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Saturday AM


Coffee Break: Saturday 7:308:00 Multiple Locations


77. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:009:20 Grand West

Downsizing and Restructuring: Practical and Legal Perspectives

This practitioner forum will present pragmatic models and perspectives associated with the implementation of downsizing and/or restructuring initiatives. These models and perspectives are intended to impart practical strategies and considerations to help organizations navigate through the complex issues associated with these initiatives. A lawyer will also discuss legal issues.

Carla Shull, Organizational Effectiveness Consultant, Chair

Jamie L. Winter, Development Dimensions International, A Staffing and Personnel Model for Organizations Facing Restructuring or Downsizing Initiatives

Allen M. Kamin, Applied Psychological Techniques., David S. Bernal, Applied Psychological Techniques, Susan H. Kamin, Applied Psychological Techniques, A Strategic Approach to Restructuring and Downsizing: Making the Most of a Difficult Situation

Laura L. Wolfe, Louisiana State University, Michael E. Moomaw, Applied Psychological Techniques, Richelle B. Southwick, Georgia Pacific, Downsizing and Restructuring: The Internal Consultant Perspective

Mary C. Dollarhide, Paul, Hastings, Janofsky & Walker LLP, Legal Defensibility and Downsizing: Avoiding Layoff Traps

Submitted by David S. Bernal, dbernal@appliedpsych.com


78. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:009:20 Grand Centre

Women as CEOs: Challenges of Crisis Management

In times of sudden crisis, conceptions of what constitutes leadership may dramatically change. Where gender is concerned, debates on leader qualities became extraordinarily complicated and include social, logistic, and legal issues. Relative to selection and development of women managers, these issues are discussed by experienced personnel psychologists and attorneys.

Mark J. Schmit, ePredix, Chair

Mary L. Tenopyr, Self-Employed, Panelist

Gerald V. Barrett, Barrett & Associates, Inc., Panelist

Wanda J. Campbell, Edison Electric Institute, Panelist

David W. Arnold, NCS Pearson, Inc., Panelist

Submitted by Mary L. Tenopyr, m.tenopyr@att.net


79. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Grand East

Developing Skill Standards for Competent Workers in High Performance Organizations

As part of a national strategy to enhance workforce skills, skill standards are being developed for competent frontline workers in high-performance work organizations. Members of the National Skill Standards Board Technical Team describe the research methodology developed to validate a national system of skill standards and certification.

Elizabeth B. Kolmstetter, National Skill Standards Board, Chair

Hal G. Gueutal, University at AlbanySUNY, Developing National Skill Standards: Technical Issues in Describing Areas of Work

James B. Hogan, ACT, Inc., Development of A Common Language and Format for Skill Standards

Eileen J. Antonucci, Organizational Perspectives, Inc., Validating National Skill Standards for the Competent Worker

Paul Squires, Applied Skills & Knowledge, Developing Skill Standards Built Upon High Performance Work Organizations Practices

Submitted by Elizabeth B. Kolmstetter, kolmstetter@NSSB.org

80. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:009:50 Conference B/C

Mergers and Acquisitions:  Measuring Their Impact on Employee Performance

What is the real impact of a merger or acquisition on employees? What are the resulting people issues that have the potential to effect business performance post merger? Participants will discuss their efforts to identify, measure, and address the impact of mergers and acquisitions on employee morale, performance, and retention.

Mary Lou Schaalman, Cambria Consulting, Chair

F. Robert Farrell, Compaq, Panelist

Lori Leonard, ALCOA Cleveland Works, Panelist

Lynne Richer, Terra/Lycos, Panelist

Allen Walker, Fortis, Panelist

Submitted by Mary Lou Schaalman, mschaalman@cambriaconsulting.com


81. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Conference D/E

HRM Across Cultures: From Selection Through Adaptation to Performance Appraisal

As more organizations become global they need to consider whether to apply their HR practices universally or to develop culture-specific practices. This symposium focuses on key theoretical and practical implications of cross-cultural HRM. Researchers and practitioners will present findings from cross-cultural studies of selection procedures, socialization practices, and performance evaluation.

Miriam Erez, Technion, Chair

Shung Jae Shin, Texas A&M University, Frederick P. Morgeson, Michigan State University, Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Expatriate Assignments: How the Requirements of International Jobs Differ from Domestic Jobs and How Cultural Values Impact Work Behavior

Monica Hemingway, Dow Chemical Company, Cultural Differences in Desired Selection Practices

Sharon Arad, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Tanya C. Delany, IBM, The Road Less Traveled: Mapping the Road to an Effective Global Selection Program

Georgia T. Chao, Michigan State University, Work Adjustment Issues for Expatriates and Host-Country Nationals: Implications for Cross-Cultural Organizational Socialization

Yair Berson, Polytechnic University, Miriam Erez, Technion, Seymour Adler, Aon Consulting, 360-Degree Feedback On Managerial Performance Across Cultures

Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland, Discussant

Submitted by Miriam Erez, merez@ie.technion.ac.il


82. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:009:50 Conference F

Models of Executive Education

Executive coaching is an active area of consulting practice. Despite the interest, there is little consensus regarding the specifics of the coaching process. This symposium features five people with considerable experience providing and/or evaluating coaching services who will comment on the strengths, shortcomings, and best practices of executive coaching.

Robert T. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Chair

Gordon J. Curphy, Personnel Decisions International, What Role Should I-O Psychology Play in Management Education?

Robert T. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Educating the Modern Manager

Robert B. Kaiser, Kaplan DeVries Inc., Outgrowing Sensitivities: The Deeper Work of Executive Development

Rex Blake, Blake Associates, Peter Flint, Flint Consulting, Directing and Measuring Executive Development: Why Multirater Feedback Systems are not Enough

Ann M. Quigley, National Skill Standards Board, Executive Education and Learning: A Practitioners View

David P. Campbell, Center for Creative Leadership, Discussant

Submitted by Robert T. Hogan, rhogan@hoganassessments.com


83. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Conference G

An Examination of the Motivational Consequences of Goal Orientation

This symposium examines (a) the dynamic influence of both trait and state goal orientation on behavioral, cognitive, and affective variables over time, such as performance, leadership performance, performance attributions, personal goals, perceptions, and affect as well as (b) the moderating influence of variables, such as feedback type, ability, and self-efficacy.

Vincent J. Fortunato, University of Southern Mississippi, Chair

Jennifer Z. Carr, Michigan State University, Richard P. DeShon, Michigan State University, Empirical Validation of a Process Model of Goal Orientation

Vincent J. Fortunato, University of Southern Mississippi, Andrew M. Goldblatt, University of Southern Mississippi, Effects of Goal Orientation on Goal Revision and Peformance Attributions

Paul R. Heintz, Wright State University, Debra Steele-Johnson, Wright State University, Anupama Narayan, Wright State University, Examining State Goal Orientation Effects: A Two-Dimensional Conceptualization

Lori Van Duyne, NAWCTSD, Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch, Naval Air Warfare Center, Clint A. Bowers, University of Central Florida, The Relationship Between Feedback, Goal Orientation, and Performance

Joseph Hendricks, Texas A&M University, Stephanie C. Payne, Texas A&M University, An Examination of the Relationship Between Goal Orientation and Leadership Effectiveness

Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University, Discussant

Submitted by Vincent J. Fortunato, v.fortunato@usm.edu


84. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:20 Essex

Contextual and Motivational Influences in Performance Appraisal

Interest in contextual factors influencing performance rating has increased recently. This symposium will discuss empirical findings from several streams of research arriving at the same conclusion: Contextual- and individual-level variables, such as rater goals, climate, rater personality, and rater motivation systematically effect the ratings that raters assign.

Kevin R. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University, Co-Chair

Ted Kinney, Colorado State University, Co-Chair

Ted Kinney, Colorado State University, Contextual Factors Predict Interrater Disagreements Among Olympic Judges

Amie L. Skattebo, Pennsylvania State University, Daniel A Newman, Pennsylvania State University, Ted Kinney, Colorado State University, Jeanette N. Cleveland, Pennsylvania State University, Rater Goals and Unit Climate Affect Rating Behavior

Denis Morin, University of Quebec at Montreal, Effect of Raters Goal-Directed Behaviors on Rating Inflation

Kevin R. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University, Aharon Tziner, Netanya University College, Jeanette N. Cleveland, Pennsylvania State University, Conscientiousness Moderates the Relationship Between Attitudes and Rating Behavior

Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University, Discussant

Submitted by Kevin R. Murphy, krm10@psu.edu


85. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Windsor

Incorporating Implicit Social Cognitions Into
Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Implicit social cognitions have emerged as a promising construct domain for expanding psychological theory. However, I-O psychologists have been hesitant to incorporate these unconscious cognitions into our theories. This session highlights how implicit cognitions can be incorporated into our discipline. Areas emphasized include job performance, employee discrimination, decision making, and personality.

James M. LeBreton, Wayne State University, Co-Chair

Michael D. McIntyre,University of Tennessee, Co-Chair

Michael Ingerick, George Mason University, Nicole M. Dudley, George Mason University, Jose M. Cortina, George Mason University, Karin A. Orvis, George Mason University, Dalit Lev-Arey Margalit, George Mason University, Kathryn Baughman, George Mason University, Integrating Implicit Cognitions into Theories of Job Performance: Issues of Convergent, Discriminant, and Predictive Validity

Jonathan C. Ziegert, University of Maryland, Paul J. Hanges, University of Maryland, Employment Discrimination: The Role of Implicit Attitudes and Motivation

William R. Walton, University of Tennessee, James C. Whanger, University of Tennessee, Scott Turner, University of Tennessee, The Impact of Situational Cues and Implicit Social Cognitions on Evaluative Judgments

Mark N. Bing, Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory, James M. LeBreton, Wayne State University, Debrah Z. Migetz, University of Tennessee, David B. Vermillion, Holland Employment, Heather K. Davison, University of Hartford, Integrating Implicit and Explicit Social Cognitions Associated with Achievement Motivation and Fear of Failure

Lawrence R. James, University of Tennessee, Discussant

Submitted by James M. LeBreton, jlebreto@sun.science.wayne.edu


86. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:009:20 York

Enhancing Leadership Effectiveness Within Organizations:
Strategies for Growing High-Potential Talent

Enhancing leadership effectiveness is a strategic imperative for many organizations. One important strategy is to focus on developing high potential talent to help ensure an organizations future leadership resources. This practitioner forum will offer three unique perspectives on this topic with speakers drawn from consulting, industry, and academia.

Eric D. Elder, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Chair

William C. Byham, Development Dimensions International, Why Most Succession Management Programs Fail and What Organizations Need to Do to Succeed

Ben E. Dowell, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eric D. Elder, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Accelerating the Development of Tomorrows Leaders: The Care and Feeding of High-Potential Talent

Morgan W. McCall, University of Southern California, George P. Hollenbeck, Hollenbeck Associates, Developing Executives: The Global Caveat

Submitted by Eric D. Elder, eric.elder@bms.com


87. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:20 Dominion North

What Happens Before Training?  The Impact of Pre-Training Processes/Experiences

Research examining the impact of pre-training processes and experiences on training outcomes is addressed. Two presentations focus on empirical research exploring needs assessment processes and their impact training outcomes. The two other presentations focus on the impact of pre-training interventions and information about trainer reputation on motivation and self-efficacy.

Wendy L. Richman-Hirsch, William M. Mercer, Inc., Chair

Wendy L. Richman-Hirsch, William M. Mercer, Inc., Julie B. Olson-Buchanan, California State UniversityFresno, Stefan Gaertner, William M. Mercer Inc., Fritz Drasgow, University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign, Reactions to Training needs Assessment: The Impact of Administration Medium

J. Bruce Tracey, Cornell University, Michael J. Tews, Cornell University, A Strategic Approach to Training Needs Analysis

Annette Towler, University of ColoradoDenver, Robert L. Dipboye, Rice University, Effects of Trainer Reputation and Need for Cognition on Training Outcomes

Daniel A. Weissbein, TATC Consulting, J. Kevin Ford, Michigan State University, Improving Training Effectiveness Through Motivation: Creating a Psychological States Intervention

Eduardo Salas, University of Central Florida, Discussant

Submitted by Wendy L. Richman-Hirsch, wendy.hirsch@us.wmmercer.com


88. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Dominion South

Leading the Way:  The Role of Leadership in Organizational Effectiveness

Audience members are invited to contribute by arguing for one of four explanations suggested by the presenters findings from four studies across international and work contexts: leader positive affect, leader reflexivity, transformational leadership style, and clear leadership irrespective of leader distribution.

