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Coffee Break: Saturday, 7:30 - 8:00 a.m.                    Near SIOP Meeting Rooms


52. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                                          Grand D

Team Intervention and Team Effectiveness:

Conceptual Models and Empirical Tests

This symposium focuses on various types of team interventions designed to enhance team performance. Conceptual models of work team effectiveness provide the framework in which empirical studies of the following team interventions are presented: team member selection, work redesign, training, and leadership. Theoretical, methodological, and practical issues are discussed.

John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University, Co-Chair
Susan Mohammed, Pennsylvania State University, Co-Chair
Scott I. Tannenbaum, SUNY at Albany, Team Interventions for Promoting Team Effectiveness
Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Frederick Morgeson, Purdue University, Designing Teams from the
            Task Up
Susan Mohammed, Pennsylvania State University, John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University, Bart Bartlett,
            Pennsylvania State University, Greg Loviscky, Pennsylvania State University, Adam S. Rosenberg,
            Pennsylvania State University, Sophia Cho, Pennsylvania State University, Tamara L. Williams,
            Pennsylvania State University, Jason Probber, Pennsylvania State University, The Effect of Team
            Building and Task Training Interventions on Multidimensional Team Performance Criteria
Frederick Morgeson, Purdue University, Leadership Intervention in Teams: The Form and Function of Event
Richard A. Guzzo, University of Maryland, Discussant

53. Poster Session: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                           Chantilly East

Work Attitudes, Motivation, and Stress



Examining the Effects of Performance Beyond Role Requirements:

A Field and Laboratory Study


Tammy D. Allen, University of South Florida

The process linking organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) with performance judgments was investigated. In a laboratory and field study, liking and perceived commitment mediated the relationship between OCB and overall evaluation and liking mediated the relationship between OCB and reward recommendations. Additionally, the motive attributed to OCB mediated OCB and overall evaluation.


Revising the JDI Work Subscale: Insights Into Stress and Control

Peter D. Bachiochi, Bowling Green State University
Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University
Chet Robie, University of Houston
Lisa M. Perez, Bowling Green State University
Patricia C. Smith, Bowling Green State University

While revising the work subscale of the JDI, stress- and control-related items (in the existing subscale and those added as test items) yielded interesting insights into the constructs. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a three-factor model consisting of work satisfaction (the revised work subscale), work stress, and work control.


Profiles of Work and Nonwork Satisfaction: A Fifteen-Year Follow-up

Claudia R. Barroso, University of Georgia
Janet E. Hecht, University of Georgia
Garnett S. Stokes, University of Georgia
Robert D. Gatewood, University of Georgia

This study investigated the relationship of work and nonwork satisfaction. Composite scores were created using satisfaction factors. Various profiles were identified by subgrouping individuals on the basis of their composite scores and subsequently compared to previous profiles. Profiles were differentiated on work-related variables, nonwork-related variables and past background variables.


The Effects of Organizational Structure on Satisfaction,

Commitment, and Performance


Simon Bartle, Old Dominion University
Donald D. Davis, Old Dominion University

Meta-analysis was used to examine the influence of organizational structure on satisfaction, commitment, and performance. The moderating influence of organizational size and technology were also examined. Results indicated that organizational structure had only a limited effect on these outcomes.


Explaining Controversial Organizational Decisions:

To Legitimize the Means or Ends?


D. Ramona Bobocel, University of Waterloo
Michelle Debeyer, University of Waterloo

We investigated the influence of information legitimizing the procedures versus the outcome on observers’ reactions to an undesirable organizational decision. Whereas both components were necessary, and neither sufficient, to mitigate perceptions of outcome unfairness, procedural information was both necessary and sufficient to influence evaluations of the organization.


Job Demands and Stress as Predictors of Executive Job Search

Wendy Boswell, Cornell University
Marcie A. Cavanaugh, Cornell University
Mark V. Roehling, Cornell University
John W. Boudreau, Cornell University

The relationships among job demands, job stress, and executive job search were investigated. Covariance structure analysis confirmed a model in which job demands were related to positive and negative stress and positive and negative stress were differentially related to job search. Implications of the findings are discussed.


An Examination of Co-Authorship Behaviors in Organization Science

Dennis P. Bozeman, University of Houston
Marc D. Street, Florida State University
Jack Fiorito, Florida State University

Management researchers were surveyed to assess the importance and frequency of various co-author behaviors. Factor analysis of data generated in exploratory focus groups indicated that scholars perceived co-authorship behavior to consist of three dimensions: consideration, egocentricity, and dependability. Implications for co-authorship in management are discussed.


Development of Job Beliefs Scale: Implications for Job Stress Research

Peter Y. Chen, Ohio University
Denise Haeggberg, Ohio University
Scott Finlinson, Ohio University
Eric E. Brasher, Ohio University
Rowland Hanley, Ohio University
Paula M. Popovich, Ohio University

Irrational job beliefs are viewed as information individuals have about their jobs that may interfere with goal attainment. A reliable and valid instrument was developed that assesses these job beliefs based on the nomological network. Contributions to research and practice are illustrated.


Affectivity and Job Satisfaction: A Meta-Analysis

James Connolly, Florida International University
Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University

The goal of this investigation was to examine the affective determinants of job satisfaction. Correlations between affectivity and job satisfaction measures were examined by cumulating research findings across studies. Results indicate that 10%–25% of variance in job satisfaction can be due to individual differences in affectivity.


Contextual Characteristics and Employee Creativity:

Affect at Work


Anne Cummings, University of Pennsylvania
Greg R. Oldham, University of Illinois

We examine relations between five contextual characteristics and the creativity of 144 employees. In addition, we investigate the degree to which four types of employee affect mediate these relations. Results show statistically significant associations between creativity and the five contextual characteristics, and indicate that positive mood explains these relations.


Hugo Munsterberg: On Economic Tasks

Scott A. Davies, The Ohio State University

Hugo Munsterberg may have been the first to outline a comprehensive model for industrial psychology. The theoretical bases upon which he determined this outline and the methods of psychometrics that he employed in his testing of it are explored in this historical review.


Core Self-Evaluations as a Source of Motivation and Performance

Amir Erez, University of Florida
Diane E. Johnson, University of Alabama

This paper suggests that in order to evaluate stimuli, individuals employ several "core-evaluations" which may be considered dispositional tendencies. These dispositions form one network named "core self-evaluations" and through its influence on stimuli-evaluations, has either enhancing or detrimental effects on individuals’ levels of motivation and performance.


A Further Validation of the Construct of Goal Orientation

Jeffrey D. Facteau, Auburn University
Rachel Fredholm, Virginia Tech
Kevin Keller, Virginia Tech
Timothy P. McGonigle, Virginia Tech
Daniel L. LeBreton, Virginia Tech

This study further defines the construct of goal orientation as it relates to self-esteem level, self-esteem stability, and ego resiliency. In general, hypotheses regarding the dimensionality and correlates of goal orientation were supported. Implications for work motivation are discussed.


Effect of Applicant Fairness Perceptions on

Post-Selection Behavior and Attitudes


Suzanne Farmer, Central Michigan University
Terry A. Beehr, Central Michigan University
Kevin G. Love, Central Michigan University

Officer reactions to an undercover selection system were analyzed on 271 officers. Qualified officers given undercover assignments had higher procedural justice perceptions and outcome satisfaction than other officers in the qualified applicant pool. Procedural and distributive justice perceptions were related to undercover officer’s job performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment.


Self-, Supervisor, and Peer Judgments of Organizational Commitment

Ian R. Gellatly, University of Lethbridge
Richard D. Goffin, University of Western Ontario

Self-, peer, and supervisory judgments of affective and continuance commitment of 78 administrators were studied. Internal relations, evaluated using the composite direct product approach, suggested high self-peer convergence and moderate supervisor-peer and supervisor-self-convergence. Relations of commitment with job performance showed self-peer overlap but unique predictive validity of supervisory judgments.


Pygmalion in Organizations: A Meta-analysis

Michael A. Gold, SUNY at Albany
Nicole Kierein, SUNY at Albany

Currently, the literature lacks a quantitative review of the Pygmalion effect in work organizational settings. The present meta-analysis found an overall d for the Pygmalion effect in work organizations of 0.51. Moderator analyses revealed stronger effects when the initial level of performance was low and when a contrast group was not present.


Experiential Learning in the 21st Century: The Virtual I-O Psychology Class

Donald A. Hantula, Temple University

Describes an undergraduate I-O course taught over the Internet for the past 4 years. Although many course features are standard, class occurs on a Usenet group and the Internet is used as a library and for virtual field trips. Challenges and rewards of virtual teaching are discussed.


