desirability of Items: A Reconceptualization

Nathan R. Kuncel, University of Minnesota

Auke Tellegen, University of Minnesota

This paper calls into question traditional methods of measuring the social desirability of items.   Results indicate that trait level often has nonlinear relationships with social desirability such that no general model of item desirability can be adopted that will accurately represent the relationship across all items, traits, and trait levels.


Individual-Difference Constructs Associated with Rating Discomfort

Thomas P. Sawyer, Elmhurst College

Lisa A. Hollis-Sawyer, Northeastern Illinois University

Amanda Pokryfke, Elmhurst College

The purpose of this study was to assess the relationships between personality constructs, social-evaluative anxieties, and rating discomfort. Neuroticism was significantly related to rating discomfort in the positive feedback condition only, while the opposite pattern was found for extraversion. Significant relationships were found between two social distress measures and discomfort. 


Relationships between Background Investigation Dimensions and MMPI2 Scales

Mark A. Mishken, NYS Unified Court System

Kevin Ruminson, NYS Unified Court System

Background investigations are often used as screening tools in law enforcement agencies. Ratings of personal characteristics based on background investigation data may be viewed as a method measuring personality dimensions.  This paper examines relationships between several MMPI2 scales and ratings of personal characteristics obtained from background investigation data.    


Using Appropriateness Fit to Identify Faking on a Personality Test

Lynn A. McFarland, George Mason University

Darin Wiechmann, Michigan State University

Celia W. Chandler, George Mason University

We examined if a measure of aberrance (based on IRT models) would successfully identify individuals faking on a popular personality selection test.  Although it was found that individuals did significantly increase their scores through faking, the measure of aberrance did not adequately identify those who faked.  


The Big Five as Predictors of Organizational Citizenship and Withdrawal

Kimberly Planansky, Minnesota State UniversityMankato

Daniel Sachau, Minnesota State UniversityMankato

Douglas Molitor, 3M

We examined the relationships among the Big Five personality factors and extra-role work behaviors.  Seven hundred forty-five hospital employees completed Goldbergs Big Five scale and Molitors Nonwork role Behaviors Rating Form (NWB).  Supervisors also provided NWB ratings for employees.  Conscientiousness was related to self and supervisor ratings of citizenship and withdrawal. 


Job Burnout: The Mediating Impact of States on Traits

Kelly Cellars, University of North CarolinaCharlotte

Wayne Hochwarter, University of Alabama

Pamela L. Perrew, Florida State University

Nicole Hoffman, University of Alabama

Extending research on the effects of personality and moods, this study examines the impact of traits and states in job burnout. LISREL analyses indicated that positive moods mediated the relationship between Extraversion and burnout while negative moods mediated between Neuroticism and burnout.  Suggestions for future research are offered.

111. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 11:50            Bel Aire Ballroom South (W)

Service Quality in Business-to-Business Relationships

Numerous I-O psychologists operate as business-to-business relationship managers, yet how they build, maintain, and even rebuild these relationships remains a researcher and practitioner question yet to be completely understood. The premise of this symposium is to bridge academia with practice to better understand how to effectively build and sustain business-to-business partnerships.

Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, Chair

David E. Bowen, Thunderbird, Developing High-Performance Customers as a Source of Sustainable Competitive Advantage

Beverly A. Dugan, HumRRO, Relationship Management in I-O Consulting Partnerships

Thomas W. Mason, Personnel Decisions International, Customer Service in I-O Consulting from an Applied Perspective

Sheila Simsarian Webber, Concordia University, Building Client Trust Through Effective Client Management

Marilyn K. Gowing, Assessment Solutions, Inc., Discussant

112. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 12:20                                    Terrace A (W)

Assessing and Reducing Adverse Impact

Minimizing adverse impact in personnel selection decisions is an important goal for personnel researchers.  The purpose of this symposium is to present methodological issues in the assessment of adverse impact, and to discuss strategies for reducing group differences in test performance.

Scott B. Morris, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chair

Scott B. Morris, Illinois Institute of Technology, Michael W. Collins, Illinois Institute of Technology, Testing for Adverse Impact When Sample Size is Small

Philip L. Roth, Clemson University, Philip Bobko, Gettysburg College, Fred S. Switzer, Clemson University, Michelle A. Dean, University of North Texas, The Influence of Range Restriction on Estimates of Ethnic Group Differences: An Analysis and Monte Carlo Simulation

Chad H. Van Iddekinge, Clemson University, Philip L. Roth, Clemson University, Allen I. Huffcutt, Bradley University, Carl E. Eidson, Wilson Learning Corporation, Structured Interview Ethnic Group Differences: Greater than We Thought?