Michelle (Mikki) Hebl, Rice University, Co-Chair

Michael West, University of Aston, Co-Chair

Jessica Bigazzi Foster, Rice University, Michelle (Mikki) Hebl, Rice University, Michael West, University of Aston, Jeremy F. Dawson, University of Aston, Setting the Tone for Organizational Success: The Impact of CEO Affect on Organizational Climate and Performance

Stephanie Kazama, Rice University, Jessica Bigazzi Foster, Rice University, Michelle (Mikki) Hebl, Rice University, Michael West, University of Aston, Jeremy F. Dawson, University of Aston, CEO Reflexivity, Organizational Climate and Organizational Change

Sarah MacCurtain, University of Limerick, Jennifer Farrell , University of Limerick, Patrick Flood, University of Limerick, Michael West, University of Aston, Ailish Hannigan, University of Limerick, Transformational Leadership, Top Management Group Trust and Organizational Climate for Innovation

Carol S. Borrill, University of Aston, Michael West, University of Aston, David S. Shapiro, University of Leeds, Leadership in Health Care Teams: Its Whether not How

David J. Harvey, D. E. Harvey Builders, Inc., Discussant

Submitted by Michael West, m.a.west@aston.ac.uk


89. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:20 Elgin

Differentiation of Self:  A Systemic Approach to Leadership in Organizations

Considerable attention has been given to the concept of differentiation of self as a way to understand leadership within a variety of work and family systems. This symposium addresses the ways in which major corporations are using the concept of differentiation in the development of their leaders.

Paul R. Yost, The Boeing Company, Chair

Homer Lori, University of Washington, Mary Mannion-Plunkett, The Boeing Company, David Gerson, Emotional Systems and Differentiated Leadership: A Developing Theory

Kimberly Chee, Microsoft Corporation, Growing Differentiated Leaders at Microsoft Corporation

Robert McKenna, Seattle Pacific University, Paul R. Yost, The Boeing Company, Laura Black, University of Washington, Megan Suggs, The Boeing Company, Identifying the Antecedents of Leadership Differentiation in Organizations

Nathan Brown, Seattle Pacific University, A Clinical Perspective on Leadership Differentiation

Submitted by Robert McKenna, rmckenna@spu.edu


90. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:008:50 Wentworth

Now That Were Grown UpChallenges Facing Mid-Career I-O Psychologists

I-O professionals across the discipline will discuss development challenges and strategies related to (a) the transition from entry-level to mid-career and (b) planning for late-career opportunities. This session will (a) highlight emerging mid-career competencies (b) discuss related developmental strategies and (c) provide networking opportunities for mid-career members.

Laura J. Shankster-Cawley, SHL, Chair

Steven E. Walker, JPMorgan Chase, Panelist

Bernard J. Nickels, U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Panelist

Brian D. Cawley, SHL, Panelist

Paul E. Levy, University of Akron, Panelist

Submitted by Brian D. Cawley, Brian.Cawley@shlgroup.com


91. Symposium: Saturday, 8:009:50 Kenora

Dispositional Influences on Work-Related Attitudes

The papers in the symposium investigate the mediating role of personality in explaining genetic influences on job satisfaction, compare validities of different personality frameworks in predicting job satisfaction, present meta-analytic estimates of the relationships between affective traits and job attitudes, and address the issue of measurement error in dispositional research.

Remus Ilies, University of Florida, Co-Chair

Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida, Co-Chair

Remus Ilies, University of Florida, Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida, On the Heritability of Job Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Personality

Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida, Daniel Heller, University of Iowa, The Dispositional Sources of Job Satisfaction: An Integrative Test

Carl J. Thoresen, Tulane University, Seth Kaplan, Tulane University, Christopher R. Warren, Tulane University, Adam Barsky, Tulane University, Kelly Goff, Tulane University, The Affective Underpinnings of Job Perceptions and Attitudes:

Huy Le, University of Iowa, Frank L. Schmidt, University of Iowa, Kristy Lauver, University of Iowa, An Empirical Re-Examination of the Relationship between Affectivity and Job SatisfactionDoes Controlling for Measurement Error Make a Difference?

Richard D. Arvey, University of Minnesota, Discussant

Submitted by Remus Ilies, iliesr@ufl.edu


92. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:009:20 Simcoe/Dufferin

Practical Issues with Technology-Based Assessments

This forum addresses practical concerns with using technology to develop and administer non-paper/pencil assessments (phone surveys, Internet surveys, computer-based tests), and emphasizes problems encountered and solutions offered during project execution. Each of the four case studies presents the project background, issues encountered, solutions used, and the final outcome.

Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chair

David M. Waldschmidt, Wonderlic, Inc./IIT, Telephone Delivery of a Paper-and-Pencil Personality Assessment

Lisa Sandora, Microsoft Corporation/IIT, Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, David S. Pegorsch, United Airlines, Psychometric and Practical Issues in Administering an Employee Opinion Survey

Casey Mulqueen, American Institutes for Research, Development and Administration of Internet-Based Surveys

David Blitz, Computer Adaptive Technologies/IIT, Betty A. Bergstrom, Computer Adaptive Technologies, Conversion of a Certification Test to a Computer-Adaptive Format

Submitted by David Blitz, dblitz@catinc.com


93. Symposium: Saturday, 8:309:50 Huron

New Perspectives on Trust in Work Relations: Outcomes and Implications

Four papers explore trust as it exists in several important, yet under-explored, forms: being trusted by coworkers, collective trust, trust between groups, and mutual trust between supervisors and subordinates. The symposium provides insight into the meaning, outcomes, and implications of trust as it exists in these alternative forms.

Kurt T. Dirks, Washington University in St. Louis, Chair

Daniel Skarlicki, University of British Columbia, Kurt T. Dirks, Washington University in St. Louis, Is it Better to Give or Receive Trust? The Relationship of Trust Among Coworkers and Individual Performance

Tony Simons, Cornell University, Judi McLean Parks, Washington University in St. Louis, Empty Words: The Impact of Perceived Managerial Integrity on Employees, Customers and Profits

Don Ferrin, SUNYBuffalo, Michelle Bligh, State University of New York, Jeffrey Kohles, California State UniversitySan Marcos, Trust, Monitoring and Cooperation in Mixed-Motive Negotiations: A Causal Examination of Competing Theories and a Comparison across Levels

Susan E. Brodt, Duke University, Ellen M. Whitener, University of Virginia, M. Audrey Korsgaard, University of South Carolina, The Role of Trustworthy Behavior in Rebuilding Trust: The Risks and Rewards of Open Communication

Roderick M. Kramer, Stanford University, Discussant

Submitted by Kurt T. Dirks, dirks@olin.wustl.edu


94. Symposium: Saturday, 8:309:50 Kent

Virtual Teams: Exploring the Role of Communication and Trust

This symposium highlights current theory and research on virtual teams, focusing on the heightened role of trust and communication processes in these types of teams. Collectively, theory and research presented in this symposium support the proposition that trust and communication are salient factors associated with virtual team effectiveness.

Terry R. Halfhill, University of North Texas, Co-Chair

Tjai M. Nielsen, RHR International, Co-Chair

Jeffrey M. Stanton, Syracuse University, Information Boundary Theory for Virtual Teams

Bradley L. Kirkman, University of North CarolinaGreensboro, Cristina Gibson, University of Southern California, Benson Rosen, University of North Carolina, Paul Tesluk, University of Maryland, Understanding Reactions to Working in Virtual Team Environments: Integrating Team and Technology Factors

Lori Foster Thompson, East Carolina University, Michael D. Coovert, University of South Florida, When Intelligent Agents Join the Team: Examining Human-Computer Collaboration

Eric Sundstrom, University of Tennessee, Discussant

Submitted by Terry R. Halfhill, halfhill@unt.edu


95. Poster Session: Saturday, 8:309:50 Sheraton Hall

Conflict, Leadership, and Teams

95-1 Features of Transactive Memory Systems Within Intact Work Groups

Transactive memory systems have been linked to work group effectiveness in laboratory studies. The results of this study provide evidence of naturally occurring transactive memory systems in intact work groups, and suggest that their development may be related to certain aspects of group structure and organizational management practices.

Estelle Payne, University of Western Australia

John Cordery, University of Western Australia

Submitted by John Cordery, jcordery@ecel.uwa.edu.au

95-2 Situational Goal Orientation: An Antecedent and Outcome of Goal Setting

The present study examined the role of situational goal orientation (SGO) in the process of goal establishment, as well as the impact of goal-performance discrepancies (GPDs) on subsequent SGO. The results indicated that SGO predicted goal choice and that an individuals subsequent SGO was significantly related to their GPD.

John J. Donovan, Virginia Tech

Carl J. Swander, Ergometrics

Submitted by John J. Donovan, donovan@vt.edu 

95-3 Effects of Viewing Power as Expandable or Limited: Influencing Performance

Experimental results from China indicate that participants provided directly relevant information to employees when they viewed power as expandable rather than independent or limited, and when they believed the employee was unable rather than unmotivated. Believing power is expandable and cooperative goals may contribute to the constructive use of power.

Dean W. Tjosvold, Lingnan UniversityHong Kong

Peter T. Coleman, Columbia University

Haifa Sun, Zhong San University

Chun Hui, Chinese University of Hong Kong

Submitted by Dean W. Tjosvold, tjosvold@LN.EDU.HK 

95-4 CEO Leadership and Compensation

The relationship between CEO transformational leadership and CEO compensation characteristics is examined. A reciprocal relationship is suggested. Prospective CEOs with transformational leader characteristics are attracted to compensation characteristics such as high pay level and compensation risk, and CEOs with long-term incentive plans are more likely to display transformational leadership behaviors.

Mahmut Bayazit, Cornell University

Submitted by Mahmut Bayazit, mb124@cornell.edu 

95-5 Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Styles: Are There Really Five Dimensions?

Although models of conflict-resolution style vary, the five-factor view is widely accepted. Evidence underlying one prominent measure, the ROCI-II, is problematic, however, raising concerns about its factor structure. Confirmatory tests of nested two-, three-, four-, and five-factor models provide new support for five conflict-resolution styles.

Paul F. Rotenberry, University of Akron

Philip J. Moberg, University of Akron

Nathan Miller, University of Akron

Submitted by Paul F. Rotenberry, pfroten@uakron.edu 

95-6 Strike Threats: Predictors of Strain Outcomes in Affected Third Parties

Third parties to a university labor dispute (i.e., 241 students) who felt strike outcomes would be fair believed a strike was justified. Students experienced high strain when facing strike-related disruptions. Students who believed they had control over the dispute and policies experienced low strain, regardless of disruption levels.

Arla L. Day, Saint Marys University

Veronica Stinson, Saint Marys University

Victor M. Catano, Saint Marys University

Submitted by Arla L. Day, Arla.Day@StMarys.ca 

95-7 Supervisor Support and Employee Performance: The Role of Perceived Values

Relationship between perceived supervisor support and supervisor-rated employee performance was examined. Espoused and enacted support were related to perception of a supportive environment and employee performance. Espoused support was linked to enacted support, but not other variables. Enacted support was linked to performance by perception of a supportive environment.

Kelley J. Slack, University of Houston

Jason M. Etchegaray, University of Houston

Allan P. Jones, University of Houston

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston

Nancy Da Silva, San Jose State University

Jean Kantambu Latting, University of Houston

Mary H. Beck, University of Houston

Submitted by Kelley J. Slack, kslack@bayou.uh.edu 

95-8 Transformational Followership:  Longitudinal Study of Follower Characteristics as Predicting Leadership

Longitudinal field study among 54 groups of military leaders and their direct and indirect followers tested follower characteristics as predictors of leadership. Generally, results indicated follower initial relatedness to the leader and developmental level predicted transformational leadership, yet, the relationships for different levels of followership were more complex than hypothesized.