Moderators of the Social Climate Perceptions-Employee Attitude Relationship

Holly Harrison, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis
Jane Williams, Indiana University Purdue University Indianapolis

Previous research has suggested that social climate perceptions are related to job satisfaction and affective commitment. The current study examined the moderating effects of gender and Need for Affiliation on these relationships and found that they significantly moderated the relationship between social climate perceptions and job satisfaction, but not affective commitment.


The Perceived Fairness of Layoff Practices

Monica Hemingway, The Chauncey Group

Policy capturing was used to identify organizational practices with the greatest impact on layoff fairness perceptions. Contrary to prior findings, configural justice (managerial consistency in implementing layoffs, use of an unbiased layoff policy, and size of severance packages) most strongly influenced fairness perceptions while social aspects of justice had little influence.


Negative Affectivity and Self-Reports of Affective Work Motivation Traits

Robert R. Hirschfeld, Auburn University

This study examined the influence of negative affectivity on relations between self-report measures of affective work motivation traits (work alienation and work locus of control) and affective outcomes related to work. The results demonstrated that negative affectivity did not significantly contaminate the relationships examined.


Goal Orientation and Task Complexity Effects on

Motivation, Affect, and Performance


Paul Hoover, Wright State University
Debra Steele Johnson, Wright State University
Aaron Schmidt, Wright State University

A laboratory study examined the joint effects of goal orientation and task complexity. As predicted, goal orientation and task complexity interacted in their effects on performance and affect. The predicted interaction on intrinsic motivation was not observed. Results are discussed in relation to cueing effects and cognitive resource demands.


Goal Orientation Effects on Motivation: When Tasks are Dynamically Complex

Paul Hoover, Wright State University
Debra Steele Johnson, Wright State University
Aaron Schmidt, Wright State University

A laboratory study examined the effects of goal orientation and dynamic task complexity on performance, motivation, and affect. The predicted goal orientation by task complexity interactions effects were observed for all three motivation variables: self-efficacy, self-set goals, and intrinsic motivation, but not for performance or affect. Implications are discussed.


Cross-Cultural Equivalence in Attitude Surveys

Michael Horvath, Michigan State University
Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University
L. Allen Slade, Ford Motor Company

On the basis of Hofstede’s (1991) dimensions, predictions were made of differential item functioning (DIF) in a work attitude scale completed by 1,000 US and 1,000 Mexican employees. Hypotheses were partially confirmed, but Hofstede’s dimensions alone were not able to completely explain DIF. Implications for scale analysis are discussed.


Moderating Effects of Organization-Based Self-Esteem

on Uncertainty-Response Relationships


Chun Hui, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Cynthia Lee, Northeastern University

The present study examined the moderating effects of organization-based self-esteem (OBSE) on the relationship between two forms of organizational uncertainty perception (job insecurity and anticipation of organizational changes) and three outcomes (intrinsic motivation, organizational commitment, and absenteeism). It was found that employees with high level of OBSE were less responsive to the perception of organizational uncertainty. Implications were discussed.


The Moderating Effect of Commitment on Role Ambiguity-Job Tension Relations

Greg Irving, University of New Brunswick
Daniel Coleman, University of New Brunswick

We examined the potential moderating effect of different forms of organizational commitment on stress-strain relations in an organization that was undergoing significant change. Results did not support the hypothesis that affective commitment would buffer relations between role ambiguity and general tension, but did support the hypothesis that continuance commitment would exacerbate these relations.


Efficacy Beliefs and Work-Related Stress: A Multi-Level Study

Steve M. Jex, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh
Paul D. Bliese, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

This study examined both individual and collective efficacy beliefs as moderators of stressor-strain relations. Data collected from 2,273 US Army soldiers representing 36 companies indicated that both forms of efficacy moderated the effects of stressors. Limitations of the study and implications of the findings are discussed.


The Role of Informational Control in the Stress-Strain Relationship

Nerina Jimmieson, University of Queensland
Deborah Terry, University of Queensland

This study examined informational control as a moderator of the stress-buffering effects of behavioral control on employee adjustment. It was found that employees who perceived low behavioral control over work tasks were protected from the negative effects of work stress when they perceived high contextual information concerning wider organizational issues.


The Origins of Workplace Aggression and Conflict in a Sample of Young Men

Victor Jockin, Personnel Decision Research Institutes
Richard D. Arvey, University of Minnesota
Matt McGue, University of Minnesota

Four hundred eighty-nine men in their 30s provided information regarding their history of aggression and interpersonal conflict in the workplace. Cognitive ability, personality, and history of antisocial behavior were also assessed. These predictors explained 18% of the variance in the workplace conflict scale; personality alone captured the bulk of this predictive variance.


Social Exchange and Disposition as Correlates

of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors


Deborah Ladd, Purdue University
Rebecca A. Henry, Purdue University

A field study examined how different factors, perceptions of support and two dispositional traits, relate to organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Results demonstrated that exchange relationships among coworkers operate differently from those between the individual and the organization. Conscientiousness was significantly related to OCBs regardless of the target of the helping behavior.


Exploration of the Relationship Between

Values and Organizational Commitment


Rachel Lyne, University of Tulsa
Robert R. Sinclair, University of Tulsa
Cynthia Banas, University of Tulsa
Chris Wright, University of Tulsa

We explored the relationship between values and organizational commitment. Results from two samples suggest that security and altruistic values are positively related to normative organizational commitment. Other findings suggest relationships between altruism and affiliation values and affective commitment, and relationships between security and tradition values and continuance commitment.


Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Test of Competing Predictors

Marc C. Marchese, King’s College
Kermit Kuehn, Sultan Qaboos University
Bernard Healey, King’s College

The purpose of this study was to evaluate known correlates (satisfaction, commitment, justice and job scope) of OCB in a test of relative usefulness in predicting citizenship behavior. Two samples were used to assess the generalizability of the findings. Job scope was the only "useful" predictor of OCB across both samples.


Equivalence of an Organizational Attitude Survey Across Administration Modes

Lynn A. McFarland, Michigan State University
Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University
Karen B. Paul, 3M

The equivalence of a paper-and-pencil and computer administration of an organizational attitude survey was examined. Psychometrically the two administrations were similar. Factor loadings of the two scales most likely to be influenced by anonymity perceptions were invariant across modes. Positive reactions toward computerized surveys were found.


Improving Patient Satisfaction with Triage Procedures

Through Fairness Perceptions


Jeffrey A. Miles, University of the Pacific
Kathryn Dansky, Pennsylvania State University

Every patient (n = 845) who entered an urgent care department was surveyed about the triage procedures. The discrepancy between patients’ expected (self-reported) and actual (reported by hospital staff) waiting times negatively influenced their institutional satisfaction perceptions. However, patients’ procedural and distributive justice perceptions were found to completely mediate this negative influence.


Heritability of Extraversion

Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota
Jacqueline A. Gilbert, Middle Tennessee State University

We investigated heritability of extraversion by meta-analytically cumulating the correlations of monozygotic and dizygotic twins, reared together and apart. Extraversion heritability was found to be .64. Implications for personality at work are discussed.


Effects of Downsizing on Voluntary Avoidable Turnover in Work Teams

Gregory Patton, University of Iowa
Murray R. Barrick, University of Iowa
Mitchell Neubert, University of Iowa

The relationship between attitudes and voluntary, avoidable turnover was moderated by whether or not organizations have experienced a reduction in force (RIF). Post-RIF, employees low in role stress, high in cohesion, satisfaction, and intent-to-leave were more likely to leave. An organization without an RIF had correlations in the opposite direction.


Service With A Smile: Emotional Contagion in the Service Encounter

S. Douglas Pugh, San Diego State University

Research on the emotional labor requirements of service jobs have established the importance of displayed emotions in the service encounter, but little is known about how displayed emotions affect customers. Employee emotional displays were found to be positively related to customer affective states, and to customer evaluations of service quality.


Development of an Expectancy Theory-Based Measure of Test Motivation

Rudolph J. Sanchez, Portland State University
Donald M. Truxillo, Portland State University
Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University

A 10-item instrument measuring test-taking motivation based in expectancy theory was developed and tested using a sample of 496 applicants. Factor analysis resulted in the expected three-factor solution. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that the new instrument explained variance in test score independent of a general measure of test motivation.


The Importance of Interactional Justice:

Reactions to Organizational Drug Testing


David A. Sujak, Northern Illinois University
Chris P. Parker, Northern Illinois University
Joseph Grush, Northern Illinois University

Interactional justice perceptions of organizational drug-testing programs were the strongest predictor of employees’ affective commitment, trust in management, job satisfaction, and intentions to quit. Distributive and procedural justice were better predictors of employee attitudes towards drug-testing programs. These results were explained in terms of group-value and self-interest models of justice.


