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Saturday Afternoon Program

84. Symposium: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20                                                         Grand B

Developing and Using Competency Models in Government Organizations

With the challenges to increase productivity and efficiency, government organizations have started to develop and use competency models to update their personnel systems to be better aligned with business goals. This symposium describes how competency modeling is conducted and implemented in different applied government or quasi-government agencies.

Laura Ackerman Steighner, US Postal Service, Chair
Deborah L. Whetzel, US Postal Service, William Bruker, US Postal Service, Michael Patsfall, US Postal Service,
Laura Ackerman Steighner, US Postal Service, Development of the United States Postal Service Executive
            Competency Model
Suzanne Tsacoumis, HumRRO, Sheila R. Schultz, HumRRO, Darlene Olson, Federal Aviation Administration, The
            Development of a Generic Competency Model
David M. Pollack, US Immigration & Naturalization Service, The Use of a Competency-Based Assessment Model
Donna Rodriguez, US Office of Personnel Management, Donna Gregory, US Office of Personnel Management,
            Rita Patel, US Office of Personnel Management, Competency Based Personnel System for the District of
Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, Discussant

85. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20                                             Senators

Survey-Guided Organizational Development: What Works and What Doesn’t

An extensive literature exists on designing and administering organizational surveys. There is comparatively less attention in the literature on uses of survey results in organizations. This panel discussion will address design of procedures to maximize the value of survey data, linkage to strategic management and planning, and avoiding common pitfalls.

Robert J. Vance, Pennsylvania State University, Chair
Karl W. Kuhnert, University of Georgia, Panelist
Scott M. Brooks, Gantz Wiley Research, Panelist
Alan L. Colquitt, Eli Lilly & Company, Panelist
Randy Marcy, Federal Law Enforcement Training Center, Panelist

86. Symposium: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20                                        Peacock Terrace

Refining the Role of Dispositions: Time, Level, Specificity, and Interactions

This symposium emphasizes the substantive role of dispositions in the work place. We use greater construct specificity to consider how dispositions operate over time, across levels of analysis, and in interaction with job characteristics. These results refine the role that dispositions play in organizations.

Peter M. Hart, University of Melbourne, Chair
Peter M. Hart, University of Melbourne, Cary Cooper, University of Manchester, Time Specificity and the
            Substantive Nature of Negative Affectivity
Mark Griffin, University of Queensland, Peter M. Hart, University of Melbourne, Melinda Norris, University of
            Melbourne, Alexander Wearing, University of Melbourne, Individual Dispositions and Reactions to
            Work: Differences Across Work Groups
Suzy Fox, University of South Florida, Paul Spector, University of South Florida, Anger and Anxiety as
            Predictors of Counterproductive Behavior
Sharon Parker, University of Sheffield, Christine Sprigg, University of Sheffield, Work Design and Well-Being:
            The Role of Proactive Personality
Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston, Discussant

87. Symposium: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20                                                 Metropolitan

Interviewing: What are we Measuring?

Recent research appears to have shifted from validity studies toward a broader view of what interviews measure. This symposium examines broad trends of what interviews measure, the factor structure of interview ratings, the relationship between non-verbal behavior and job performance, and the impact of researcher motivation on results.

Philip L. Roth, Clemson University, Chair
Richard Posthuma, Purdue University, Frederick Morgeson, Purdue University, Michael A. Campion, Purdue
            University, Research on the Employment Interview: Current Trends and Future Directions
Allen I. Huffcutt, Bradley University, Philip L. Roth, Clemson University, James M. Conway, Seton Hall
            University, Employment Interview Constructs: A Factor Analytic Approach
Timothy G. DeGroot, Catholic University, Stephan J. Motowidlo, University of Florida, What Is Being Measured
            in the Interview: Explaining the Effects of Nonverbal Cues
Craig J. Russell, University of Oklahoma, M. Ronald Buckley, University of Oklahoma, Michelle A. Dean,
            University of Oklahoma, Danielle Wiese, University of Oklahoma, An Examination of Relationship
            Between Investigator Motivation and Criterion-Related Validities for Employment Interviews
Patrick M. Wright, Cornell University, Discussant

88. Symposium: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20                                                            Monet

Image is Everything? Corporate Image and Applicant Attraction

Presented are attempts at understanding the determinants of corporate image and the impact corporate image may have on applicant attraction. The symposium represents diverse perspectives, ranging from assessments of person-organization fit to tactics of influence and persuasion. Moreover, diverse populations are sampled, including teenagers, Black engineers, college interviewees, and retired job seekers.