Taly Dvir, Tel Aviv University

Boas Shamir, Hebrew University

Submitted by Taly Dvir, talyd@post.tau.ac.il 

95-9 Character Education and Assessment at the U.S. Air Force Academy

This paper discusses the evolution and theoretical underpinnings of character education and assessment at the United States Air Force Academy. The need for a character education program at the Academy will be described. The evolution of the character assessment program at the Academy will also be detailed.

Cassie B. Barlow, U.S. Air Force

William H. Hendrix, U.S. Air Force Academy

Submitted by Cassie B. Barlow, cassie.barlow@maxwell.af.mil 

95-10 Self-Determination Theory as a Framework for Understanding Organizational Commitment

Employees completed questionnaires on motivation and commitment twice during a 13-month period. Autonomous motivation had stronger links to commitment than controlled motivation. Autonomously motivated people were more committed to the organization 13 months later. The opposite pattern was not supported. Autonomously motivated people experienced positive changes in commitment over time.

Marylene Gagne, Concordia University

Richard Koestner, McGill University

Submitted by Marylene Gagne, mgagne@jmsb.concordia.ca 

95-11 Predicting Managers Influence Tactic Strategies

This study tests theoretical linkages between the Big Five and managers influence tactic strategies. Longitudinal data from 189 managers at 140 organizations confirmed most links between personality and influence tactics. Regardless of personality traits, results also confirmed that managers influence tactic strategies depended on the leadership style of their target.

Daniel M. Cable, University of North Carolina

Submitted by Daniel M. Cable, dan_cable@unc.edu 

95-12 Leadership Style and Group Creativity

Leadership style and group process (conflict and engagement in the task) were shown to affect project quality in different ways depending on whether quality was a measure of creativity or project worthiness in a study of 64 student teams which performed some type of school/community service.

Linda A. OHara, California State University, Long Beach

Submitted by Linda A. OHara, lohara@csulb.edu 

95-13 The Antecedents of Effort: A Multilevel Perspective

This study investigated the antecedents of effort on a dynamic task at the within- and between-person levels of analysis. Practice and difficulty influenced effort at the within-person level. Moreover, these intraindividual relationships were moderated by ability and conscientiousness, showing that individuals vary in their response to task conditions.

Gillian B. Yeo, University of QueenslandAustralia

Andrew Neal, University of QueenslandAustralia

Submitted by Gillian B. Yeo, g.yeo@psy.uq.edu.au 

95-14 Mentor Function and Proteges Psychological Contracts:  An Exchange Theory Perspective

This study utilizes an exchange theory framework to examine the influence of mentor function on the development of proteges psychological contracts with their organizations. Results suggest that this relationship is mediated by perceptions of organizational justice and attributions regarding the organization as a viable exchange partner.

Shana A. Simon, Applied Psychological Techniques, Inc.

Submitted by Shana A. Simon, ssimon@appliedpsych.com 

95-15 Leadership Support in an Austere and Dangerous Environment

The present study examined the generalizability of the demands-control-support model in a highly stressful, ambiguous environment. The subjects consisted of 1,102 junior enlisted soldiers deployed to Kosovo. As predicted, leadership climate played an important role in whether or not job control buffered the effects of high work overload.

Paul D. Bliese, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

Robert V. Bienvenu, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

Carl A. Castro, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

Amy B. Adler, U.S. Army Medical Research UnitEurope

Submitted by Paul D. Bliese, paul.bliese@na.amedd.army.mil 

95-16 The Influence of Gender and the Pygmalion Effect on Group Performance

This study tested whether female leaders can create the Pygmalion effect. Results showed that female leaders can influence subordinate performance. Effects of leader gender were moderated by the type of criteria (quantity versus quality) used to measure performance. Women leaders do inspire better performance from subordinates through the Pygmalion effect.

Carolyn A. Lees-Hotton, Center for Business/Economic Development

Daniel J. Svyantek, University of Akron

Submitted by Daniel J. Svyantek, dsvyantek@uakron.edu 

95-17 Helping Behavior in Work Groups: A Multilevel Analysis

Results of this multilevel study demonstrate cross-level relationships for group cohesion and norms for cooperation (positive) as well as for group conflict (negative) with individual helping behavior (peer-rated). Group-level results show minimum helping was positively related to group performance and variability of helping was negatively related to group performance.

Linn Van Dyne, Michigan State University

K. Yee Ng, Nanyang Technological University

Submitted by Linn Van Dyne, vandyne@msu.edu 

95-18 Transformational Leadership Through Empowerment, Cohesiveness, and Collective Efficacy

We examined whether transformational leadership would relate to group members self-assessed empowerment, group cohesiveness, and group effectiveness. We also examined how empowerment and group cohesiveness related to group members collective efficacy and group effectiveness. PLS results showed that transformational leadership were positively related to empowerment, group cohesiveness, and effectiveness.

Dong I. Jung, San Diego State University

John J. Sosik, Pennsylvania State University

Submitted by John J. Sosik, JJS20@PSU.edu 

95-19 SelfOther Agreement on Charismatic Leadership, Impression Management, and Performance

We examined whether 83 information technology consultants, classified as under-estimators, in-agreement/good (poor) or over-estimators of their charismatic leadership, would differ on impression management strategies and performance as perceived by their subordinates and superiors. Selfother rating groups differed on ingratiation, exemplification, intimidation, supplication, and performance. Subordinates and superiors viewed impression management differently.

John J. Sosik, Pennsylvania State University

Dong I. Jung, San Diego State University

Submitted by John J. Sosik, JJS20@PSU.edu 

95-20 Influence Tactics and Work Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

The current study utilizes meta-analytic techniques to estimate the true population correlations between influence tactics and work-related outcomes. Results indicate that ingratiation and rationality have positive effects on work outcomes. Additional analyses suggest that these and other influence tactics have significant effects in certain situations and on specific work outcomes.

Chad A. Higgins, University of Washington

Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida

Gerald R. Ferris, Florida State University

Submitted by Chad A. Higgins, chiggins@u.washington.edu 

95-21 The Dispositional Source of Leadership: Investigating the Processes

This study tested a process model of the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and leadership perceptions using three samples. Results revealed that neuroticism and extraversion were the most consistent predictors of leadership. Additionally, the hypothesized mediators explained most of the relationship between the traits and perceived leadership.

Amy E. Colbert, University of Iowa

Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida

Submitted by Amy E. Colbert, amy-colbert@uiowa.edu 

95-22 E-Leaders Versus Traditional Leaders: A Qualitative Biographical Analysis

This paper examines current concepts of e-leadership. The business literature indicates that e-leaders require different leadership traits than traditional leaders. Standardized biographic profiles of 41 successful e-leaders and 50 traditional leaders were compared. A number of traits that appear to be embraced more by e-leaders than traditional leaders were identified.

Kelly Higgins, NCS Pearson

John W. Jones, NCS Pearson

Willam A. Paddock, NCS Pearson

Submitted by Kelly Higgins, kdhiggins@ncs.com 

95-23 Testing Two Explanations for Goal-Setting Effects: A Persistent Question

It is widely accepted that goal setting works. Why it works is controversial. This paper examines two theoretical explanations (goal-setting theory and control theory) for goal-setting effects. Computational models based on each explanation were developed and compared to data collected from participants. The results supported the control theory account.

Charles A. Scherbaum, The Ohio University

Jeffrey B. Vancouver, The Ohio University

Submitted by Charles A. Scherbaum, charles.scherbaum.1@ohio.edu 

95-24 Effects of Team Composition on Team Adaptation and Performance

Results from a laboratory study of 73 teams showed that after an unforeseen change in the task context, performance was superior for teams composed of members with higher cognitive ability, openness to experience, achievement striving, and lower dependability. Moreover, the team composition effects were mediated by role structure adaptation.

Jeffery A. LePine, University of Florida

Submitted by Jeffery A. LePine, LePineja@notes.cba.ufl.edu 

95-25 Examining the Influence of Supervisor-Subordinate Agreement on LMX Relationships 

Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) research has traditionally focused on individual LMX perceptions (i.e., supervisor LMX, subordinate LMX). However, LMX theory stresses the importance of mutuality and shared expectations. The current research found that supervisor-subordinate LMX agreement was significantly related to subordinate performance ratings, subordinate overall job satisfaction, and subordinate organizational commitment.

John M. Ford, CWH Management Solutions

Gary J. Greguras, Louisiana State University

Submitted by John M. Ford, jmford0214@aol.com 

95-26 Evaluation of Task Performance: Do Groups Make a Difference?

This study was designed to replicate and extend research (Jourden & Heath, 1996; Heath & Jourden, 1997) about the performance illusions held by group members and individuals working alone. Two explanations for previous findings were explored: perceived verifiability and information exchange during performance. Results supported these explanations.

Erin Ross, University of Western Ontario

Natalie J. Allen, University of Western Ontario

Submitted by Erin Ross, erin_m_ross@hotmail.com 

95-27 Proof at Last: Empirical Support for Spontaneous Leadership Perceptions

This experiment tested leader categorization theory. Utilizing a 2 (prime, no prime) x 2 (prototypic, non-prototypic stimulus) x 2 (think-aloud /no think-aloud) x 2 (prototypic, non-prototypic word) mixed design, this study overcame the methodological flaws that have prevented prior research from empirically proving that leadership perceptions are spontaneous.

Patrick J. King, Northern Illinois University

Chris P. Parker, Northern Illinois University

Submitted by Patrick J. King, pking10185@aol.com 

95-28 Self-Perceived Efficacy, Sex, and Communication Style in Group Decision-Making Task

Perceived self-efficacy was examined between males and females in group decision-making. Males and females did not differ in perceived influence versus actual influence. Males and females significantly differ on perceived influence in the face-to-face condition. Males and females perceive themselves to be as influential as they actually are.

Jacki LaGanke, Wayne State University

Lori LePla, Wayne State University

Marcus W. Dickson, Wayne State University 

Submitted by Marcus W. Dickson, marcus.dickson@wayne.edu

95-29 Work Team Performance: A Meta-Analytic Comparison of Selection Methods

A meta-analytic comparison of three selection methods in predicting team/group performance, satisfaction, and cohesion was conducted. Although cognitive ability, personality traits, and sociometric methods each significantly predicted team/group performance, satisfaction, and cohesion, sociometry proved most effective in predicting performance and cohesion, and cognitive ability proved most effective in predicting satisfaction.

Sherman B. Serna, Northern Illinois University

Mark Posmer, Northern Illinois University

Daren Protolipac, Northern Illinois University

George A. Neuman, Northern Illinois University

Submitted by Sherman B. Serna, sserna@niu.edu 

95-30 No Credit Where Credit is Due: Women in Work Teams

These studies explore whether teams perpetuate gender stereotyping of the women working in them. We hypothesized that if a female group members individual contribution was ambiguous, she would be evaluated less favorably than her male counterpart for a successful outcome. The results of two experimental studies supported our predictions.

Michelle Haynes, New York University

Madeline E. Heilman, New York University

Submitted by Michelle Haynes, MH561@nyu.edu 

95-31 Individual Team-Member Ability and Group-Level Metacognition

This study replicated the work of Kruger and Dunning (1999) and extended these results to the dyadic-level. Specifically, we found that those groups who perform the highest were most accurate at performance self-assessment, whereas those dyads that consisted exclusively of low-performing members were least accurate in assessing their own performance.

Jarrett H. Shalhoop, University of Akron

Rosalie J. Hall, University of Akron

Jennifer L. Philips, University of Akron

Submitted by Jarrett H. Shalhoop, shalhoop@hotmail.com 

95-32 Remote Transformational Leadership

One hundred five (105) undergraduates completed individual and group problem-solving tasks after reading e-mails containing either intellectually stimulating or charismatic messages in a 2 x 2 design. Participants properly identified the leadership style intended by the e-mail. Motivation was higher and both individual and group performance better in the leadership conditions.