The Role of the Pygmalion Effect in Employee Creativity

Pamela Tierney, Portland State University

One-hundred and thirty-seven R&D employees participated in a study testing a Pygmalion model for employee creativity. Results support direct and mediating associations between supervisor expectations, supervisor behaviors, subordinate efficacy perceptions, and creative performance. Study implications for organizational managers, creativity study, and the Pygmalion effect research area are discussed.


Contextual Influences on Job Satisfaction Ratings: Accessibility and Mood

Howard M. Weiss, Purdue University
Kathleen Suckow, Purdue University
Deborah Ladd, Purdue University

Two studies were conducted to test whether attitudes that are less accessible are more susceptible to contextual factors. Abstract facets of satisfaction were found to be less accessible. Results also suggest that abstract facets of satisfaction are more susceptible to contextual factors, in this case mood, than are concrete facets.


Linking Commitment to Work Behaviors: Commitment to a Strategy

Daniel A. Weissbein, Michigan State University
Kevin Plamondon, Michigan State University
J. Kevin Ford, Michigan State University

This study investigates a mid-level focus of commitment as a predictor of related behaviors. Regression and path analyses on data collected from police officers suggested that commitment to a strategy influences behavior. Commitment mediated the relationship between managerial support and behaviors, and partially mediated the relationship between experience and behaviors.


Crossover of Strains From Principals to Teachers and Vice Versa

Mina Westman, Tel Aviv University
Dalia Etzion, Tel Aviv University

Crossover of strains in the workplace is demonstrated in this study on principals and teachers in 47 elementary schools in Israel. Using structural equation modeling we found a significant crossover of job-induced tension from principals to teachers and vice versa. The perception of undermining by their principals elevated teachers’ strain.


Interactive Effects of Organizational Politics and

Agreeableness on Organizational Citizenship


Lawrence A. Witt, Barnett Bank
K. Michele Kacmar, Florida State University
Dawn S. Carlson, University of Utah

Data collected from 332 document processing workers and 207 telemarketers from two organizations as well as from their respective supervisors confirmed our hypotheses that: (a) employees experiencing considerable organizational politics would manifest fewer OCBs than those experiencing low levels of politics, and (b) that agreeableness would moderate the politics-OCB relationship.


Layoff Survivors: Analysis of Organizational Attitudes

Before and After Downsizing


Roger Young, Wilson Learning Corporation
Janet L. Kottke, California State University

This study investigated the impact of downsizing on layoff survivors. Survivors experienced less role stress, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment after downsizing. Mixed support was found for the hypothesized structural model of commitment to the organization, job satisfaction, role stress, perceived fairness, and perceived guilt.


Testing the Effects of Attributions and Emotions in the Transactional Model

Kelly Zellars, Florida State University
Pamela L. Perrew, Florida State University

The transactional model of the stress process (Folkman et al., 1986; Lazarus, 1966, 1993; Lazarus & Folkman, 1987) continues to be utilized in a significant amount of stress research. Recently, Perrew and Zellars (in press) expanded Lazarus’ transactional appraisal approach to include a specific discussion of the process by which employees’ attributions regarding stressors and the resulting emotions significantly influence their choices of coping mechanisms. Focusing on work/family conflict, this study examines portions of the expanded transactional model in a field study. Results indicate that even after controlling for attributions, emotions (i.e., shame and guilt) explain additional variance in coping choices.


Antecedents of Intrinsic Motivation in Chinese R & D Organizations

Jing Zhou, Texas A & M University

The antecedents of intrinsic motivation in 147 Chinese R&D organizations were examined. Results showed that autonomy, informational feedback, and group task-oriented support predicted scientists’ and engineers’ (N = 722) intrinsic motivation. Work group task-oriented support had the strongest effect. Supervisor task-oriented support did not have an effect.


A Meta-Analysis of Recruitment Source Effects on Turnover and Performance

Michael Zottoli, Ohio State University
John P. Wanous, Ohio State University

This meta-analysis cumulated findings regarding the relationship between recruitment sources and both turnover and performance. Effects were found for both variables, though the mean effect size was larger for turnover. The results suggest that inside recruitment sources (e.g., employee referral) promote greater retention and performance than outside sources (e.g., advertisement).


An Exploratory Investigation of Downsizing and

Managers’ Organizational Commitment


Jenifer A. Kihm, Bowling Green State University
Carlla S. Smith, Bowling Green State University

Downsizing characteristics and managers’ commitment were examined by surveying 4,500+ managers from many organizations; some that had recently downsized. Results indicate that managers’ personal situations show a stronger relation to commitment than does an organization’s future potential. This is contrary to the belief that "management" is synonymous with the organization.

54. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                                     Wedgwood

Personality Tests in Personnel Selection: The Use of Gender-Based Norms

This symposium addresses the apparent conflict between the "common knowledge" in our field that gender differences exist for a variety of personality dimensions, and the legal prohibition against the use of gender-based norms in personnel decisions contained in the Civil Rights Act of 1991. Presenters cover both legal and "good practice" perspectives, as well as empirical research results.

Ronald A. Ash, University of Kansas, Chair
James C. Sharf, Aon Consulting, The Legal Perspective
Sandra L. Davis, MDA Consulting Group, Does Sex Make a Difference? Confessions of a Pragmatist
Robert F. Silzer, HR Assessment & Development, Best and Common Practices in Interpreting Personality
            Inventory Results: The Role of Gender-Based Norms
Ronald A. Ash, University of Kansas, James Guthrie, University of Kansas, Charles D. Stevens, University of
            Kansas, C. Joseph Coate, University of Kansas, Gender and Personality Differences: Implications for
            Selection Outcomes
Erich P. Prien, Performance Management Associates, Kristin O. Prien, Performance Management Associates,
            Predicting Sales and Customer Relations Performance: Does Gender Matter?
Robert T. Hogan, University of Tulsa, Discussant

55. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                           Peacock Terrace

Recent Trends in the Study of Transfer Climate:

Theory, Research, and Consultation

The work environment/climate significantly influences training effectiveness by facilitating or constraining the transfer of skills back to the job (horizontally), and across individuals to group and organizational levels (vertically). This cross-disciplinary symposium brings together scientist-practitioners who use different models, methods, and instruments for diagnosing contextual influences on the transfer process.

Wayne E. K. Lehman, Texas Christian University, Co-Chair
Marcie A. Cavanaugh, Cornell University, Co-Chair
Joel Bennett, Texas Christian University, Jamie Forst, Allison Engine Company, Wayne E. K. Lehman, Texas
            Christian University, Practices: Transfer Climate as a Multi-Level Mediator
Elwood Holton, Lousiana State University, Reid Bates, Lousiana State University, Development and Validation
            of a Generalized Instrument to Measure Factors Affecting Transfer of Learning
J. Bruce Tracey, Cornell University, A Three-Dimensional Model of the Transfer of Training Climate
Kenneth G. Brown, Michigan State University, Daniel A. Weissbein, Michigan State University, Steve W. J.
            Kozlowski, Michigan State University, One Step Beyond: Expanding Transfer Research to Include
            Vertical Transfer
Lawrence R. James, University of Tennessee, Discussant

56. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                                               Monet

Surveys and More Surveys: Addressing and Dealing with Oversurveying

A critical mass exists regarding the number of surveys potential respondents can and will complete. The present symposium examines the oversurveying issue from a myriad of perspectives. Specifically, the symposium will integrate research, demonstrations, and practice, to discuss ways of preventing, "beating," managing, and assessing the effects of oversurveying.

Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University, Chair
Lise Saari, IBM, Surveys in a Global Corporation: Managing Oversurveying and Quality
Michael Zickar, Bowling Green State University, Using Item Response Theory to Reduce the Length of Surveys
Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University, Matthew S. O’Connor, Bowling Green State University,
            Bradley West, Bowling Green State University, Matthew Mundwiler, Bowling Green State University,
            Gwen G. Fisher, Bowling Green State University, Designing Surveys that Elicit Favorable Impressions
Sara P. Weiner, IBM, Francine Schept, IBM, Alternative to Surveys: Examples and Benefits of Qualitative
            Research in Organizational Settings
Allan H. Church, W. Warner Burke Associates, Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University, Janine
            Waclawski, W. Warner Burke Associates, Do High Performing Managers Get More or Less Multirater
Jack E. Edwards, Defense Manpower Data Center, Discussant

57. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                                          Morocco

Chaos, Self-Organization, and Evolutionary Processes in Organization Theory

Nonlinear dynamics concepts such as chaos, bifurcation, self-organization, catastrophes, and emergence have made significant contributions in the life sciences. Their contributions to organizational theory, the practice of management, and empirical research are addressed here. Implications for individual action, group dynamics, and organizational change are considered.