Scott Highhouse, Bowling Green State University, Chair
Daniel M. Cable, University of North Carolina, Lynda Aiman-Smith, North Carolina State University, Paul W.
            Mulvey, North Carolina State University, Sources and Accuracy of Job Seekers’ Perceptions of
            Organizational Culture
Peter D. Bachiochi, Bowling Green State University, Gwen G. Fisher, Bowling Green State University,
            Organizational Attractiveness Among Black Engineering Students: The "NSBE 50"
Scott Highhouse, Bowling Green State University, Michael Zickar, Bowling Green State University, Todd J.
            Thorsteinson, Bowling Green State University, Sandra Stierwalt, Bowling Green State University, Jerel
            Slaughter, Bowling Green State University, Company Employment Image in Fast Food: Perceptions of
            Teenagers and Retirees
Anat Rafaeli, University of Michigan, Forming a Reputation in Organizational Recruiting: Evidence from
            Employment Advertisements
Robert D. Gatewood, University of Georgia, Discussant
Andrea S. Goldberg, IBM, Discussant

89. Symposium: Saturday, 12:00 - 12:50                                            Obelisk A & B

Job Knowledge: Explorations of its Conception, Description, and Measurement

Although job knowledge is one of five major classes of constructs within I-O psychology (KSAOs and job performance), it receives scarce research attention. This symposium examines the nature of workplace expertise. Special emphasis is given to exploring alternative conceptions, descriptions, and assessments of job knowledge, and their implications for practice.

David A. DuBois, Psychological Systems and Research, Chair
Valerie Shalin, Wright State University, The Content and Functions of Knowledge in the Analysis of Job
Cathy L. Z. DuBois, Kent State University, David A. DuBois, Psychological Systems and Research, Robert H.
            Faley, Kent State University, Acquisition of Machinist Expertise: Correlates of Self-Directed Learning
            in the Workplace
Mary Ann Hanson, Personnel Decision Research Institutes, Kristen Horgen, University of South Florida, Walter
            C. Borman, University of South Florida, Construct Validity Evidence for Measures of Situational
David A. DuBois, Psychological Systems and Research, Cathy L. Z. DuBois, Kent State University, The Role of
            Expertise in Rater Judgments
Robert G. Lord, University of Akron, Discussant

90. Master Tutorial: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20                                                    Rosetta

The Measurement of Team Performance

The complexities of team performance measurement make it difficult to assess the value of work team designs, as well as the impact of team training interventions. This master tutorial presents guidelines and lessons learned from over 10 years of research aimed at describing, evaluating, and diagnosing team performance.

Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch, Naval Air Warfare Center, Chair
Janis Cannon-Bowers, Naval Air Warfare Center, Presenter
Eduardo Salas, Naval Air Warfare Center, Presenter

91. Symposium: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                            Grand A

The Utility and Practical Value of Biodata

Practical results are presented from professionally conducted biodata research programs in industry. On the whole the findings show that properly developed biodata have important advantages including high utility for increasing productivity and decreasing turnover, with less adverse impact, less invasiveness and greater job-relevance than personality and ability tests.

Terry W. Mitchell, MPORT Management Solutions, Chair
Lawrence A. Witt, Barnett Bank, Validity and Impact of Biodata, Personality, and Cognitive Ability Testing
William L. Farmer, University of Oklahoma, User Reaction to Biodata, Personality, and Cognitive Ability Tests
Thomas L. Dallam, Circuit City Stores, Dennis L. Warmke, Circuit City Stores, Validation of the Sales Counselor
            Biodata Questionnaire (SCBQ)
Robert E. Lewis, Payless Shoe Source, Terrence Guth, Payless Shoe Source, The Practical Effects of Biodata on
            Tenure at a Large Retailer
John C. Callender, Procter & Gamble Company, Discussant

92. Symposium: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                          Grand D

Measurement Issues in Job Analysis: Good News and Bad News

Collecting accurate and useful job analysis data has never been more important; however, many measurement-related questions in job analysis remain unanswered. This symposium reviews research involving task-, worker-, and ability-oriented job ratings, the results of which provide cause for both optimism (regarding work dimensionality) and concern (regarding reliability and validity).

Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Tech, Chair
Barbara B. Ellis, University of Texas at El Paso, Gabriela Guerrero, University of Texas at El Paso,
            Incumbent-Supervisor Agreement on the Computer-Administered Common-Metric Questionnaire
Kristin Freund Murphy, North Carolina State University, Mark A. Wilson, North Carolina State University, A
            Comparison of Repeated Items and Test-Retest Methods for Estimating the Reliability of Task and
            KSA Ratings
Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Tech, Mark A. Wilson, North Carolina State University, Monte Carlo Baselines for
            Inter-Rater Agreement when Rating KSA Requirements: How Much Is Enough?
Susana R. Lozada-Larsen, Larsen and Associates, Predicting National Market-Wage Compensation Rates
            Using the Common-Metric Questionnaire: A Policy-Capturing Study
Leslie Thomas, ACT, Uncovering the Dimensionality of Work: Factor Analysis Versus Multidimensional
            Item-Response Theory (MIRT)
Mark A. Wilson, North Carolina State University, Discussant

93. Symposium: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                           Grand E

Job-Search and Reemployment Research Progress and Prospects

Millions of individuals look for a job each year. Unfortunately, we have a great deal left to learn about the job-search process. This symposium involves presentations of current work regarding the job-search process, and the psychological and demographic variables associated with job-search intensity, persistence, and faster reemployment.

Connie Wanberg, University of Minnesota, Chair
Ruth Kanfer, Georgia Tech, Connie Wanberg, University of Minnesota, Job Search: Conceptualizing the
            Construct from a Self-Regulation Perspective
Connie Wanberg, University of Minnesota, Ruth Kanfer, Georgia Tech, Maria Rotundo, University of Minnesota,
            The Role of Motivation, Job-Search Self-Efficacy, and Situational Constraints in the Job-Search
Alan M. Saks, York University, Blake Ashforth, Arizona State University, An Examination of the Changes in
            Job Search Emotions and Behaviors of Unsuccessful Job Seekers
Angelo Kinicki, Arizona State University, Gregory E. Prussia, Seattle University, Pursuing Reemployment after a
            Plant Closing: A Test of Competing Models
Amy Wrzesniewski, University of Michigan, The Relationship Between Work Orientation and Job-Search
            Activities in Re-employment Outcomes
Carrie R. Leana, University of Pittsburgh, Discussant

94. Poster Session: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50                                          Chantilly East

Culture, Socialization, and Leadership


Organizational Structure and Individual Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

Mark Agars, Pennsylvania State University
Deidra J. Schleicher, Pennsylvania State University
Erika Ringseis, Pennsylvania State University

A review and meta-analysis of links between organizational structure and individual outcome variables was conducted; several interesting sample and measurement moderators were examined. Results suggest structure has important influences on individual outcomes; particularly satisfaction, commitment, tenure, and role attitudes. Results are interpreted in the context of the changing world of work.


Mentors Picking Protgs : Influences on Protg Selection

Tammy D. Allen, University of South Florida
Mark L. Poteet, City of Clearwater
Joyce E. A. Russell, University of Tennessee

This study examined protg characteristics mentors reported most influential when choosing a protg. Results revealed mentors were more likely to choose a protg based on the protg’s ability than the protg’s need for help and that women were more likely to choose a protg based on the protg’s ability than were men.