E. Kevin Kelloway, St. Marys University

Elizabeth S. Kelley, St. Marys University

Bernadette Gatien, St. Marys University

Julian I. Barling, Queens University

Submitted by E. Kevin Kelloway, kevin.kelloway@stmarys.ca 

95-33 Cusp, Quasi-Cusp, and Butterfly Catastrophe Models of Employee Strike Willingness

Cusp, quasi-cusp, and butterfly catastrophe models of employee strike willingness were developed and validated. The butterfly catastrophe effectively unified the complex and multidimensional strike willingness construct. Union and organizational strategies in contract negotiation naturally emerged from the developed models. Procedural justice is predicted to mediate strike willingness decisions.

Daniel C. Kuang, Portland State University

Jenny C. Kuang, Old Dominion University 

Submitted by Daniel C. Kuang, dankuang@hotmail.com 

95-34 Using Microworlds to Understand Team Cohesiveness and Performance

The research used an air traffic control microworld to investigate the relationship between team cohesiveness and team performance. A repeated cross-lagged panel design was used on 10 teams. Significant effects were found for performance predicting cohesiveness. The theoretical and practical implications of using microworlds to study teams are discussed.

Clive Fullagar, Kansas State University

David O. Egelston, Kansas State University

Submitted by Clive Fullagar, fullagar@ksu.edu 

95-35 Negotiation: Meta-Analyses and a Path Model

The study of negotiation has been characterized by a multitude of studies, each examining a limited number of variables. This paper presents a multivariable model of the negotiation process and tests it via a series of meta-analyses and a follow-up path analysis.

Jane A. Halpert, DePaul University

Alice F. Stuhlmacher, DePaul University

Ryan Bortel, DePaul University

Fumiko Itaya, DePaul University

Jeffrey L. Crenshaw, DePaul University

Christopher Litcher, DePaul University

Submitted by Alice F. Stuhlmacher, astuhlma@depaul.edu 

95-36 VDL: A Leadership Theory of Work Group Level Performance

Vertical Dyadic Linkage (VDL) theory is revisited as a leadership theory of group-level performance and two competing propositions regarding differentiating or not differentiating are argued to be complementary rather than contradictory. Previous findings are discussed in light of this argument, as are suggestions for future research.

Harold W. Goldstein, Baruch CollegeCUNY

Orly Dotan, Baruch CollegeCUNY

Submitted by Harold W. Goldstein, harold_goldstein@baruch.cuny.edu 

95-37 Communication Medium and Member Familiarity: Effects on Time and Accuracy

A moderating effect of member familiarity on the impact of communication medium on group decision time and accuracy was explored. Computer-mediated groups with familiar members took less time to reach consensus but also made less accurate decisions than less familiar groups. Familiarity did not significantly affect face-to-face groups.

Susan J. Adams, Illinois Institute of Technology

Sylvia G. Roch, University at AlbanySUNY

Roya Ayman, Illinois Institute of Technology

Submitted by Susan J. Adams, sadams@iit.edu 

95-38 Transformational Leadership:  Relations to the FFM, Typical and Maximum Performance

This study examined the relationships among FFM, transformational leadership, and the typical and maximum performance of military team leaders and their combat teams. Results found that components of FFM were related to transformational leadership. Furthermore, transformational leadership was related stronger to maximum performance measures than typical performance measures.

Beng-Chong Lim, University of Maryland

Robert E. Ployhart, George Mason University

Submitted by Beng-Chong Lim, blim@psyc.umd.edu 

95-39 Commitment to Nested Collectives in Special Operations Forces

Special Operations personnel (n = 3,968) completed commitment, satisfaction, and career intentions scales. Affective commitment to nested organizational units (e.g., Special Operations and Military) was distinguishable from one another and military continuance commitment. A model portraying relationships between satisfaction and affective commitment at two organizational levels and career intentions was supported.

Tonia S. Heffner, U.S. Army Research Institute

Paul A. Gade, U.S. Army Research Institute

Submitted by Tonia S. Heffner, heffnert@ari.army.mil 

95-40 Organizational Conflict as a Proximal Source of Job Satisfaction

The relationship between organizational conflict and job satisfaction was investigated by positing a model in which environmental and dispositional antecedents of conflict and job satisfaction were considered. The model was tested using structural equation modeling on data provided by 241 respondents. Results strongly supported the specified model.

Caterina Bulgarella, New York University

Jonathan A. Rhoades, Mercer Delta

Submitted by Caterina Bulgarella, caterina@psych.nyu.edu 

95-41 Toward a Three-Factor Model of Organizational Leadership

Data from two studies support a three-factor model of organizational leadership. Pearson correlations and structural equation analyses supported the discriminant validity of these three leadership factors. Results support the distinction between providing direction, managing people and addressing core business, an aspect of leadership previously ignored by transformational leadership theorists.

Gabrielle M. Ostrognay, International Survey Research

Peter M. Hart, Insight SRC Pty Ltd

Submitted by Gabrielle M. Ostrognay, gabrielle.ostrognay@isrsurveys.com.au 

95-42 Cognitive Bases of Sexual Harassment Proclivities in Men and Women

This research examines the underlying cognitive associations between power and sex for men and women who are likely to sexually harass. Using the General Harassment Proclivity Scale and word slides, partial support was found for an unconscious association between power and sex for women and men high in harassment proclivities.

Heather M. Prather, The George Washington University

Jennifer Madden, Purdue University

Submitted by Heather M. Prather, hprather@gwu.edu 

95-43 Computer-Mediated Versus Face-to-Face Communication:  Investigating Outcomes Across Task Types

Communicating via computer or face-to-face in a laboratory, three-person groups completed a related series of tasks that required increasing levels of coordination. Using measures of performance and multiple types of satisfaction, computer-mediated groups and face-to-face groups differed on measures of satisfaction but not performance. Results and implications are discussed.

Anton J. Villado, California State UniversitySan Bernardino

Janelle A. Gilbert, California State UniversitySan Bernardino

Submitted by Janelle A. Gilbert, Janelle@CSUSB.edu 

95-44 Trust in Team Members: The Role of Value Congruence

We propose that when individuals believe other team members share their values, they view them as engaging in trustworthy behaviors. Polynomial regression results indicate that congruence on achievement values predicts ratings of team member ability and integrity, while congruence on concern for others predicts ratings of ability and benevolence.

Erin C. Johnson, University of Iowa

Amy L. Kristof-Brown, University of Iowa

Suzanne S. Masterson, University of Cincinnati 

Submitted by Erin C. Johnson, erin-johnson@uiowa.edu 

95-45 Team and Organizational Attitudes:  A Lens/Mirror Impacting Customer Satisfaction

This study examined whether the team and organizational attitudes of self-managed team members differed depending on levels of customer satisfaction. Results indicated that organizational attitudes that were positively associated with customer satisfaction were not the same as team attitudes, suggesting research should focus on both levels of attitudes.

Lucy L. Gilson, University of Connecticut

Christina E. Shalley, Georgia Institute of Technology

Terry C. Blum, Georgia Institute of Technology

Submitted by Christina E. Shalley, Christina.Shalley@mgt.gatech.edu 

95-46 Development of an Experience Measure:  The Leadership Experience Inventory (LEI)

Using content analysis, a measure was developed that considers both the qualitative and quantitative aspects of leadership experience. The 118-item experience measure was then completed by 2,727 leaders and related to assessment center performance. The results demonstrate the value of considering both the qualitative and quantitative nature of experience.

Paul T. Van Katwyk, Personnel Decisions International

Paul E. Spector, University of South Florida

Submitted by Paul T. Van Katwyk, paulv@pdi-corp.com 

95-47 Destructive Leader Behavior: The Role of Personal Values

This research explored the relationship between personal values and destructive leadership. Student participants completed a managerial assessment center that included leadership-related problems and decisions. Personal values predicted destructive decision making and destructive solution generation. In addition, problem construction mediated the relationship between personal values and the destructiveness of problem solutions.

Jody J. Illies, St. Cloud State University

Roni Reiter-Palmon, University of NebraskaOmaha

Submitted by Jody J. Illies, jjillies@stcloudstate.edu 

95-48 Meta-Analysis of Conflict Resolution Instruments

This study meta-analyzed studies using conflict resolution style instruments. Results include females were higher on smoothing and compromising, males on forcing; avoiding was used more with peers than subordinates, compromising less with subordinates than superiors; high-context cultures were higher on avoiding, compromising, and problem-solving and lower on forcing than low-context cultures.

Jennifer Holt, Independent Consultant

Cynthia DeVore, University of Minnesota

Submitted by Jennifer Holt, jlholt1@netzero.net 

95-49 Exploring Transformational and Transactional Leadership From a Pattern-Oriented Perspective 

Leaders were classified based upon their pattern of scores across three types of leader behavior assessed by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire: transformational, contingent reward, and management-by-exception (MBE). In general, the best leaders exhibited a high level of transformational and contingent reward behaviors coupled with a low level of MBE behaviors.

Patrick Gavan OShea, American Institutes for Research

Roseanne J. Foti, Virginia Tech

Neil M. A. Hauenstein, Virginia Tech

Peter J. Bycio, Xavier University

Submitted by Patrick Gavan OShea, goshea@air.org 

95-50 Patterns and Variables: Evidence From Leadership Emergence and Effectiveness

This study examined variable and person approaches to studying the influence of individual differences on both leadership emergence and effectiveness. Results showed that cadets scoring high on the set of individual differences emerged as leaders, were promoted to other leadership positions, and were rated by their superiors as effective.

Roseanne J. Foti, Virginia Tech

Submitted by Roseanne J. Foti, rfoti@vt.edu 

95-51 Effects of Action-State Orientation and Goal Orientation on Performance

This investigation examined the roles of action-state orientation and goal orientation in predicting self-efficacy, goals, and performance. Action-state orientation predicted performance independent of ability, goal orientation, and goal-setting constructs. Goal orientation primarily impacted self-efficacy. Action-state orientation and goal orientation were correlated, but had independent effects on goal-setting and performance variables.

James M. Diefendorff, Louisiana State University

Submitted by James M. Diefendorff, jdiefen@lsu.edu 

95-52 Moderating Role of Goal Orientation on Self-Regulatory Processes

This longitudinal study examined the role of goal orientation as a moderator of the dynamic self-regulation of behavior involved in multiple goal strivings. Data was obtained from 147 students over a 10-week period. Learning goal-, performance approach-, and performance avoid-orientations moderated the relationship between goal-performance discrepancy and goal revision.

David J. Radosevich, The Ohio State University

Vandana Vaidyanathan, The Ohio State University

Sheau-yuen Yeo, The Ohio State University

Submitted by David J. Radosevich, radosevich.3@osu.edu 


96. Special Event: Saturday, 9:009:50 Wentworth

Local I-O Groups: Program Director Meeting

This session is being held for program directors (and other members) of local I-O groups to meet each other and share best practices. Ways in which SIOP can assist these groups, particularly in providing continuing education credits/professional development opportunities, will be explored. This session is being hosted/facilitated by the chair of SIOPs Professional Development Workshop Committee.

Karen M. Barbera, Personnel Research Associates, Chair

97. Debate: Saturday, 9:009:50 Civic Ballroom

Control Theory Versus Goal Theory: Which is the Proper Model?

Advocates of control theory and goal theory disagree over the merits of a discrepancy reduction view versus a goal attainment view of motivation. Recent studies have claimed to present further support for control theory. This debate will present competing claims regarding the proper approach to motivation.

Thomas W. Lee, University of Washington, Moderator

Edwin A. Locke, University of Maryland, Presenter

Jeffrey B. Vancouver, The Ohio University, Presenter

Submitted by Edwin A. Locke, elocke@rhsmith.umd.edu


Coffee Break: Saturday 10:0010:30 Multiple Locations

98. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:20 Grand West

Challenges and Strategies in International I-O Practice

This forum will describe SIOPs International Affairs Subcommittee, its goals and objectives, results of interviews with international practitioners, and information on international issues related to employment laws and regulations. One objective of the forum is to stimulate conversation about these topics among international practitioners in the audience.