Stephen J. Guastello, Marquette University, Chair
Jeffrey Goldstein, Adelphi University, Emergence as a New Construct in Organizational Dynamics
L. Douglas Kiel, University of Texas at Dallas, Chaotic Logic in Public Management and Public Policy:
            Strategies for Evolutionary Management
Stephen J. Guastello, Marquette University, Island Commission Report: Self-organization and Emergent

58. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50                                                 Rosetta

Occupational Health and Safety: What Can I-O Psychology Contribute?

The National Occupational Research Agenda on safety and health (OHS) includes research priorities for emerging technologies, special populations at risk, and the organization of work. Discussion will focus on (a) what can I-O psychology contribute to OHS and (b) how can research partnerships be formed to fund OHS research?

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston, Chair
David A. Hofmann, Texas A & M University, Panelist
Joseph Hurrell, NIOSH, Panelist
Mary A. Lewis, PPG Industries, Panelist
Richard Lippin, ARCO Chemical, Panelist
Steven Sauter, NIOSH, Panelist
Carlla S. Smith, Bowling Green State University, Panelist

59. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                                 Grand A

Performance Appraisal: Can We Do Better?

Five authors who contributed to a new volume from SIOP’s Professional Practice Series discuss issues such as appraisals in team and international contexts, linking appraisals to training interventions, evaluating executive performance, and the role of customers and situational constraints in state-of-the-art practice.

James W. Smither, La Salle University, Chair
H. John Bernardin, Florida Atlantic University, Panelist
Donald D. Davis, Old Dominion University, Panelist
Miriam Graddick, AT&T, Panelist
Richard R. Reilly, Assessment Alternatives, Panelist
Paul Squires, Assessment Solutions, Panelist

60. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                                           Grand B

Improvements in Measurement: Application of Item Response Theory

Methods based on item response theory offer insights to a variety of measurement problems. In this symposium, item response theory is used to examine the amount of faking on personality scales, evaluate ratings from different types of raters, analyze an employee attitude survey, and support computerized assessment of job performance.

Fritz Drasgow, University of Illinois, Chair
William J. Flanagan, Georgia Tech, Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, J. Martin Haygood,
            Management Psychology Group, Impression Management, Measurement Equivalence and Personality
            Factors: Can IRT Be Used to Determine the Impact of Faking?
Larry J. Laffitte, Illinois Institute of Technology, John C. Scott, Applied Psych. Techniques, Nambury S. Raju,
            Illinois Institute of Technology, Peter M. Fasolo, Zimmer, Inc., Examination of the Measurement
            Equivalence of a 360-Degree Feedback Assessment with Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Item
            Response Theory
Angela Lynch, University of Connecticut, Janet L. Barnes-Farrell, University of Connecticut, Jonna Kulikowich,
            University of Connecticut, Using Samejima’s Graded Response Model for Employee Attitude Survey
Steven Stark, University of Illinois, Fritz Drasgow, University of Illinois, Application of an IRT Ideal Point
            Model to Computer Adaptive Assessment of Job Performance
Charles K. Parsons, Georgia Tech, Discussant

61. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                                 Grand E

What Executive Coaches Have Learned About Executives

One of the hottest trends in executive development is coaching—intense, one-on-one efforts to create personal change. Four experienced coaches answer questions on what they have learned about executives’ strengths and weaknesses, and in what ways and under what circumstances executives change as a result of coaching interventions.

Morgan W. McCall, University of Southern California, Chair
George P. Hollenbeck, Hollenbeck Associates, Panelist
Esther Hutchison, Executive Education and Development, Panelist
Michael Mcgrath, Personnel Decisions International, Panelist
Robert E. Kaplan, Kaplan DeVries, Panelist

62. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                                       Governors

Alternative Work Arrangements:

Using Theory-Driven Research to Understand Practice

There is limited theory to understand when organizations will adopt alternative work arrangements, which employees will choose to use them, and how they will affect employees’ work behaviors/attitudes. This symposium introduces empirical data—based on theoretical approaches—that address these issues, with each study simultaneously addressing several work schedules.

Lori M. Berman, Hay Group, Chair
Deborah D. Winters, Anderson Consultants, The Adoption of Life Balance Initiatives: A Human Capital and
            Institutional Perspective
Ellen Ernst Kossek, Michigan State University, Alison Barber, Michigan State University, Fitting In: Relational
            Demography and Managers’ Intention to Use Alternative Work Arrangements
Lori M. Berman, University of Maryland, When and How Alternative Work Arrangements Affect Employees’
            Work Behaviors and Attitudes
Sumita Raghuram, Fordham University, Batia M. Wiesenfeld, Columbia University, Organizational
            Identification Among Teleworkers: Role of Distance and Personal Autonomy
Katherine J. Klein, Discussant

63. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                                                  Miro

New Frontiers in Leadership Research

Four studies take a new look at organizational leadership. First, how CEO charisma and TMT dynamics relate is assessed. Next, biodata’s relation to transformational leadership is examined. The third paper conceptualizes leadership differently: as a process of influence. Finally, the construct validity of 360-degree measures in assessing executives is evaluated.

Randall H. Lucius, Organizational Diagnostics–Online, Chair
Laura L. Wolfe, Emory University, CEO Leadership Style and the Dynamics of Their Top Management Team
Richelle Southwick, Southern Company, Antecedents of Transformational and Transactional Leadership
Randall H. Lucius, Organizational Diagnostics–Online, Beyond Performance: Studying Leadership as a Process
P. Gail Wise, Irwin & Browning, Rating Differences in Multi-Rater Feedback: A New Look at an Old Issue
Karl W. Kuhnert, University of Georgia, Discussant

64. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                                   Metropolitan

Global Implementation of Selection Practices:

The Influence of Cultural Context

Multinational firms and international consultants are increasingly called upon to apply selection methods across cultures. Despite cross-cultural research on measurement equivalence, such applications often occur without attention to the influence of culture. This symposium focuses on how cultural context affects how we approach selection.

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Chair
Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Lynn A. McFarland, Michigan State University, Helen Baron,
            Saville & Holdsworth, Ronald C. Page, Consulting Psychologists, Inc., An International Survey of
            Selection Practices
Gill Nyefield, Saville & Holdsworth, How to Consider Cultural Context in Adapting Selection Practices Across
John C. Callender, Procter & Gamble Company, Learnings from Globally Implementing Cognitive and Biodata
Mark J. Schmit, Personnel Decisions International, The Development of a Global Measure of Personality
Beryl L. Hesketh, Macquarie University, Discussant

65. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                                 Obelisk A & B

Emotion and Well-Being in the Workplace:

Conceptual and Psychometric Advances

Research on emotions and stress is an important topic for those concerned about employees’ experience at work. The four studies, representing three nations, three field samples, and three longitudinal designs, together make advancements in our understanding of how emotions and stress relate to organizational and individual variables.

Alicia A. Grandey, Colorado State University, Chair
Neal M. Ashkanasy, University of Queensland, Charmine E. J. Hrtel, University of Queensland, Peter J. Jordan,
            University of Queensland, Workplace Emotional Intelligence Profile (WEIP): A Measurement of
            Emotional Intelligence in Work Teams
Sandi Mann, University of Salford, A Burger, a Soda, and a Smile Please! The Development of a Measure of
            Emotional Labor
Alicia A. Grandey, Colorado State University, Work-Family Conflict, Self-Esteem, and Gender: A Longitudinal
            Look at Main and Moderating Effects on Stress Outcomes
Thomas Wright, University of Nevada at Reno, Russell S. Cropanzano, Colorado State University, Emotional
            Exhaustion as a Predictor of Job Performance and Voluntary Turnover


66. Roundtable: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50                                                              Wyeth

Integrating Science and Practice in I-O Psychology:

Managing Workplace Romances

The goal of this roundtable is to discuss strategies for managing romantic relationships in the workplace. We will combine the knowledge and experience of (a) researchers in I-O psychology whose expertise is in workplace romance and sexual harassment, (b) I-O psychologists who work in business settings, and (c) members of management.

Charles A. Pierce, Montana State University, Host
Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver, Host

67. Special Event: Saturday, 9:00 - 9:50                                                 Manchester

1997 Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions:

The Justice and Injustice of Human Resource Practices

Organizational justice research has increased over the past decade with many applications to human resource decision management. Although this research has been fruitful, I will argue that more attention needs to be paid to the asymmetry between fair and unfair treatment. In particular, I will discuss research that suggests injustice and unfair treatment is more important in shaping organizational behavior than fair treatment.