Psychological and Organizational Climate Perceptions:

A Field Experiment of a Contemporary Distinction


Rob Altmann, Northern Illinois University
Joseph Huff, Northern Illinois University
Boris B. Baltes, Northern Illinois University
Heather A. LaCost, Northern Illinois University
Scott A. Young, Northern Illinois University
Chris P. Parker, Northern Illinois University

Distinctions between organizational and psychological climate have been made, but minimally practiced. A contemporary approach was applied to this problem. Relationships between two types of psychological climate and both previously examined and unexamined outcome variables were explored in a novel organization—a not-for-profit, nongovernment fitness and community service organization.


Service Climate, Service Type, and Owner’s Service Values in Small Businesses

Tanya Andrews, Bowling Green State University
Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University

This study examined the relationship among service climate, service type, and owner’s service values in 25 small businesses. The hypothesized relationships between service climate and the service type characteristics were confirmed. Regarding owner’s service values and service climate, results were non-significant, yet interestingly in the opposite direction of the hypothesis.


Followership, Leadership, and Attachment Styles: A Developmental Approach

Yair Berson, SUNY-Binghamton
Francis J. Yammarino, SUNY-Binghamton

We investigated the relationships between followers’ attachment style, implicit leadership and followership perceptions, perceptions of a group leader, and objective performance. We found that implicit leadership perceptions predicted performance only for securely-attached individuals. Insecurely-attached, as compared to securely-attached individuals had nearly the opposite profiles of an ideal leader.


Manager Personality, Climate, Customer Satisfaction, and Productivity:

A Structural Model


S. Adam Boesen, University of Tulsa

Examines the links between managerial personality and commonly tracked outcome measures such as unit productivity, customer satisfaction, and psychological climate. A theoretical structural model is proposed and tested using data from a chain of convenience stores. Results show weak support for the proposed model, and an alternate model is examined. Suggestions are offered for future research.


Individual Difference Variables and Leadership Perceptions:

Linear or Catastrophic Relationship?


Doug Brown, University of Akron
Christopher Marchioro, University of Akron
James A. Tan, University of Akron
Robert G. Lord, University of Akron

Little research has examined how leadership perceptions evolve over time. The current paper used cusp catastrophe modeling techniques and determined that perceptions of male and female leaders evolve differentially (i.e., both continuously and abruptly) and that these were a function of perceiver individual differences (i.e., leader self-schema and gender).


Leadership and Organizational Decline:

Relationship Between Characteristics and Performance


David P. Costanza, George Washington University

The present study looked at leader personality traits that limit organizational adaptation and lead to decline, and organizational characteristics that moderate this relationship. Profiles of 110 corporate leaders were used to predict organizational performance. Results showed that certain personality variables predicted negative performance and were moderated by organizational structural variables.


Biodata, Interests, Values, and Achievement:

Predictors of Advanced Degree Attainment


Mary Alice Crowe-Taylor, University of Georgia
C. Douglas Johnson, University of Georgia
Adam Meade, University of Georgia
Amy Montagliani, University of Georgia
Garnett S. Stokes, University of Georgia
Robert D. Gatewood, University of Georgia

Adolescent life experiences, vocational interests, values and academic achievement were used to predict advanced degree attainment 26 years later in a sample of 362 college graduates. Multiple regressions were conducted. Most of the predictors were significant for men but not for women. Vocational interests predicted better than academic achievement.


Reconceptualizing the Entrepreneur: A Look at Portuguese Restaurant Owners

Nancy Dasilva, University of Houston
Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston

The present study surveyed 90 restaurant owners in Portugal. Using categorization theory, the study predicted that entrepreneurs would frame business situations more positively than would non-entrepreneurs. Several operational definitions of an entrepreneur were used and the results differed depending on the type of operational definition.


Differences in Within-Organization Agreement When Describing the

Organization and Implications of These Differences


Marcus W. Dickson, Wayne State University

Based on never-tested arguments of Burns and Stalker (1961), evidence is presented suggesting that the level of within-organization agreement when describing organizational policies and practices varies significantly between mechanistic and organic organizations. These results suggest that random sampling across an organization may not provide an accurate description of the organization.


When the Type of Move Matters:

Employees’ Reactions to Job-Related Relocation


Lillian T. Eby, University of Georgia
Jacquelyn DeMatteo, University of Tennessee

Post-move attitudes and intentions were examined. Employees who moved involuntarily reported a weaker psychological contract and higher turnover intentions than those who described their move as voluntary. Employees who made a lateral or downward job change reported a weakened psychological contract and higher turnover intentions than those who moved for a promotion.