Beverly A. Dugan, HumRRO, Chair

Beverly A. Dugan, HumRRO, Kingsley C. Ejiogu, Personnel Decisions International, Overview of the International Affairs Subcommittee

Robert A. Ramos, NACFAM/MSSC, Monica Hemingway, Dow Chemical Company, Challenges and Strategies for International Practice

James C. Sharf, Employment Risk Advisors, Joy Fisher Hazucha, Personnel Decisions International, Legal Considerations in the International Practice of I-O Psychology

Submitted by Beverly A. Dugan, bdugan@humrro.org


99. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Grand Centre

Compound Traits: The Next Frontier of I-O Personality Research

The papers in this symposium investigate the nature and validity of various compound traits. Compound traits include constructs such as integrity, customer service orientation, social competence, and adaptability. They are synthesized from various basic personality and other individual-difference traits to provide maximal prediction of work-related criteria of broad import.

Leaetta M. Hough, Dunnette Group, Ltd., Chair

Brent D. Holland, Hogan Assessment Systems, Joyce C. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, How to Measure Sociopolitical IQ

Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University, Incremental Validity of Criterion-Focused Occupational Personality Scales (COPS) over the Big Five, Integrity, and Cognitive Ability

Elaine D. Pulakos, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, David W. Dorsey, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Sharon Arad, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Jerry W. Hedge, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Walter C. Borman, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Further Tests of a Model of Adaptability to Predict Adaptive Performance

Robert J. Schneider, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Richard D. Roberts, University of Sydney, Eric D. Heggestad, Colorado State University, Exploring the Structure and Construct Validity of a Self-Report Social Competence Inventory

Kerrie L. Vanden Bosch, Michigan State University, Frederick L. Oswald, Michigan State University, The Relationship Between Social Competence and Occupational Preferences

Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota, Discussant

Submitted by Robert J. Schneider, Robert.Schneider@personneldecisions.com


100. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Grand East

Employee Development Programs: One Size Does Not Fit All

This Practitioner Forum will focus on different types of employee development programs. Presenters will use examples from private- and public-sector organizations to illustrate the impact that factors such as (a) intended purpose(s), (b) organizational goals, and (c) target population have on employee development programs.

Gary W. Carter, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Co-Chair

Cheryl J. Paullin, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Co-Chair

Cheryl J. Paullin, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Gary W. Carter, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Succession Management and Employee Development in the Public Sector: Building Roadmaps to Success

Alberto J. Galue, Verizon Communications, Succession Development System at Verizon Communications: A Multilevel Talent Approach Toward Building Leadership Bench

Ben E. Dowell, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Suzan L. McDaniel, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Thomas G. Lokar, Hay Group, The Design of Development Systems: The Critical Core Elements

Jeffrey J. McHenry, Microsoft Corporation, An Integrated Approach to Addressing Leadership Challenges

Submitted by Cheryl J. Paullin, cheryl.paullin@personneldecisions.com


101. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Conference B/C

Intersections of Workplace Mistreatment, Gender, and Occupational Health

This collection of papers focuses on better understanding the relevance of gender to interpersonal mistreatment in work organizations, with a particular examination of the impact of such mistreatment on employees occupational health.

Vicki J. Magley, University of Connecticut, Co-Chair

Lilia M. Cortina, University of Michigan, Co-Chair

Sandy Geok Peng Lim, University of Michigan, Lilia M. Cortina, University of Michigan, Interpersonal Mistreatment in the Workplace: Examining the Relationships Between Incivility, Gender Harassment, and Sexual Harassment

Vicki J. Magley, University of Connecticut, Retaliation Against Military Personnel Who Blow the Whistle on Sexual Harassment

Kathleen Rospenda, University of Illinois at Chicago, Judith A. Richman, University of Illinois at Chicago, Workplace Harassment, Gender, and Use of Services in Two Samples: Do Services Reduce Negative Mental Health and Drinking Consequences of Harassment?

Robert Hitlan, University of Texas at El Paso, Kimberly T. Schneider, Illinois State University, Armando X. Estrada, University of Texas at El Paso, Employees Reactions to Personal and Bystander Sexual Harassment Experiences

Kathi Miner-Rubino, University of Michigan, Lilia M. Cortina, University of Michigan, Influences of Gender on Outcomes of Working in a Hostile Context

Julian I. Barling, Queens University, Discussant

Submitted by Vicki J. Magley, vicki.magley@uconn.edu


102. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Conference D/E

Human Resources in Canada: The Workplace and Employee Survey Results

This symposium provides Canadian evidence on the determinants of firm success using a sample of exhaustive data from The Workplace and Employee Survey. The four papers in this symposium present a unique and first-ever look into the state of the art of human resources management in Canada.

Milton D. Hakel, Bowling Green State University, Chair

Simon Taggar, York University, Robert R. Haccoun, York University, Alan M. Saks, York University, Judy Eaton, York University, The Impact of Aligning Firm Strategy and HR Practices on the Reduction of Operating Costs, Increased Innovation, and Improved Product Services and Quality

Thornhill Stewart, University of Western Ontario, Simon Taggar, York University, Competencies or Computers: An Examination of Human Resource and Technology Investment Strategies

Judy Eaton, York University, Simon Taggar, York University, Important Antecedents of Organizational Innovation

Robert R. Haccoun, York University, Alan M. Saks, York University, Legislating Company Investments in Training: Does it Make a Difference?

Milton D. Hakel, Bowling Green State University, Discussant

Submitted by Alan M. Saks, asaks@yorku.ca


103. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Conference F

Minimizing Negative Stress Responses:  Lessons Learned From High Stress Occupations

The media has increased public awareness of negative stress-related responses at work. Screening and developing employees to minimize and avoid these negative responses is an important topic. This forum focuses on identifying and classifying negative stress-related responses at work and focuses on new selection and development methods.

Jared D. Lock, Hogan Assessment Systems, Chair

Ryan A. Ross, Hogan Assessment Systems, The Dark Side of Negative Stress-Responses in Correctional Officers

Tom Richards, CIA Office of Medical Services, The High Cost of Negative Stress Reactions in the Intelligence Community

John R. Leonard, Hewitt Associates LLC, Julie Anne Caplinger, Jeanneret & Associates Selecting Law Enforcement Officers: Concerns and Remedies

Laura Galarza, Rice University, Albert Holland, NASA, Psychological Screening of NASA Astronaut Applicants: Operational and Logistical Considerations

Submitted by Jared D. Lock, Jlock@HoganAssessments.com


104. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Conference G

Core Self-Evaluations: New Developments and Research Findings

This symposium presents recent research with respect to the relevance of core self-evaluations to work attitudes, choices, behaviors, and performance. Cumulatively, results demonstrate that core self-evaluations are directly and indirectly related to job behaviors and satisfaction, and to individuals choice of task complexity. Finally, a new CSE measure is proposed.

Remus Ilies, University of Florida, Co-Chair

Edwin A. Locke, University of Maryland, Co-Chair

Cathy C. Durham, California State UniversityNorthridge, Edwin A. Locke, University of Maryland, Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida, The Relationship of Core Evaluations to Behavior on the Job

Abhishek Srivastava, University of Maryland, Edwin A. Locke, University of Maryland, Timothy A. Judge, University of Florida, Dispositional Causes of Task Satisfaction: The Mediating Role of Chosen Level of Task Complexity

Carl J. Thoresen, Tulane University, Joyce E. Bono, University of Minnesota, The Core Self-Evaluations Scale: Development of a New Measure

Howard M. Weiss, Purdue University, Discussant

Submitted by Remus Ilies, iliesr@ufl.edu


105. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Essex

Workplace Diversity: Implications for Assessment, Perceptions, and Performance

The increased diversity of the U.S. workforce requires researchers to reevaluate their measures and methods. The papers in this session consider the impact of diversity on assessment methods and how this diversity affects performance and employee perceptions.

Lynn A. McFarland, George Mason University, Chair

Celia W. Chandler, George Mason University, Lynn A. McFarland, George Mason University, Crystal Michele Harold, George Mason University, Personality Test Responses and Reactions: The Role of Language and Culture

Lise M. Saari, IBM, Miriam Erez, Technion, Cross-Cultural Diversity and Employee Attitudes

Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University of Central Florida, Dianna L. Stone, University of Central Florida, Mark Hartman, University of Central Florida, Stereotypes of Ethnic Groups: Own Versus Assumed Views of Others

Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland, Lisa H. Nishii, University of Maryland, Multilevel Perspectives on Individualism and Collectivism

Susan E. Jackson, Rutgers University, Aparna Joshi, Rutgers University, Toward Understanding the Consequences of Team Diversity: A Multi-Level Analysis

Robert L. Dipboye, Rice University, Discussant

Submitted by Lynn A. McFarland, lmcfarla@gmu.edu


106. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Windsor

Web-Based Training: Best Practices and Research Directions

An increasing number of organizations are using the Internet to deliver their training and development programs. This symposium will describe current Web-based training efforts in organizations, give specific case studies, and describe results of research and best practices in this area. Audience participation will be encouraged.

Connie R. Wanberg, University of Minnesota, Chair

Elizabeth T. Welsh, University of Minnesota, Connie R. Wanberg, University of Minnesota, Overview of Web-Based Training

Steven Teal, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Building an Enterprise-Wide Learning Strategy: Technology as a Tipping Point for Organizational Transformation

Lyn Hamilton, Dow Chemical, Learn @ dow.now Web-Based Training System

Kenneth G. Brown, University of Iowa, Dan V. Caprar, University of Iowa, A Review of Technology-Delivered Training from 19902000

Marcia J. Simmering, Lousiana State University, Individual and Organizational Influences on Web-Based Training Effectiveness

Submitted by Connie R. Wanberg, cwanberg@csom.umn.edu


107. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:50 York

Computerized Assessment in Selection:  Critical Issues with Emerging Applications

While the use of technology-based psychological assessment has dramatically increased in recent years, the factors associated with effective implementation are often not well understood. This session will examine psychometric and implementation issues associated with transition to technology and new assessment applications. Examples and data representing various settings will be discussed.

Nancy T. Tippins, Personnel Research Associates, Inc., Chair

Wade M. Gibson, Psychological Services, Inc., When Computerized Assessments Work Well: Application Issues

John A. Weiner, Psychological Services, Inc., Computerizing Cognitive Ability Assessments: Technical Issues in Development and Validation

Douglas H. Reynolds, Development Dimensions International, Evan F. Sinar, Development Dimensions International, Web-Based Qualifications Screening: An Evaluation of Popular But Uncharted Waters

Submitted by John A. Weiner, John@PSIonline.com


108. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Dominion North

Understanding the Nature, Antecedents, and Moderators of Test-Related Perceptions

This symposium addresses the nature, antecedents, and moderators of test-related perceptions. Four papers are presented examining questions, such as the role of individual differences and attitudinal determinants of test-related perceptions. The findings extend research and theory on test-related perceptions and raise practical issues relevant to organizational selection practices.

Jose M. Cortina, George Mason University, Co-Chair

Michael Ingerick, George Mason University, Co-Chair

Dalit Lev-Arey Margalit, George Mason University, Co-Chair

Dalit Lev-Arey Margalit, George Mason University, Michael Ingerick, George Mason University, Modeling the Effects of Test-Related Perceptions on Test Performance: Individual Differences in Test-Related Perceptions as Predictors and Moderators of Person Fit

Donald M. Truxillo, Portland State University, Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University, Rainer Seitz, Portland State University, Does Cognitive Ability Moderate the Relationship Between Perceived and Actual Test Performance?

Robert E. Ployhart, George Mason University, Seth Hayes, University of Maryland, The Test-Takers Bill of Rights: What Do Applicants Want?

Seth Hayes, University of Maryland, Robert E. Ployhart, George Mason University, Using Cultural Mistrust to Understand BlackWhite Test Taking and Test Performance Differences

Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Discussant

Submitted by Michael Ingerick, mingeri1@gmu.edu


109. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Dominion South

The Real A.I.: Artificial Neural Networks, Statistics, and Psychological Theory

The purpose of this symposium is to explore the utility of artificial neural networks (ANN) for conceptual understanding and statistical modeling of behavior in work settings. The presenters discuss the benefits and limitations of this methodology across a variety of I-O psychology-related phenomena.