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, Chair
Stephen Gilliland, University of Arizona, Presenter

Coffee Break: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:00                         Near SIOP Meeting Rooms


68. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                                                     Grand A

New Directions for Applying 360-Degree Feedback

Although 360 feedback has been around for considerable time, it usually is understood and utilized in only limited ways. This symposium looks at new directions for better understanding and applying 360 feedback. New perspectives include cross-cultural transfer, customer involvement, establishing learning cultures, and using 360-degree surveys to assess change.

Walter W. Tornow, Center for Creative Leadership, Co-Chair
Manuel London, SUNY-Stony Brook, Co-Chair
Jean Leslie, Center for Creative Leadership, Nur Gryskiewicz, University of North Carolina - Greensboro, Maxine
            Arnold Dalton, Center for Creative Leadership, Cultural Influences on the 360-Degree Feedback Process
Carol Paradise Tornow, Strategic HR Management Systems, Customer Feedback for Competitive Advantage
Cynthia D. McCauley, Center for Creative Leadership, Patricia O’Connor Wilson, Center for Creative Leadership,
            Lily Kelly-Radford, Center for Creative Leadership, The Role of 360-Degree Feedback in the
            Establishment of Learning Cultures
Jennifer W. Martineau, Center for Creative Leadership, Using 360-Degree Surveys to Assess Change
George P. Hollenbeck, Hollenbeck Associates, Discussant

69. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                                          Grand B

Challenges and Strategies to Working with Law Enforcement Organizations

Law enforcement agencies provide unique challenges for I-O psychologists. This forum includes practitioners from academia, an external consulting group, an internal HR department and a law enforcement officer who is also a psychologist for a metropolitan police agency. Each will discuss the unique challenges and advantages their positions provide them when working with law enforcement agencies.

Robert P. Delprino, SUNY College at Buffalo, Chair
Nancy E. Abrams, The Partnering Group, Entering the World of Law Enforcement as an Outsider: An Alien in
            a Different World
Ellen Scrivner, U.S. Department of Justice, Police and Public Safety’s Need for I/O Psychologist
Robert P. Delprino, SUNY College at Buffalo, Balancing Union, Administration and Police Officers’ Needs
            During the Grant Process While Attempting to Maintain Your Sanity
Christopher T. Rotolo, Old Dominion University, Consulting From Within: Working with Law Enforcement
            from the Inside

70. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                                                       Grand E

New Findings in Three Domains of Sexual Harassment Research:

Perceptions, Perpetrators, and Coping

Data from three prongs of research are presented bearing on a comprehensive understanding of sexual harassment. Client harassment in a female-dominated occupation is found to covary with supervisor and coworker harassment. Competing models of sexual harassment outcomes are tested on a large military sample, and the role of extraneous factors in sexual harassment judgments is examined.

Margaret S. Stockdale, Southern Illinois University, Chair
Tchicaya Ellis, Southern Illinois University, Margaret S. Stockdale, Southern Illinois University, Cynthia
            Heischmidt, Southern Illinois University, Mary Aubertin, Southern Illinois University, Dan Jefferies,
            Southern Illinois University, Correlates of Client Harassment in a Female-Dominated Occupation
Bret Phillips, Southern Illinois University, Margaret S. Stockdale, Southern Illinois University, Direct and
            Intervening Processes Affecting the Severity of Sexual Harassment Outcomes
Michelle E. Wood, Southern Illinois University, Margaret S. Stockdale, Southern Illinois University, Barbara A.
            Gutek, University of Arizona, Maureen O’Connor, CUNY, The Role of Plaintiff/Defendant Attractiveness
            and Observers’ Sexual Harassment Attitudes on Sexual Harassment Judgments

71. Poster Session: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                                      Chantilly East

Personality, Research Methods, and Statistics


Update of the Validity of Personality Scales in Personnel Selection

Gregory D. Anderson, Florida International University
Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University

The authors cumulated the results from 19 studies reporting the criterion-related validity of personality scales that were conducted in the United States and published between January 1992 and June 1997. Results indicated that the sample size weighted mean criterion-related validities for Agreeableness (k = 29, N = 3,421), Conscientiousness (k = 51, N = 6,817), Emotional Stability (k = 33, N = 4,743), Extroversion (k = 43, N = 5,874), and Openness to Experience (k = 29, N = 3,369), were .10, .18, .16, .08, and .07, respectively.


Another Look at the Prevalence of Data Sharing in Psychological Research

Karyn Bernas, Old Dominion University
Arlene L. Pace, Old Dominion University
Robert M. McIntyre, Old Dominion University

This study investigated the prevalence of data sharing and common reasons cited for failure to release data. Eight of 62 authors sent data. Common reasons for noncompliance were insufficient time and unretrievable or proprietary data. The results of this study provide insight into the complexity of the data-sharing argument.


Computer-Adaptive Testing and Test-Retest Reliability

in a "Big-Five" Personality Inventory


Reagan D. Brown, Virginia Tech
Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Tech

We examined the degree to which computer-adaptive testing (CAT) reduced the number of items administered for a "Big Five" personality test (Brown, 1997). Using a 90% SE stopping rule, on average CAT administered only 58% of the total pool. Test-retest reliabilities were comparable to those seen for the full-length test.


A Comparison of Validity: Self-Report Format Versus Reasoning Format

Jennifer R. D. Burgess, University of Tennessee
Lawrence R. James, University of Tennessee

The Conditional Reasoning Test (CRT) is a measurement system for personality based on individuals’ naturally occurring reasoning processes. Two forms of the CRT were developed to assess the benefits of using a reasoning instead of a self-report approach. Predicting course grades, the "reasoning" CRT had both higher validity and a greater increase in R-square over critical-thinking than the self-report CRT.


Impact of Experimental Design on Effect Size

Kevin Carlson, Virginia Tech

Control group effects and inflation in the post-training criterion standard deviations are shown to account for the majority of the difference in effect size observed between single group pretest-posttest designs and control group designs. Posttest only designs appear to understate effect size. Both effects were strongest for knowledge criterion types.


Sensitive or Senseless? Using Social Desirability Measures

to Identify Distortion


Neil D. Christiansen, Central Michigan University

Half the participants (N = 200) completed personality and social desirability measures honestly and half (N = 200) as if applying for a sales position. Although faking caused inflation of trait scores and serious decay in their validity, the SD scales were only able to correctly identify fakers slightly better than chance.


Repeated Measures Regression: Decomposing Variance in Cross-Level Research

Jason A. Colquitt, Michigan State University
John R. Hollenbeck, Michigan State University
Stanley M. Gully, George Mason University

This paper illustrates the use of repeated measures regression for analyzing cross-level data. Using a hypothetical database, we use this technique to isolate and capture criterion variance at different levels of analysis. We argue that this technique has greater simplicity, convenience, and flexibility than existing alternatives for analyzing cross-level data.


The Convergent Validity Between Self- and Observer Ratings of Personality

James Connolly, Florida International University
Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University

The convergent validity between self- and observer ratings of the Big Five personality dimensions was examined by cumulating research findings across studies (N = 8,000, k = 58). Results show that, although there is a high degree of construct overlap, both self- and observer ratings have substantial unique variance. Moderator effects were analyzed.


An Expert System for Integrating Multiple CSM Fit Indices

Michael D. Coovert, University of South Florida
J. Philip Craiger, University of Nebraska at Omaha
David W. Dorsey, American Institutes for Research

Determining the overall fit of a model is critical in covariance structure modeling. We surveyed leading researchers to learn their perceptions about the importance of the top 12 measures and we developed and will demonstrate an expert system that provides one assessment of model fit based upon their integration.


Measuring Mental Models for Teamwork at the Individual and Team Level

Lillian T. Eby, University of Georgia
Adam Meade, University of Georgia
Anthony G. Parisi, University of Georgia
Shane Douthitt, University of Georgia
Pamela Midden, University of Georgia

A measurement system for assessing mental models for teamwork at the individual level was developed. Reliability and validity were assessed using traditional scale development techniques and hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis. An illustration of how to utilize the individual-level measurement system to assess team or shared mental models was also provided.


Correcting Response Distortion: Issues of Fairness and Trait Construct Validity

Jill E. Ellingson, University of Minnesota
Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota
Leaetta M. Hough, The Dunnette Group, Ltd.

The influence of response distortion corrections on personality traits was evaluated. A within-subjects design allowed investigation into whether corrected scores approximate true scores. Results suggested that faking corrections, while effective in adjusting scores, fail to eliminate response distortion. Results are interpreted with respect to the construct validity of personality traits.