Implanting Pygmalion Leadership Style Through Training:

Seven True Field Experiments


Dov Eden, Tel Aviv University

Seven field experiments evaluated training workshops designed to impart the Pygmalion Leadership Style (PLS) to managers. PLS is manager behavior that conveys high performance expectations to subordinates. Although the results were mixed, most of the experiments showed little evidence that the training improved leadership or aroused much response among subordinates.


Role of Social Integration in Career Advancement

Jacqueline A. Gilbert, Middle Tennessee State University
Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota

There is a paucity of research examining diversity management related variables in organizations. The major question which this research examines is whether informal integration is likely to result in career advancement and increased resource availability in two different organizations in different stages of managing their diversity. Results were consistent with hypotheses.


In the Eyes of the Beholder: Modeling Executive Effectiveness

Marilyn E. Gist, University of Washington
David Gerson, University of Washington

Multi-source evaluations were collected from 629 coworkers of 93 executives. A structural equation model was developed for six predictors of executive effectiveness as viewed by others. Perceptions of executives’ cognitive proficiency had the strongest influence on ratings of executive effectiveness; positive interpersonal behaviors most heavily influenced perceptions of cognitive proficiency.


Does Mentor-Protg Agreement on Mentor Leadership Style Influence the Quality of Mentoring Relationships

Veronica Godshalk, Pennsylvania State University- Great Valley
John J. Sosik, Pennsylvania State University- Great Valley

This study examined the mentor-protg agreement regarding mentor transformational leadership style and quality of mentoring relationship that existed. Mentors were classified as over-estimators, under-estimators, or in-agreement, based on difference between their self-rating and protg’s rating of mentor’s transformational leadership style. Under-estimator dyads experience the highest quality of mentoring relationships.


Vertical Dyadic Linkage Theory: A Leadership Theory of Group Performance

Harold W. Goldstein, Baruch College
D. Brent Smith, University of Maryland

According to reviews of the literature (Yukl, 1989; Graen & Uhl-Bein, 1995), Vertical Dyadic Linkage theory has failed to address the issue of work unit level effectiveness, instead focusing at the individual level of analysis. In this paper, this issue is addressed theoretically and a partial empirical test is presented.


The Role of Supportive Peers for Mentored and Nonmentored Individuals

Kristen M. Haggis, University of Connecticut
Janet L. Barnes-Farrell, University of Connecticut

An instrument to measure the career and psychosocial functions provided by peers was developed. Functions provided by supportive peers to mentored and nonmentored individuals were compared. Protgs perceived that their peers provided significantly more psychosocial functions than those without mentors. Peers’ age and power differed significantly for the two groups.


Structural Equation Modeling Approaches to Understanding

Leader-Member Dyadic Relationships


Rosalie J. Hall, University of Akron
Jeann Makiney, University of Akron
Christopher Marchioro, University of Akron
Robert G. Lord, University of Akron
Elaine M. Engle, Federal Bureau of Investigation

This paper demonstrates three structural equation modeling techniques of use in the analysis of data sets with potential dyad- and individual-level components: (a) decomposition of correlations into dyad- and individual-level components, (b) equivalence of within- and cross-person paths, and (c) mediator models with cross-person paths.


An Examination of Qualities Associated with Leadership Judgments

of Various Rater Groups


Jeff Harper, Georgia Tech
Todd J. Maurer, Georgia Tech

This study utilized 360-degree assessment ratings to investigate which factors drive leadership perceptions for the different rater groups. Results indicated that "leadership" is defined differently by different rater groups, and that rater confidence in rating accuracy moderated the degree to which factors were thought to drive leadership perceptions.


Personality and Leadership: Machiavellian but not Destructive

Anne E. Holloway, Virginia Tech
Daniel P. Russell, Virginia Tech
Sigrid B. Gustafson, Virginia Tech

The present studies demonstrate that individuals high in Machiavellianism (Machs; Christie 1970) may be cool manipulators but do not exhibit the destructive tendencies usually attributed to this personality construct. In contrast, aberrant self-promotion has been proposed as the personality construct encompassing both manipulation and destructiveness. Results support this proposition.