Naomi G. Dyer, University of Maryland, Co-Chair

Paul J. Hanges, University of Maryland, Co-Chair

Mark J. Somers, New Jersey Institute of Technology/RutgersNewark, Neural Networks as a Theory Development Tool

Robert G. Lord, University of Akron, Paul J. Hanges, University of Maryland, Ellen Godfrey, University of Maryland, Neural Networks and Motivation: Reconceptualization of VIE Theory

Andrew D. Carson, The Riverside Publishing Company, Using Artificial Neural Networks to Make Sense of Ability Test Scores

David J. Scarborough, Unicru, Inc., Bjorn Chambless, Unicru, Inc., David E. Ostberg, Unicru, Inc./Portland State University, George E. Paajanen, Unicru, Inc., Dust Bowl Empiricism on Steroids: A Data-Mining Approach to Employee Selection

Lawrence R. James, University of Tennessee, Discussant

Submitted by Naomi G. Dyer, ndyer@psyc.umd.edu


110. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:3012:20 Elgin

Airing Contrary Views on Efficacy Beliefs Nature, Meaning, and Application 

Research on efficacy beliefs has flourished over the past 2 decades. However, different views of the meaning and utility of efficacy beliefs have emerged. This session will bring together leading efficacy researchers to discuss some of these different points of view and offer new avenues for efficacy-related research and practice.

Dov Eden, Tel Aviv University, Chair

Gilad Chen, Georgia Institute of Technology, Panelist

Dov Eden, Tel Aviv University, Panelist

Ruth Kanfer, Georgia Institute of Technology, Panelist

John E. Mathieu, University of Connecticut, Panelist

Alex Stajkovic, University of WisconsinMadison, Panelist

Jeffrey B. Vancouver, The Ohio University, Panelist

Submitted by Gilad Chen, gilad.chen@psych.gatech.edu


111. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Wentworth

Increasing the Usefulness of Organizational Survey Research Programs: Emerging Trends

Todays volatile business environment presents organizational researchers several challenges, including balancing methodology and value. This forum presents four studies that focus on different aspects of organizational survey research, including content design, administration methodology, analysis, and follow-up processes. Participants will describe how research can be improved to maximally impact organizational effectiveness.

James W. Miller, Questar Data Systems, Inc., Chair

Jennifer Mattocks, Questar Data Systems, Inc., Intelligent Content Design: Navigating through Rater Biases that Afflict 360-Feedback Instruments

Shon Magnan, Questar Data Systems, Inc., Kristofer J. Fenlason, 3M, Measurement Differences in Interactive-Voice-Response and Internet Surveys: Implications for Using a Dual Methodology

Kyle Lundby, Questar Data Systems, Inc., Differentiating Customer Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers Within Service Organizations: Making Employee Opinion Data More Actionable

Sarah A. Hezlett, Questar Data Systems, Inc., Maximizing the Value of Multirater Feedback: An Investigation of Individualized, Follow-up Mini-Surveys

Submitted by James W. Miller, jmiller@questarweb.com


112. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Kenora

Alternate Methods in Developing Alternate Forms

Following textbook methodology for developing alternate forms does not always yield textbook results. This forum invites speakers to share alternate methods to creating alternate forms for a variety of selection procedures under practical constraints such as dependence on old job analysis and validity data, time and resource limitations.

Mark L. Lifter, Aon Consulting, Chair

Helen T. Palmer, ACT, Inc., Marcia Stientjes, ACT, Inc., Workkeys: Alternate Forms Development for a Standardized Testing Program

Catherine S. Clause, Aon Consulting, Mike Sutherland, Aon Consulting, David B. Schmidt, Aon Consulting, Using Item Groups to Construct Alternate Test Forms

Jeffrey A. Ryer, Aon Consulting, Matthew J. Such, Aon Consulting, Balancing Improvement and Form Equivalence in Alternate Test Form Development

Matthew J. Such, Aon Consulting, K. D. Delbridge, Aon Consulting, Mark L. Lifter, Aon Consulting, Developing Parallel Forms with Limited Resources: Achieving Quality and Validity

Alan D. Mead, Aon Consulting, Creating Alternate Forms: An Investigation into Three Methods of Item Cloning

Submitted by Matthew J. Such, matt_j_such@aoncons.com


113. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Huron

Leadership Across Differences:
Reconciling Ethnicity, Religion, Gender, and Culture

Organizations must accomplish work with employees who enter the workplace with a legacy of group-identity conflict engendered in the larger society. This legacy of distrust represents an unprecedented leadership challenge. This symposium addresss the questions, What does our discipline offer those grappling with group-identity issues in organizations?

Maxine Dalton, Center for Creative Leadership, Chair

Michael Hoppe, Center for Creative Leadership, Maxine Dalton, Center for Creative Leadership, Leadership Across Differences: The Predictions of Society-Level Cultural Variables

Patricia J. Ohlott, Leadership Across Differences: The Contribution of Leadership Theory

Donna Chrobot-Mason, University of ColoradoDenver, Leadership Across Differences: Examining Group Identity Theory

Jennifer J. Deal, Center for Creative Leadership, Leadership Across Differences: The Predictions of Conflict Theory

Maxine Dalton, Center for Creative Leadership, Discussant

Submitted by Maxine Dalton, daltonm@leaders.ccl.org


114. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Kent

Defining Job Specifications Online: The Future of Job Analysis

This practitioner forum examines the impact of the Internet on job analysis. Panel members include practitioners who will discuss their roles in the design of online job analysis systems that help rectify the competing priorities of efficiency and legal defensibility.

Charles A. Handler, rocket-hire.com, Chair

Bryan C. Pigott, Pure Carbon, Inc., PureCarbon Inc.s Online Competency Modeling Tool

Jonathan D. Levine, North Carolina State University Monster.coms Online Job Classification System

Joe Stimac, AccuHire, AccuHires Online Competency Modeling Tool

Submitted by Charles A. Handler, cahandler@hotmail.com


115. Roundtable: Saturday, 10:3011:20 Simcoe/Dufferin

Linkages in Organizations: Making Complexity Friendly and Manageable

Recent theoretical developments and research in the field of industrial-organization psychology has converged on a core insight: How we manage the cross-level dynamics connecting individuals with group processes and organizational structures spells the difference between success and failure in contemporary complex organizations (Goodman, 2000; Klein & Kozlowski, 2000).

Paul S. Goodman, Carnegie Mellon University, Co-Host

Denise M. Rousseau, Carnegie Mellon University, Co-Host

Submitted by Paul S. Goodman, pg14@andrew.cmu.edu


116. Symposium: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Civic Ballroom

Current Issues in Training Design and Evaluation

This symposium discusses current issues and trends in training design and evaluation. First, the importance of goal-setting and accountability for transfer of training is addressed. Second, a meta-analysis of team training is presented and the requirements to design and deliver effective team training are discussed. The final paper addresses the problems with current training reaction measures and offers a new multidimensional measure that includes a wide range of more informative dimensions incorporating utility and affective reactions.

Annette Towler, University of ColoradoDenver, Chair

Eduardo Salas, University of Central Florida, Brian Mullen, Department of Psychology, Diana R. Nichols, Syracuse University, James E. Driskell, Florida Maxima Corporation, What Contributes to the Effective Design of Team Training?: A Meta-Analysis

Nicholas Aramovich, University of ColoradoDenver, Kurt Kraiger, University of ColoradoDenver, Influence of Accountability and Goal Setting on Transfer of Training

Wendy J. Casper, University of Tulsa, Ronald B. Morgan, George Washington University/Org Solutions, Traci Sitzmann, University of Tulsa, M. Evelina Ascalon, University of Tulsa, Another Look at a Taxonomy of Participant Reactions to Training: Do the Course and Instructor Make a Difference?

Raymond A. Noe, The Ohio State University, Discussant

Submitted by Annette Towler, atowler@carbon.cudenver.edu


117. Poster Session: Saturday, 10:3011:50 Sheraton Hall

Creativity, Personality, and Research Methods

117-1 Personality and the Likelihood to Sexually Harass

The relationship between the likelihood to sexually harass (LSH) and personality was investigated. A newly proposed major dimension of personality, named honesty (Ashton & Lee, in press-a), was a better predictor of LSH than any of the Big Five. This finding was replicated when peer-reported personality traits were used.

Kibeom Lee, University of Western Australia

Marie Gizzarone, University of Western Australia

Michael C. Ashton, Brock University

Submitted by Kibeom Lee, Kibeom@psy.uwa.edu.au

117-2 Evaluating the Unmatched Count Technique as a Measure of Counterproductivity

This study investigated the utility of the unmatched count technique (UCT) for eliciting more candid responses regarding past engagement in counterproductive behaviors (CBs). Undergraduates provided integrity, conscientiousness and either UCT-obtained or self-reported CB data. Results failed to show stronger base rates for UCT-obtained criteria over direct self-report criteria.

Allison M. Ahart, University of Minnesota

Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota

Submitted by Allison M. Ahart, ahar0007@tc.umn.edu 

117-3 Nonuniform Differential Item Functioning and Reliability

Test data from 385 male and female participants are used to evaluate two hypotheses: (a) logistic regression is able to detect nonuniform differential item functioning in non-simulated data and (b) nonuniform DIF creates a difference in reliability estimates between male and female groups. Results support both hypotheses. Implications are discussed.

William Wooten, University of Central Florida

Damon U. Bryant, University of Central Florida

Dahlia S. Forde, University of Central Florida

Submitted by William Wooten, wwooten@pegasus.cc.ucf.edu 

117-4 Development of the Resistance-to-Change Scale

The present study adopts an individual-differences perspective for the development of a 17-item resistance-to-change scale. Exploratory factor analyses were applied to data from 222 participants and supported a hypothesized four-facet structure. The four sub-scales established were routine-seeking, emotional reaction, short-term thinking, and cognitive rigidity.

Shaul Oreg, Cornell University

Submitted by Shaul Oreg, so44@cornell.edu 

117-5 A Comparison of the Button and VandeWalle Goal Orientation Measures

This study compared the utility of Button, Mathieu, and Zajacs (1996) and Vandewalles (1997) measures for predicting affective outcomes. Participants completed the measures during a training task. Goal orientation effects were consistent with past research. VandeWalles prove and avoid scales predicted outcomes better than Button et al.s performance-orientation scale.

Heather W. Dobbins, Michigan State University

Bradford S. Bell, Michigan State University

Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University

Submitted by Heather W. Dobbins, dobbinsh@msu.edu 

117-6 Applying Multidimensional IRT Analysis to the Measurement of Meta-Perspective

The authors introduce the concept of meta-perspective and discuss its relevance to organizations. They apply multidimensional item response theory to assess the dimensionality of items assessing meta-perspective. Data collected from 1,255 workers reveals that the items did not lie along a unidimensional continuum, and warrants further refinement of the instrument.

William L. Farmer, Navy Personnel Command

K. Michele Kacmar, Florida State University

Lawrence A. Witt, University of New Orleans

Suzanne Zivnuska, Florida State University

Submitted by K. Michele Kacmar, mkacmar@cob.fsu.edu 

117-7 Situational and Personality Influences on Contextual Performance in Organizations

The influence of situational variables and personality on contextual performance was examined. Personality and situational factors were predictive for contextual performance. Their effects varied across different dependent variables. The results were interpreted as showing the need to consider both situational and personality when seeking to explain contextual performance.

Jennifer L. Philips, University of Akron

Jamie L. Winter, Development Dimensions International

Daniel J. Svyantek, University of Akron

Submitted by Daniel J. Svyantek, dsvyantek@uakron.edu 

117-8 Need for Cognition in Self-Improvement Programs

The current study looks at individuals with varying levels of need for cognition (NC) to see if certain people are more likely to misrecall their past. Results indicated that individuals with low NC underestimated how well they did before the treatment.

Jaclyn M. Nowakowski, Michigan State University

Richard Petty, The Ohio State University

Submitted by Jaclyn M. Nowakowski, nowako18@msu.edu 

117-9 Item Response Theory Comparison of the IPIP and NEO-PI-R

We used Samejimas (1969) polytomous item response theory (IRT) model to compare the NEO-PI-R against 20- and 60-item scales from the public-domain International Personality Item Pool (IPIP). Results indicated that the 60-item IPIP scales outperformed the NEO scales across the majority of the useful range of the scales.