Employee and Supervisor Personality Effects on Employee Performance Ratings

Brenda Godfrey, University of North Florida
Thomas A. Timmerman, Austin Peay State University

Personality characteristics of call-center employees and their supervisors were measured to assess the relationship between the Big Five personality domains and job performance. As predicted, employee conscientiousness predicted supervisory performance ratings. In addition, employee-supervisor similarity in terms of extroversion was also related to performance ratings.


Gender and Ethnicity-Based Differential Item Functioning on the MBTI

Melissa Gratias, Virginia Tech
Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Tech

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was examined for differential item functioning (DIF) on crossed gender and ethnicity variables. White males were the reference group. The focal groups were: Black females, Black males, and White females. The sample was 10,775 managers. Results showed several biased items in all comparisons.


An Analysis of Variance Approach to Content Validation

Timothy Hinkin, Cornell University
J. Bruce Tracey, Cornell University

The current manuscript reviews and extends the work of Anderson and Gerbing (1991) and Schriesheim, Powers, Scandura, Gardiner, and Lankau (1993) and describes an analysis of variance technique that can provide a high degree of confidence in determining item integrity and scale content validity. The utility of this technique is demonstrated by using two samples and two different measures.


The Interactive Effects of Value Attainment, Attitudes,

and Moods of Job Performance


Wayne Hochwarter, University of Alabama
Pamela L. Perrew, Florida State University
Robert Brymer, Florida State University

This paper empirically examines the VAM model (George & Jones, 1996; 1997) which integrates three of the most critical constructs within the experience of work: value attainment, attitude, and mood. The VAM model proposes a simultaneous consideration of values, attitudes, and moods for the prediction and understanding of important work outcomes such as job performance. It was hypothesized that the relationship between job satisfaction and performance would be moderated by value attainment and mood (i.e., negative and positive affectivity). Two 3-way interactions demonstrated that the strongest positive relationship between job satisfaction and performance occurred when value attainment was high and the experienced mood was either high positive affectivity or low negative affectivity.


Biodata and Personality: How Similar Are They?

Brent Holland, University of Tulsa
Michael B. Hein, Middle Tennessee State University
Richard Moffett, Middle Tennessee State University
Judith L. Van Hein, Middle Tennessee State University

Questions concerning the relationship between biodata-personality measures have largely remained unanswered. The present investigation sought to explore the measures’ relationship using the Hogan Personality Inventory (HPI) and a biodata questionnaire. The results suggested that a general, although small, pattern of relationships exist. The implications of the results are presented.


Examining the Met Expectations Hypothesis Using Residual Gain Scores

Greg Irving, University of New Brunswick
John P. Meyer, University of Western Ontario

Hom, Griffeth, Palich, and Bracker (in press) suggested that met expectations is a critical mediating mechanism of realistic job preview effects. However, they used residual gain scores to measure met expectations. We demonstrate that this approach creates the same problems as difference scores, a technique that has been widely criticized in previous literature.


Examination of Differential Item Functioning: Subgroups and Personality

Danielle Jennings, Michigan State University
Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University

Respondents rely on preferences, attitudes, and behaviors, which may differ with group membership, when responding to personality items. This study investigated differential item functioning (DIF) of personality items between African Americans and Euro-Americans. Results show that personality items of the NEO-FFI are not measuring different constructs.


Estimating the Relative Importance of Predictor Variables

in Multiple Regression


Jeff W. Johnson, Personnel Decision Research Institutes

The relative importance of predictor variables in multiple regression is difficult to determine because of non-zero predictor intercorrelations. A method is proposed that is computationally efficient with any number of predictors, and is shown to produce results that are very similar to those produced by more complex methods.


Mean Substitution for Missing Items: The Effect of Sample Size

Craig V. King, Kansas State University
Richard J. Fogg, Kansas State University
Ronald G. Downey, Kansas State University

Two methods of mean substitution were compared on two constructs: Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction, and four sample sizes (N = 50, 100, 150, & 200). Both the item mean and the person mean provided results similar to the original values; however, the person mean approach inflated the alpha coefficients.


Written Versus Telephone Employee Surveys: Are the Data Really Comparable?

Allen I. Kraut, Baruch College
Cal G. Oltrogge, Personnel Decisions International
Caryn J. Block, Teachers College, Columbia University

Two large-sample studies compare data from questionnaire and telephone surveys. Overall, responses to telephone surveys were significantly more favorable, on average by 14 percentage points in one study and 9 points in the other. The findings cast doubt on the validity of directly comparing data from the two methods.



Charles E. Lance, University of Georgia
Cheng Cheng, The Johns Hopkins University

The ratio of restricted to unrestricted predictor standard deviation (u = SDr/SDu) is required to correct sample-based estimates of test validity for range restriction. An intuitively appealing approach to estimating u is shown to be wrong. The exact formula and corrected tabled values for u with SDr and the selection ratio (SR) known or estimable are presented.


An Alternative Interpretation of Multiple Regression

Ronald S. Landis, Tulane University
William Dunlap, Tulane University

An alternative interpretation of multiple regression is accomplished by computing factor loadings for each predictor. Rather than testing the significance of beta weights, this approach identifies predictors that explain criterion variance even if they are redundant with other predictors. Implications for this approach are discussed.


A Revised Index of Agreement for Ratings of a Single Target

Michael K. Lindell, Texas A & M University
Christina Brandt, Michigan State University
David J. Whitney, California State University-Long Beach

We recently found that the rWG(j) index can display irregular behavior and recommended that investigators use maximum dissensus rather than uniformly distributed random error as a reference distribution. In further examination of this index, we examined four variants of rWG(j) and recommend a revised index that is an inverse linear function of the ratio of the average obtained variance to the variance of uniformly distributed random error.


Do Organizational Survey Items Function Differently for

Managers and Non-Managers?


Angela Lynch, University of Connecticut
Janet L. Barnes-Farrell, University of Connecticut
Jonna Kulikowich, University of Connecticut

Employee attitude questions were found to exhibit differential item functioning (DIF) for the management and non-management groups in a large corporation’s annual survey. The IRT-based DIF analysis followed the procedure of Thissen, Steinberg, and Wainer (1993). The polytomous items were fit to Samejima’s (1969) graded response model using Multilog software.


Using Multidimensional Scaling and Cluster Analysis to Assess Mental Models

Liberty Matt, University of Illinois

Researchers have long argued that novice and expert mental models are substantially different. Unfortunately, few have suggested methods for obtaining these models. In the current study, novices and experts were identified. Using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis, graphical representations of their mental models were obtained. Benefits of this are discussed.


Evaluating Aggregate Level Constructs and

Measures of Local Union Structure


Steven Mellor, University of Connecticut
John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University

Aggregate level constructs and measures of local union structure pertaining to centralization, formalization, and innovation were developed and evaluated with local officers’ ratings. Officers exhibited high agreement with respect to the structure of their local. Analyses performed on the aggregate covariance matrix provided support for single-factor dimensions and discriminant validity.


The Homogeneity Assumption in Differential Prediction Analysis:

Does it Really Matter?


Frederick L. Oswald, University of Minnesota
Syed Saad, University of Minnesota
Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota

Differential prediction models comparing majority and minority subgroups assume homogeneity of error variances, a fact applied psychologists often ignore. We tested this assumption using Project A and GATB ability, personality, and performance data. The assumption was consistently met in the GATB data, but occasionally violated in the Project A data.


Assessing Intraindividual Change: Statistical Tools for Substantive Questions, with Application

Robert E. Ployhart, Michigan State University
Milton D. Hakel, Bowling Green State University

Issues related to the analysis of individual change are examined. Statistics are described in non-technical terms to show how methods accessible to applied psychologists can be used to answer substantive questions about change over time. An example shows how these methods can inform questions about predictors of change.


Item Development Counts: A Comparison of

Empirical Key and Rational Scale Validation


Roni Reiter-Palmon, University of Nebraska at Omaha
Shane Connelly, American Institutes for Research

Research suggests that empirical keys have higher validities than rational scales. The current study compares the validity of empirical keys constructed based on two methods of item development to rational scales. Items were either carefully selected to reflect hypothesized relationship with the criterion, or were not carefully selected.


Statistical Results Reported in Major I-O Journals: On Beyond p-values (?)

Matt L. Riggs, California State University-San Bernardino
William Hubbard, California State University-San Bernardino

Recently, experts in statistical methodology have called for a reduction in dependency on tests of statistical significance. A review of articles from major I-O journals from 1987 and 1997 indicated that p-values have been and continue to be the most frequently reported indicator of the substantiality of quantitative results.