Dennis Doverspike, University of Akron, Rosanna F. Miguel-Feruito, Barrett & Associates, Test-Wiseness Training as a Mechanism for Reducing Adverse Impact: Effects on Responses to Reading Comprehension Test Items with Omitted Passages

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Discussant

113. Roundtable: Saturday, 10:30 11:20                                    Catalina (W)

Why Should I-O Psychologists Be Studying Retirement?

There are two primary goals for the roundtable: (a) to discuss ways in which I-O psychologists can contribute to our scientific understanding of retirement, and (b) to identify some of the barriers to entry faced by those wishing to pursue research in this area and discuss ways to overcome them.

Gary A. Adams, University of Wisconsin Oshkosh, Co-Host

Kenneth S. Shultz, California State UniversitySan Bernardino, Co-Host

Mary Anne Taylor, Clemson University, Co-Host


114. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 12:20                                Point Loma B (W)

Reconsidering the Assumption of Rational Self-Interest
in Organizational Psychology

This symposium examines the insufficiency of rational self-interest as an explanation for attitudes and behavior in the workplace.  Four papers address a range of outcomes and theoretical perspectives, including job satisfaction, violation of expectations, intergroup conflict and negotiation, and fairness.   The findings suggest motivational and cognitive mechanisms beyond rational self-interest. 

M. Audrey Korsgaard, University of South Carolina, Chair

Bruce M. Meglino, University of South Carolina, M. Audrey Korsgaard, University of South Carolina, The
Assumption of Self-Interest in Models of Job Satisfaction

M. Audrey Korsgaard, University of South Carolina, Bruce M. Meglino, University of South Carolina, David C. Thomas, Simon Fraser University, Kevin Au, Chinese University Hong Kong, How Deliberative Are
Employees Responses to Violations?

Susan E. Brodt, Duke University, Waxing And Waning of Self-Interest: Cognitive and Motivational Aspects of Negotiations  

Robert G. Folger, Tulane University, Carmen Turillo, Jim Lavelle, Tulane University, Julie Gee, Tulane University, Beyond Cheap Talk: Third-Party, Self-Sacrificial Punishment of Unfairness

Avraham N. Kluger, Hebrew UniversityJerusalem, Discussant

115. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 11:30 12:50                Harbor Island III (E)

The Value of Licensure for I-O Psychologists: Skeptics and Converts Unite!

This panel discussion is designed to both educate SIOP members with regard to the ambiguities surrounding I-O licensure and to identify and debate the issues underlying the Shoulds of licensure for I-O psychologists.  Panelists will share their own experiences and insight bearing on these issues.

Deidra J. Schleicher, University of Tulsa, Co-Chair

Robert P. Tett, University of Tulsa, Co-Chair

Angelo S. DeNisi, Texas A&M University, Panelist

Douglas N. Jackson, Sigma Assessment Systems/University of Western Ontario, Panelist

P. Richard Jeanneret, Jeanneret & Associates, Inc., Panelist

S. Morton McPhail, Jeanneret & Associates, Inc., Panelist

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, Panelist

Vicki V. Vandaveer, The Vandaveer Group, Inc., Panelist

116. Roundtable: Saturday, 11:30 12:50          Bel Aire Ballroom North (W)

Measurement Issues in Customer Service: Wheres the Problem?

During this roundtable session we will discuss how customer service is, and should be, conceptualized and measured.  Advances, challenges, and conceptual paradigms (or lack thereof) will be addressed along with LOA, criterion, and definitional issues.  Results of a customer service benchmarking study will be presented for illustration at appropriate points.

Brian J. Ruggeberg, Assessment Solutions Inc., Co-Chair

William S. Battle, Assessment Solutions, Inc., Co-Chair

117. Roundtable: Saturday, 11:30 12:50                                    Catalina (W)

Strategic Evaluation Network: Sharing Lessons Learned

Network with others interested in evaluating the effectiveness and utility of I-O interventions. Explore ways to apply a systems framework to evaluating I-O programs that links the program to business strategy and desired outcomes.  Discuss the factors that facilitate and impede evaluation, and share lessons learned while conducting strategic evaluations.

Jeanne Carsten, Chase Manhattan Bank, Host 

Copies of papers can only be obtained from the authors. 

The e-mail addresses of SIOP members are on the SIOP Web site.



Program Table of Contents