Nadine LeBarron McBride, Virginia Tech

Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Tech

Submitted by Robert J. Harvey, rj@pstc.com 

117-10 Indirect Effects of Conscientiousness on Performance Mediated Through Goal Setting

A goal-setting exercise was conducted to examine the role of conscientiousness within a theory-based model of goal setting. The effects of conscientiousness were found to be indirect, mediated via goal commitment and self-efficacy, but not through the goal itself. Support for goal-setting theory was obtained.

Brett R. Myors, Griffith University

Sally Dettmann, Macquarie University

Jane Carstairs, Macquarie University

Submitted by Brett R. Myors, b.myors@mailbox.gu.edu.au 

117-11 The Five-Factor Model of Personality and Goal Orientation

This study examined the relationship between the five-factor model of personality and goal orientation. It is important to include goal orientation research into the nomenlogical net of personality. This study suggests that certain personality traits do relate to goal orientation.

James Connolly, Aon Management Consulting Group

Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University

Submitted by James Connolly, james_j_connolly@aoncons.com 

117-12 Web Data Collection: Reminders and Their Effects on Response Rates

This paper investigates response rates and data collection strategies for Web-based employee surveys across eight companies. Comparisons of companies that did and did not send reminder notifications were conducted. It was determined that reminder notifications resulted in an increase in company response rates, regardless of industry type or company size.

Craig V. King, POPULUS

Patrick Delana, POPULUS

Submitted by Craig V. King, CVKing@populus.com 

117-13 Self Versus Boss Ratings as Anchors in Measurement Equivalence Research

This study assessed measurement equivalence in a 360-degree feedback assessment. Key findings were (a) item level DIF was small across the rating sources, and (b) the use of self or boss rating source as the base/anchor source did not significantly affect how many items were identified as having significant DIF.

Dana L. Moore, Illinois Institute of Technology

Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology

Submitted by Dana L. Moore, d_moore@mindspring.com 

117-14 Power of Logistic and Linear Regression for Detecting Interactions

The current study employed Monte Carlo techniques to examine differences in power and Type I error rates associated with tests of main effects and interactions for ordinary least squares (OLS) regression and logistic regression models. Results indicated that OLS regression was consistently superior to logistic regression across most simulated conditions.

Ronald S. Landis, Tulane University

William Robinson, Tulane University

Adam Barsky, Tulane University

Christy Lynn McLendon, Tulane University

Submitted by Ronald S. Landis, rlandis1@tulane.edu 

117-15 Accurate Tests of Statistical Significance for Interrater Agreement Indexes

Existing chi-square significance tests for rWG type agreement indexes are shown to be inaccurate. We present an alternative test based upon Monte Carlo procedures, demonstrate the superiority of this alternative test, and offer downloadable software to implement the test for rWG and AD type interrater agreement indexes.

William P. Dunlap, Tulane University

Michael J. Burke, Tulane University

Kristin Smith-Crowe, Tulane University

Submitted by Kristin Smith-Crowe, ksmith5@tulane.edu 

117-16 Analysis of Acquisition Data via Orthogonal Principal Components

Prior to analysis of variance (ANOVA), we recommend that training data be summarized as factor scores on the first two rotated principal components. These factor scores will load on late trials (asymptote) and early trials (initial skills), respectively. Separate ANOVAs will test these independent constructs of the trial data.

William P. Dunlap, Tulane University

Ronald S. Landis, Tulane University

Jill Bradley, Tulane University

Submitted by Ronald S. Landis, rlandis1@tulane.edu 

117-17 Proactive Personality as a Predictor of Optimism, Well-Being, and Coping

Crant (2000) suggested it would be useful to examine proactive personalitys role in coping with stress, although to date, no research has done so. Theory surrounding proactive personality suggests a relationship with optimism and well-being. This research investigates the relation of proactive personality with optimism, well-being, and trait coping.

Jeannie A. Southworth, Wright State University

Jean M. Edwards, Wright State University

Submitted by Jeannie A. Southworth, southworth.4@wright.edu 

117-18 Bias in the Correlated Uniqueness Model for MTMM Data

This simulation investigates bias in trait factor loadings and intercorrelations when analyzing MTMM data using the correlated uniqueness (CU) CFA model. It is demonstrated that the bias is substantial when both method factor loadings and method factor correlations (assumed to be zero in the CU model) are relatively high.

James M. Conway, Central Connecticut State University

Filip Lievens, Ghent University

Steven E. Scullen, North Carolina State University

Charles E. Lance, University of Georgia

Submitted by James M. Conway, conwayj@ccsu.edu 

117-19 Situational Judgment Effectiveness x Proactive Personality Interaction on Job Performance 

Results from this study supported the hypothesis that proactive personality (PAP) positively predicts job performance for individuals with high situational judgment effectiveness (SJE) but negatively predicts job performance for those with low SJE. The findings challenged the assumption that PAP will always lead to higher job performance.

David Chan, National University of Singapore

Submitted by David Chan, davidchan@nus.edu.sg 

117-20 A Case for Homogeneity of Personality at the Occupational Level

Using incumbents from eight occupations and eight organizations, we argue that (a) attraction-selection-attrition forces operating at an occupational level of analysis will result in a modal personality within occupations; and (b) incumbent homogeneity will be higher within occupations than within organizations. Both predictions were supported. Implications are discussed.

Robert C. Satterwhite, Applied Psychological Techniques

Jack M. Feldman, Georgia Institute of Technology

Linda L. Hoopes, ODR

Submitted by Robert C. Satterwhite, rcsatterwhite@appliedpsych.com 

117-21 Incremental Validity of Personality and AC Performance for Police Sergeants

Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that assessment center performance was strongly related to both supervisor ratings of performance and the promotion decision for uniform police sergeant candidates. 16PF personality global factor scores, however, explained only a moderate amount of unique variance in predicting these criteria.

Kevin G. Love, Central Michigan University

Sarah DeArmond, Colorado State University

Submitted by Kevin G. Love, Kevin.Love@cmich.edu 

117-22 Social Skill Awareness and Conscientiousness:  Predictors of Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Data collected from 115 workers tested the hypothesis that social skill awareness moderates the relationship between conscientiousness and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB). Results indicated that as conscientiousness increased among workers low in social skill awareness, OCB decreased. As conscientiousness increased among workers high in social skill awareness, OCB increased.

Lawrence A. Witt, University of New Orleans

Gerald R. Ferris, Florida State University

Submitted by Lawrence A. Witt, lwitt@uno.edu 

117-23 Conscientiousness and Intellect: Both Necessary for Performance?

Based on the Abridged Big Five Dimensional Circumplex (Hofstee, de Raad, & Goldberg, 1992), the relationship of the conscientiousness x intellect interaction with performance was examined in three samples. Conscientiousness was positively related to performance among individuals high in intellect but essentially unrelated to performance among individuals low in intellect.

Lawrence A. Witt, University of New Orleans

Submitted by Lawrence A. Witt, lwitt@uno.edu 

117-24 Testing for Measurement Invariance: Lack of Fit for the Methodology?

This study is the first to use data with a variety of simulated differences in order to determine how well traditional confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) tests of measurement invariance perform. Results show that traditional CFA tests of measurement invariance behave inconsistently and often result in misleading assurances of measurement invariance.

Adam W. Meade, CahnersTRACOM Group

Gary J. Lautenschlager, University of Georgia

Submitted by Adam W. Meade, ameade@cahners.com 

117-25 Personnel Selection Meets College Admissions:  Personality, Ability, and College Performance

SAT scores and Big Five personality factors were regressed against GPA, attendance, and performance in introductory psychology courses for 182 undergraduates. SAT and Conscientiousness significantly predicted GPA and course performance. Conscientiousness significantly predicted attendance. Implications for evaluating established personnel selection practices for use in college admissions are discussed.

Maureen A. Conard, Sacred Heart University

Submitted by Maureen A. Conard, conardm@sacredheart.edu 

117-26 Analyzing Interrater Agreement With and Without Disattenuation

This paper shows that different versions of rWG proposed by James and Lindell are algebraically equivalent, but the two formulations differ in the interpretation of the error term. This paper also provides a method of computing the level of interrater agreement when there are systematic differences between groups of raters.

Michael K. Lindell, Texas A&M University

Submitted by Michael K. Lindell, mlindell@archone.tamu.edu 

117-27 Personality Test Validation Research:  Present-Employee and Job-Applicant Samples

This paper reviews the evidence concerning the interchangeability of present-employee- and job applicant-based validation research in the context of personality tests. It is the opinion of these authors that there is little empirical evidence supporting the assumption that present-employee-based studies of personality-test validity generalize to job applicants.

Kevin M. Bradley, Virginia Tech

Neil M. A. Hauenstein, Virginia Tech

Submitted by Kevin M. Bradley, kbradley@vt.edu 

117-28 How Dark Side Personality Factors Impact Performance Ratings:  A Meta-Analysis

This study evaluated the effect of dysfunctional interpersonal dispositions on supervisory evaluations of job performance. Meta-analytic results (N = 810, k = 6) indicated that those who were characterized as micromanaging, cautious, aloof, or high-strung received lower ratings. How these characteristics form and how they affect careers are discussed.

William D. Fleming, Hogan Assessment Systems

Brent D. Holland, Hogan Assessment Systems

Submitted by William D. Fleming, bfleming@hoganassessments.com 

117-29 Big Five Personality and Hollands Typology: A Meta-Analytic Review

This study evaluates the validity of the Big Five across job titles organized using Hollands occupational typology. Meta-analytic results illustrate the usefulness of organizing jobs based upon job content and show clear patterns of Big-Five scale convergence and divergence.

Ho-Chul Shin, Hogan Assessment Systems/University of Tulsa
Brent D. Holland, Hogan Assessment Systems

Submitted by Ho-Chul Shin, ho-chul-shin@utulsa.edu 

117-30 Identifying Those Who Prefer to Do More With Less

In an effort to predict which employees are inclined to do more with less, this study demonstrates initial validity for efficiency orientation, the tendency to approach a task with the goal of obtaining the most out of the resources used or using the least amount of resources possible.

Stephanie C. Payne, Texas A&M University

Joel Philo, Texas A&M University

Submitted by Stephanie C. Payne, scp@psyc.tamu.edu 

117-31 SubordinateSupervisor Fit Using the Big Five Personality Constructs

Seven hundred thirty-one (731) subordinates and supervisors completed a Big Five personality inventory. Job-related attitudes were also obtained for subordinates. Results show that similarity between subordinates and supervisors for both Conscientiousness and Emotional Stability was associated with lower satisfaction with supervision. Results were interpreted to demonstrate complementary fit, rather than predicted supplementary fit.

Mark Alan Smith, University of South Florida/TMP Worldwide

Submitted by Mark Alan Smith, mark.smith@tmp.com 

117-32 Supervisor Big Five Personality and Subordinate Attitudes

This study investigated the relationship between supervisor personality and subordinate affect. Correlation and multiple regression analyses suggest that supervisor personality factors are differentially related to subordinate attitudes. Relationships were found between Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, and Agreeableness, and measures of subordinates satisfaction with supervisor, affective commitment, and turnover intentions.

Jonathan M. Canger, TMP Worldwide

Mark Alan Smith, University of South Florida/TMP Worldwide

Erica C. Lutrick, TMP Worldwide/Monster.Com

David E. Herst, University of South Florida

Submitted by Erica C. Lutrick, erica_lutrick@yahoo.com 

117-33 An Investigation of the Job Performance Validity of Optimism

Optimism was found to be significantly related to overall job performance in samples of 252 manufacturing production technicians, 114 restaurant managers, and 238 4-H workers. Incremental validity was found for optimism in all three samples after controlling for the Big Five personality variables of Neuroticism, Openness, Extroversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness.

John W. Lounsbury, University of TennesseeKnoxville

James Loveland, University of TennesseeKnoxville

Lucy W. W. Gibson, Resource Associates, Inc.