The Use of Variance-Based Agreement Indices as Measures

William M. Rogers, Michigan State University

Variance and variance-based indices of agreement are examined as measurement instruments. It is suggested that these indices are not suitable for use as continuous measures in statistical methods requiring interval scales. Significance tests for the r((wg) agreement index are presented, as well as implications for future efforts at measuring agreement.


Alpha as a Flawed Index of Reliability of Multifactor Measures

William M. Rogers, Michigan State University
Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University
Morell E. Mullins, Michigan State University

Coefficient alpha provides an underestimate of reliability when used with multidimensional composites. The underestimation varies as a function of the prominence of distinct factors in a composite and the length of the composite. Implications for use of coefficient alpha in correcting observed correlations for unreliability are discussed.


Considering Language and Culture in Assessing Measurement Equivalence

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University
David Chan, Michigan State University
Robert E. Ployhart, Michigan State University
L. Allen Slade, Ford Motor Company

The cross-cultural equivalence of a multinational employee opinion survey was examined using multiple-groups covariance structure analysis to examine four scales in four countries, considering language and cultural differences. Sources of lack of invariance were identified. Practical issues in assessing measurement invariance in employee opinion surveys are discussed.


Quantifying the "Crud Factor:" Exploring a Limitation

to Research Interpretation


Evan Sinar, Bowling Green State University
Jerel Slaughter, Bowling Green State University
Milton D. Hakel, Bowling Green State University

The "crud factor" has been defined as systematic noise underlying all relationships between variables. Meta-analysis of discriminant validity coefficients sampled from multitrait-multimethod matrices produced an estimate of .10 for the magnitude of the crud factor. Problematic issues of this finding for interpreting research findings are discussed.


Understanding Item Fakability: A Comparison of Three Methods

Andrea F. Snell, University of Akron
Christine Rechenberg, University of Akron
Richard L. Griffith, Florida Institute of Technology

The utility of regression analysis, discriminant analysis, and Classification and Regression Trees (CART), for classifying honest and faking respondents on the NEO-PI were compared. Results indicate that CART provides more useful item and option level information for examining the fakability of noncognitive measures.


Personality and Pay Preferences: A Person-Organization Fit Perspective

Charles D. Stevens, University of Kansas
Ronald A. Ash, University of Kansas

Performance-based compensation systems vary according to the proportion of compensation that is tied to performance and the level of aggregation at which performance is measured. Using a person-organization fit framework, systematic relationships were found between aspects of personality and people’s preferences for various aspects of compensation systems.


Individual Difference Correlates of User Acceptance

and Peer Evaluation Perceptions


Patrick Stubblebine, Miami University

Results of a survey investigating user acceptance of peer evaluation, show that personality variables may play a role in user acceptance of peer evaluations and perceptions about peer evaluations. Women perceived peer evaluation as less accurate and coworkers less capable of rating peer performance than did men.


Traits, Situations, and Managerial Behavior:

Test of a Trait Activation Hypothesis


Robert P. Tett, Wright State University

A principle of trait activation is proposed which holds that the behavioral expression of a trait requires arousal by trait-relevant situational cues. Results based on responses to two versions of an in-basket exercise (Ns = 61, 63) support the trait activation hypothesis toward explaining notoriously low cross-exercise consistency in assessment centers.


Benefits of a Multivariate Approach to Correcting for Range Restriction

Rebecca J. Toney, Michigan State University
Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University
Malcolm Ree, Armstrong Laboratory

Univariate and multivariate range restriction corrections were applied to estimate validities in a concurrent validation study. Multivariate procedure produced (a) corrections for validities impossible to obtain using univariate procedures, (b) larger validity estimates, and (c) estimates of the corrected intercorrelation matrix and estimates of mean and variance of corrected variables.


Contextual Performance Feedback Seeking:

Scale Development and Construct Validation


Amy Unckless, Pennsylvania State University
Kathleen P. Hess, Pennsylvania State University
James L. Farr, Pennsylvania State University

Research on feedback seeking behavior (FSB) focuses exclusively on task performance. This study develops and provides preliminary validity evidence for scales measuring contextual performance feedback seeking. A variation on a multi-trait multi-method approach provides evidence that task and contextual FSB relate differentially to demographic, personality, career motivation, and climate variables.


Factors Impacting the Relationship Between Impression Management

and Personality Scores


Nicholas L. Vasilopoulos, Stevens Institute of Technology
Richard Reilly, Stevens Institute of Technology

This study examined whether job familiarity and warning of response verification moderate the relationship between impression management and both self- and other-referenced items. Among honest respondents, the warning reduced scores on both item types. Among impression-managing respondents, the warning reduced scores on the other-referenced scale, but not the self-referenced scale.


Effect Sizes in Moderated Multiple Regression:

Beyond the Increment in R-squared


Lawrence A. Witt, Barnett Bank
Lendell Nye

Approaches intended to find theorized moderator effects applied in field studies have been of limited success. We offer a new approach—one that focuses on determining the conditions under which the moderator matters most and does not partition the main (i.e., linear) and interaction effects.


Concertive Control: The Development and Validation of a Measurement Scale

Brett Wright, Sydney Water Corporation Limited
James Barker, US Air Force Academy

The Concertive Control measurement scale was designed to assess the influence of team members on each other to act according to team values, norms, and rules. Scale development is described along with assessment of structure, convergent, discriminant and nomological validity, reliability, and invariance across teams for which it is intended.


Electronic Versus Paper Surveys: Does the Medium Affect the Response?

Paul R. Yost, The Boeing Company
Lori Homer, University of Washington

Electronic versus paper survey administration was studied. Results indicated that internet survey administration resulted in significantly shorter response times, no significant differences in response rates, minor differences in mean item scores, and significantly longer comments to open-ended questions.


Modeling Longitudinal Performance of Hollywood Film Directors Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling

Michael Zickar, Bowling Green State University
Jerel Slaughter, Bowling Green State University

Longitudinal creative performance of film directors was modeled using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Film critics’ ratings from two sources were studied for 143 Hollywood directors. HLM analyses were used to determine career trajectories; these analyses suggest that there may be individual difference variables that can explain variations in performance functions.


An IRT Analysis of Possible Construct Irrelevance in the DAT-MR

James F. Osburn, University of Houston
Hobart G. Osburn, University of Houston
James E. Campion, University of Houston

Construct irrelevance in paper-and-pencil ability testing is always a source of concern for test developers. This study examined the influence of a reading component in the DAT-MR. IRT analysis comparing oral and written versions found no significant differences. Implications for ADA accommodations are discussed.

72. Special Event: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                                               Governors

WWW Demonstration

This session involves a discussion of the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). Topics will include the history of the Internet and WWW, overview of the SIOP homepage, Web creation and maintenance, and examples of how the Web is used to support distance learning.

J. Philip Craiger, University of Nebraska – Omaha, Presenter
R. Jason Weiss, University of Nebraska – Omaha, Presenter
Ted R. Smith, SIOP Administrative Office, Presenter

73. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                                                    Senators

Customer Service: Predictors, Criterion, and Theory

Customer service has gained widespread acceptance as an integral performance component of modern businesses. This symposium addresses constructs assessed by predictors of customer service performance, as well as constructs associated with customer service performance criteria. In addition, we report an effort to expand the theoretical base of customer service research.

Juan I. Sanchez, Florida International University, Chair
Eric Olesen, Barrett & Associates, Michael A. McDaniel, University of Akron, Andrea F. Snell, University of
            Akron, Construct Validity of Customer Service Measures
Chera L. Haworth, University of Akron, Andrea F. Snell, University of Akron, Richard L. Frei, University of
            Akron, Predicting Customer Service: Cleaning up the Performance Domain First
Richard A. McLellan, Personnel Decisions International, Mary Amundson, Target Stores, Mark J. Schmit,
            Personnel Decisions International, Rex Blake, MDA Consulting Group, Shopper Ratings as an
            Individual-Level Criterion for Validation Studies
Avraham N. Kluger, The Hebrew University, Anat Rafaeli, University of Michigan, Varda Wasserman, The
            Hebrew University, Emotions, Cognitive Guides and Service Delivery Landscape: The Influence of
            Service Context on the Quality of Service Transactions
Murray R. Barrick, University of Iowa, Discussant

74. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                                      Wedgwood

Looking Back, Looking Forward: Twenty Years of Uniform Guidelines

Approved in 1978 by the EEOC, Civil Service Commission, Department of Labor, and Department of Justice, the Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures marks its 20th anniversary. This discussion will review what we have learned from the Guidelines, where our profession is now, and future recommendations for the enforcement agencies.

Heather Roberts Fox, American Psychological Association, Chair
Marilyn K. Gowing, US Office of Personnel Management, Panelist
Lawrence Lorber, Verner-Liipfert-Bernhard et al., Panelist
Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota, Panelist
Donald J. Schwartz, EEOC, Panelist
James C. Sharf, Aon Consulting, Panelist
Nancy T. Tippins, GTE Telephone Operations, Panelist

75. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                                      Peacock Terrace

When is a Work Team a Crew—And Does it Matter?

Resent research has offered the distinction of crews from work teams. The symposium will address how the distinctive structure and needs of crews affect selection, training, and management. This effort will be used to determine the extent to which the distinction of crew versus team makes a difference in practice.

Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, Chair
Holly Arrow, University of Oregon, Teams, Crews, and Task Forces: A Structural Typology of Work Groups
Janis Cannon-Bowers, Naval Air Warfare Center, Eduardo Salas, Naval Air Warfare Center, Elizabeth
            Blickensderfer, Naval Air Warfare Center, On Training Crews
Clint Bowers, University of Central Florida, Ben B. Morgan, University of Central Florida, Eduardo Salas, Naval
            Air Warfare Center, Selecting Team Members: Should We Be on "Crews Control?"
Stephen J. Zaccaro, George Mason University, C. Shawn Burke, George Mason University, Team Versus Crew
            Leadership: Differences and Similarities
Sheila T. Simsarian Webber, George Mason University, Distinguishing Crews from Teams: An Empirical
Steve W.J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University, Discussant

76. Conversation Hour: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:20                                   Manchester

The Development of a Public Archive of Job Satisfaction

The Job Descriptive Index (JDI) archive at Bowling Green State University includes 49 studies and more than 12,000 responses to the JDI and other measures. This conversation hour will ask interested researchers to help develop a process for making these data more widely available for research purposes.

William K. Balzer, Bowling Green State University, Host
Luis F. Parra, William M. Mercer, Host
Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University, Host

77. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                                                              Miro

Current Issues in Applicant Reactions Research

This symposium describes conceptual and empirical gaps in the applicant reactions literature and presents three studies examining performance-reactions relationships, reactions to rejection letters, and reactions-organizational outcomes relationships, respectively. Current conceptual, methodological, and practical issues in reactions research will be addressed.

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, Co-Chair
David Chan, Michigan State University, Co-Chair
David Chan, Michigan State University, Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, Joshua M. Sacco, Michigan
            State University, Richard P. DeShon, Michigan State University, Understanding Pretest and Posttest
            Reactions to Ability and Personality Tests
Stephen W. Gilliland, University of Arizona, Applicants’ Reactions to Rejection Letters: A Field Experiment
Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University, Donald M. Truxillo, Portland State University, Jane M. Craig, NYS
            Office of Court Administration, Rudolph J. Sanchez, Portland State University, Philip Ferrara, NY State
            Unified Court System, Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Longitudinal Effects of Ten Procedural
            Justice Rules on Organizational Outcomes
Sara L. Rynes, University of Iowa, Discussant

78. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                                               Metropolitan

Factors Affecting the Acceptance of Diversity in Organizations

Over the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in the diversity of the workforce, and recurring resistance to the inclusion of diverse subgroup members in organizations. This symposium presents results of theoretical and empirical research on the factors that affect the acceptance of diversity programs and members of diverse subgroups.

Dianna L. Stone, SUNY at Albany, Chair
Eugene F. Stone-Romero, SUNY at Albany, Individuals’ Values and Support for Diversity in Organizations
Megumi Hosoda, Pace University, Dianna L. Stone, SUNY at Albany, Gwen E. Jones, Fairleigh Dickinson
            University, The Effects of Race and Gender on Job Suitability Ratings and Job Assignment Decisions
Caren Goldberg, George Washington University, Lynn M. Shore, Georgia State University, The Impact of Age of
            Applicants and of Referent Others on Recruiters’ Assessments
Beth Chung, Cornell University, Dana McDonald-Mann, Center for Creative Leadership, Silvia Swigert, Center for
            Creative Leadership, An Exploration of Differential Relationships Between Skills and Outcomes Across
            Race and Gender Subgroups
Stella Nkomo, University of North Carolina - Charlotte, Discussant

79. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                                                Monet

New Directions in Job Satisfaction Research

I-O Psychology is beginning to see a re-awakening of research on job satisfaction with new definitions, theoretical perspectives and measurement. The panelists in this session will participate in a discussion, encouraging audience involvement, on the nature of these new directions and on the future of this important topic of research.

Barry M. Staw, University of California at Berkeley, Chair
Arthur P. Brief, Tulane University, Panelist
Charles L. Hulin, University of Illinois, Panelist
Stephan J. Motowidlo, University of Florida, Panelist
Howard M. Weiss, Purdue University, Panelist

80. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                                                      Morocco

Studying Social Networks in I-O Psychology

Social network theory and research shed new light on I-O topics. We present research results regarding: (a) the determinants of individuals’ perceptions of network ties, (b) network centrality as a mediator of the personality-performance relationship, and (c) changes in network ties and attitudes following a "natural experiment" in organizational restructuring.

Amy B. Conn, University of Maryland, Chair
David Krackhardt, Carnegie Mellon University, Martin Kilduff, Pennsylvania State University, Balance Among
            our Friends: An Examination Across Four Organizations
Tiziana E. Casciaro, Carnegie Mellon University, David Krackhardt, Carnegie Mellon University, Kathleen Carley,
            Carnegie Mellon University, Depression, Accuracy, and Social Position: A Correlational Study
Amy B. Conn, University of Maryland, Katherine J. Klein, University of Maryland, Determinants and
            Consequences of Social Networks: An Exploration of the Relationships Between Personality, Job
            Performance, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Network Centrality
Kathleen Valley, Harvard Business School, Tracy Thompson, University of Washington - Tacoma, Resettling
            After Upheaval: A Longitudinal Study of Individual and Social Responses to Change

81. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                                            Obelisk A & B

New Directions in Work and Family Research

This symposium is designed to share results of recent investigations that are forging new directions in work and family research. Four studies will be presented that examine organizational climate for work-family balance, differences between elder care and child care, commuting couples, and using family to better understand job satisfaction.

Tammy D. Allen, University of South Florida, Co-Chair
Teresa J. Rothausen, Texas A & M University, Co-Chair
Tammy D. Allen, University of South Florida, Lauren Parker, University of South Florida, Amelious
            Kourpounadis, University of South Florida, Walking the Family-Friendly Talk: Development of a
            Measure of Organizational Climate for Work/Nonwork Balance
Beverly Demarr, Davenport College, Caring for Children or Elders: Is Dependent Care Always Dependent
K. Etty Jehn, University of Pennsylvania, Linda K. Stroh, Loyola University Chicago, Mary Ann Von Glinow,
            Florida International University, Commuter Relationships: A Work/Family Compromise?
Teresa J. Rothausen, Texas A & M University, Ramona Paetzold, Texas A & M University, The Relationship to
            the Parts of the Whole of Job Satisfaction and to Work, Family, and Life: Integrating Family into Job
            Satisfaction Theory
Ellen Ernst Kossek, Michigan State University, Discussant

82. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50                                                       Rosetta

Conflict and Performance in Groups and Organizations

Conflict and performance are key issues in groups and organizations but have been studied separately. This symposium presents four new studies on the relationship between conflict and group performance including innovation. Findings show that conflict may have positive effects and highlight conditions under which productive conflict is most likely.

Carsten K. W. De Dreu, University of Amsterdam, Chair
Michael A. West, University of Sheffield, Conflict, Reflexivity, and Innovation in Teams
Carsten K. W. De Dreu, University of Amsterdam, Annulus Van Vainer, University of Amsterdam, Fierce Harinck,
            University of Amsterdam, Effects of Frequency and Intensity of Conflict on Group Performance
Dean W. Tjosvold, Linghan College, Hong Kong, Chun Lui, Linghan College, Kenneth S. Law, Hong Kong
            University of Science & Technology, Cooperative Conflict for Innovative Groups: Evidence from North
            America and East Asia
Laurie R. Weingart, Carnegie Mellon University, Jeanne M. Brett, Carnegie Mellon University, Motivational
            Orientations in Negotiating Groups: Convergence and Reaching Agreement

83. Roundtable: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20                                                           Wyeth

Do State Licensing Requirements Ignore I-O Psychologists?

After briefly reviewing the APA Principles and the SIOP policy on licensure, we will present our research that summarizes the rules and regulations of licensure from 43 states. Implications such as non-I-O psychologists practicing I-O psychology as well as suggestions for clarifying licensing requirements for I-O psychologists will be discussed.

Mark S. Nagy, Radford University, Host
Brian Yanus, Radford University, Host
Sky Peters, Radford University, Host


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