Submitted by John W. Lounsbury, jlounsbury@aol.com 

117-34 Personality, Fit, and Effectiveness in Work Groups

In a study of 334 business students and managers, we found agreeableness and affiliation predicted affective responses to a work-group experience. As expected, relations were mediated by general preference for group work and perceptions of group effectiveness. Autonomy did not predict affective outcomes but did relate to lower performance.

Chantell Nicholls, University of Western Ontario

Mitchell Rothstein, University of Western Ontario

Submitted by Mitchell Rothstein, mrothste@ivey.uwo.ca 

117-35 Predicting Group Conflict:  Personality Similarity, Value Differences, and Task Relevance

In two studies of workgroups, average group conscientiousness decreased task conflict in a low-outcome interdependent task context, whereas agreeableness decreased relationship conflict in a high-outcome interdependent context. In both task contexts, personality similarity decreased perceptions of value differences and these perceptions mediated the relationship between personality and conflict.

Chantell Nicholls, University of Western Ontario

Mitchell Rothstein, University of Western Ontario

Submitted by Mitchell Rothstein, mrothste@ivey.uwo.ca 

117-36 A Comparison of Single-Item and Traditional Measures of Self-Efficacy

The current study examined the psychometric properties of four self-efficacy measures. While results showed that the single-item measures had lower test-retest reliability, these measures exhibited convergent validity and also correlated with other constructs reflecting construct validity. Furthermore, the single-item measures out-performed the traditional multiple-item measure in terms of predictive validity.

Lisa Lewen, Georgia Institute of Technology

Todd J. Maurer, Georgia Institute of Technology

Submitted by Lisa Lewen, LJLewen2@aol.com 

117-37 Profiling New Business Development:  Personality Correlates of Ideation and Implementation

This paper examined the traits associated with success in two roles important to developing new business opportunities: idea generation and concept implementation. Results show that being more innovative and less methodical was associated with success at idea generation, whereas being less innovative and more methodical was related to role success for implementation.

Jay Janovics, Central Michigan University

Neil D. Christiansen, Central Michigan University

Kenneth R. Pederson, Dow Chemical Company

Submitted by Jay Janovics, janov1je@cmich.edu 

117-38 The Good Judge Revisited:  Individual Differences in Accurate Personality Judgments

This study examined predictors of accurate personality inferences based on observations of employment interviews and judgments of acquaintances. Results indicated that overall accuracy was correlated with scores on dispositional intelligence (DI; r = .51), general mental ability (r = .23), and openness to experience (r = .16). The DI-accuracy relationship was moderated by conscientiousness and agreeableness.

Shaina B. Wolcott-Burnam, Central Michigan University

Neil D. Christiansen, Central Michigan University

Jay Janovics, Central Michigan University

Submitted by Shaina B. Wolcott-Burnam, wolco1sb@cmich.edu 

117-39 Internet Versus Paper Selection Tests: Exploring Comparability Issues

Applicants for financial service positions completed situational judgment and personality inventories administered in either Internet (n = 892) or paper (n = 4,543) form. Research questions generally produced encouraging findings about comparability in terms of differential item functioning (by administration medium and demographic group) and social desirability distortion.

Evan F. Sinar, Development Dimensions International

Stephanie L. Paquet, Development Dimensions International

Donald R. Scott, Development Dimensions International

Submitted by Evan F. Sinar, evan.sinar@ddiworld.com 

117-40 Accuracy of Confidence Intervals on the Adverse Impact Ratio

An alternative to traditional adverse impact analysis is to build a confidence interval around the impact ratio. A Monte Carlo simulation revealed that the procedure was accurate when sample sizes were large, but confidence intervals tended to be too narrow (overestimating the degree of precision) when sample size was small.

Donhwa Lee, Illinois Institute of Technology

Scott B. Morris, Illinois Institute of Technology

Submitted by Scott B. Morris, scott.morris@iit.edu 

117-41 The Relationships Between Proactive Personality, General Self-Efficacy, and Academic Success

The previously unexamined relationships between proactive personality, general self-efficacy, and academic success were investigated. As hypothesized, proactive personality demonstrated both convergent and discriminant validity with general self-efficacy as well significant relationships with students anticipated grades; the correlation between proactive personality and actual grades was marginally significant.

Michelle L. Roberts, University of Tennessee

Katie Helland, University of Tennessee

Michael C. Rush, University of Tennessee

Submitted by Michelle L. Roberts, mrobert7@utk.edu 

117-42 Personality and Job Performance:  Contextual Self-Ratings and Observer Ratings

This study examined the effects of observer ratings and contextual self-ratings of personality in predicting job performance. Conscientiousness was the best predictor of in-role performance, and Agreeableness and Emotional Stability were the best predictors of extra-role performance. Observer ratings predicted job performance beyond general self-ratings, but work-specific self-ratings did not.

Erika A. Engel, University of Tennessee

James M. Diefendorff, Louisiana State University

Submitted by Erika A. Engel, eengel@utk.edu 

117-43 Predicting Unreliable Behavior in a Student Sample: A Field Study

The Verbal-Visual Conditional Reasoning Test of aggression (VCRT) was administered to 232 undergraduate business students. VCRT scores were related to criteria considered to be behavioral indicators of reliability (e.g., accuracy of reported GPA, meeting attendance, and assignment completion). Aggression scores were correlated significantly with failure to attend meetings (r = .18, p < .01).

Nancy E. Blume, University of Tennessee

Michael D. McIntyre, University of Tennessee

Lawrence R. James, University of Tennessee

Submitted by Nancy E. Blume, nblume1@utk.edu 

117-44 Self-Efficacy and Performance: Moderators of Experimental Effect Sizes

In this meta-analysis, three moderators of the effect of manipulated self-efficacy on performance were uncovered. Effect sizes were significantly larger for participants with low initial self-efficacy, as well as contexts where the tasks were not fatiguing and the dominant response was incorrect.

John S. Zollo, The Ohio University

Charlie Thompson, The Ohio University

Jeffrey B. Vancouver, The Ohio University

Submitted by John S. Zollo, jz327788@oak.cats.ohiou.edu 

117-45 A Meta-Analysis of the Big Five and Performance in Korea

This study investigated the relationship between the Big Five personality factors and performance in Korea using a meta-analysis. Results indicated that while Extraversion, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness were valid predictors, Agreeableness and Openness to experience were not. This finding was consistent with previous meta-analyses in the United States and Europe.

Tae-Yong Yoo, Kwangwoon University

Byung-Mo Min, PSI Consulting

Submitted by Tae-Yong Yoo, tyyoo@daisy.kwangwoon.ac.kr 

117-46 The Measurement (and Multidimensionality?) of the
Equity Sensitivity Construct

Equity sensitivity (Huseman, Hatfield, & Miles, 1985) proposes that individuals have different preferences for the level of equity associated with any situation. Their measure of equity sensitivity utilizes a forced-distribution format to allocate points between benevolent and entitled statements. We argue that this format obscures the multidimensionality of equity sensitivity.

Heather K. Davison, University of Hartford

Mark N. Bing, Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory

Submitted by Heather K. Davison, hkdavison@aol.com 

117-47 Issues and Improvements in Tests of Mediation

Baron and Kennys (1986) regression-based technique has been the predominant method for testing mediated models. In this study, we propose that structural equation modeling is a more appropriate technique for investigating mediation. Conceptual and empirical examples are provided, demonstrating the advantages of the SEM approach over Baron and Kennys approach.

Mark N. Bing, Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory

Heather K. Davison, University of Hartford

Daniel L. LeBreton, University of TennesseeChattanooga

James M. LeBreton, Wayne State University

Submitted by Heather K. Davison, hkdavison@aol.com 

117-48 Procrastination and Performance

New observed and self-report measures were created to clarify procrastinations relationship with performance. Using 19 academic performance criteria, results indicate that procrastination not only predicts performance but incrementally above that of general mental ability and conscientiousness. Unfortunately, situational specificity appears to be considerable, limiting its potential usefulness for general selection.

Piers Steel, University of Minnesota

Thomas Brothen, University of Minnesota

Catherine Wambach, University of Minnesota

Submitted by Piers Steel, pdgsteel@msn.com 

117-49 Wired Versus Wireless Surveys: E-mail, Internet, SMS, and WAP

We examined response speed and response rate for surveys distributed on two computer mediums: e-mail, Internet; and on two Web-enabled phone mediums: Short Message Service (SMS) and Wireless Application Protocol (WAP). People responded more quickly to SMS surveys than e-mail surveys. People responded more frequently to WAP surveys than Internet surveys.

Scott McAtee, Minnesota State UniversityMankato

Daniel Sachau, Minnesota State UniversityMankato

Submitted by Daniel Sachau, sachau@mnsu.edu 

117-50 Participant Personality Characteristics That Influence
Feedback Acceptance in Assessment Centers

The present study examined whether participants self-ratings of the five factors of personality, feedback direction, and feedback magnitude influenced the acceptance of feedback by participants (N = 113) in an operational developmental assessment center. Results indicated significant relationships between magnitude, extraversion, conscientiousness, and agreeableness with feedback acceptance.

Suzanne Bell, Texas A&M University

Winfred Arthur, Texas A&M University

Submitted by Suzanne Bell, sbell@tamu.edu 

117-51 Customer Satisfaction:  A Function of Emotionally Intelligent Customer Service Behaviors

Emotionally intelligent customer service behaviors include showing concern, empathy, and cheerfulness. Utilizing videos with professional actors, we experimentally manipulated these behaviors and demonstrated they were important in predicting customer satisfaction, particularly when a service failure had occurred. Employees who displayed these behaviors were perceived as having higher emotional intelligence.

Catherine S. Daus, Southern Illinois UniversityEdwardsville

Janet R. McColl-Kennedy, University of Queensland

Submitted by Catherine S. Daus, cdaus@siue.edu 

117-52 Ranking Graduate Programs:  A Comparison of Strategies and Recommendations for Research

The current study explores the procedures that have been developed by researchers to rank graduate programs in industrial and organizational psychology. In order to improve the accuracy of ranking systems, the authors suggest the following: control for institutional size, control for department type, and use institutional measures of productivity.

Timothy P. McGonigle, Caliber Associates

Christina K. Curnow, Caliber Associates

Cynthia A. Searcy, American Institutes for Research

Submitted by Timothy P. McGonigle, mcgonigt@calib.com 


118. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 11:301:20 Grand West

Transforming Leadership at Motorola:  A Case Study in Organization Change

Growing demand for leadership talent compelled Motorola to upgrade and integrate the processes by which it selects, develops, and retains leaders. The science of I-O psychology was successfully applied to this real business issue to effect measurable change. Change acceleration, process redesign, measurement, technology, and leadership development will be discussed.

Kelly J. Brookhouse, Motorola, Chair

Kelly J. Brookhouse, Motorola, Transforming Leadership at Motorola: A Case Study in Organization Change

Mary Beth Smith-Chibe, We Dont Manage Change, We Accelerate It!

Kirk L. Rogg, Aon Consulting, Accelerating Change with an Early Win: Can Job Analysis Really be Strategic?

Robert B. Kaiser, Kaplan DeVries Inc., S. Bartholomew Craig, Kaplan DeVries Inc., Robert E. Kaplan, Kaplan DeVries, Inc., Connie McArthur, Kaplan Devries Inc., Practical Science and the Development of Motorolas Leadership Standards and Assessment Instrument

Kelly J. Brookhouse, Motorola, Leadership Development through Bricks, Clicks, and Beeps

Submitted by Kelly J. Brookhouse, k.brookhouse@motorola.com


118A. Roundtable: Saturday, 11:30-12:20 Simcoe/Dufferin

Generational Differences: What We Know and What We Are Learning

The purpose of this roundtable discussion is to discuss inter-generational issues both in the workplace and in the research. There is a lot of talk in the popular press, but there is very little research beyond anecdotes investigating the impact of generation, age, and life stage on management and leadership.

Jennifer Deal, Center for Creative Leadership, Co-Host

Robert Kabacoff, Management Research Group, Co-Host

Submitted by Jennifer J. Deal, dealj@leaders.ccl.org 


Program Table of Contents