Using the Internet for Competitive Advantage

Ann W. Howell, Michigan State University
Morell E. Mullins, Michigan State University
Sandra L. Fisher, Personnel Decision Research Institutes
Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University
Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University

This study surveyed 169 professionals to determine situational and individual variables predicting adoption and implementation of electronic information gathering sources (i.e., the Internet). Results indicate that situational variables explain 44% of the variance in use of electronic data gathering while individual difference variables explain virtually no variance.


Job Satisfaction, Employee Withdrawal, and an Enjoyable Work Environment

Steven T. Hunt, Saville & Holdsworth Ltd
Scott A. Goodman, Saville & Holdsworth Ltd.
Joel Quintela, The Ohio State University

Small correlations between job satisfaction and behavior may result from conceptualizing job satisfaction in terms of individual employee attitudes, rather than as the reflection of "enjoyable work environments." Correlations between organizational-level measures of job satisfaction and employee withdrawal exceed .50. Creating enjoyable work environments may have substantial "bottom line" impact.


Organizational Culture and Performance: A Study of A Franchise System

Svetlana V. Ivanitskaya, Central Michigan University

Analyses of organizational culture of a franchise system indicated that differences in unit cultures were more pronounced for practices than for shared values. Little evidence was found that strong cultures perform better or that older organizations have stronger cultures. Lazear’s idea that larger organizations have weaker cultures was partially supported.


A Model of Leadership Effectiveness in Professional Service Firms

Miriam W. Javitch, Columbia University

Ratings from 401 partners, their subordinates and clients were used to test a proposed model of leadership effectiveness in professional service firms. Correlations support four of the five hypotheses. Path analyses results show that influence tactics and role conflict mediate the relationship between partners’ leadership dispositions and clients’ satisfaction with services provided.


Effects of Leadership Style and Followers’ Cultural Values on Performance

Dong I. Jung, San Diego State University
Bruce J. Avolio, SUNY-Binghamton

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of different leadership styles, task structure and cultural values on performance. Transformational leadership increased followers’ motivation and performance both at individual and group levels, especially among collectivistic Asian-American participants. Implications for future cross-cultural leadership research are discussed.


Personality Correlates of Perceived Senior Executive Effectiveness:

Application of the Five Factor Model


Robert Kaiser, Kaplan DeVries

Senior corporate leaders’ (N = 32) Adjective Checklist scores were correlated with reliable self-, superior, peer, and subordinate ratings of global effectiveness (Multiple R’s around .60). Analyses were interpreted within the Five Factor Model of personality structure. The results raise provocative issues challenging basic assumptions about senior management in large corporations.


A Meta-analytic Review of the Traits Associated with Leader Emergence

Michael J. Keeney, University of Akron
Christopher Marchioro, University of Akron

The methodology by which Lord, De Vader, and Alliger (1986) concluded that leaders can be identified through differences in individual characteristics has been criticized. We re-analyzed and extended Lord et al., producing more accurate population estimates for intelligence, extroversion, adjustment, and dominance. Self-monitoring was found to be related to leadership.


The Effectiveness of Orientation Training for Socializing New Hires

Howard J. Klein, Ohio State University
Natasha Weaver, Ohio State University

This field study examined the impact of attending a voluntary orientation training program on socialization. Results for a matched sample of 126 employees revealed that program attendees scored significantly higher on three of six socialization content dimensions. Those six dimensions, in turn, related to role clarity, satisfaction, and organizational commitment.


Use of Appropriate Referent in Multi-Level Climate Research

Stephanie R. Klein, Pennsylvania State University
John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University

The authors surveyed 576 employees in 87 work groups at 39 organizations regarding climate perceptions at three levels: individual, work group, and organization. Hypotheses predicting that employees would identify different climates at different levels were largely supported by both unaggregated and aggregated data. Issues regarding multi-level organizational research are discussed.


Empowering Leadership, Transformational Leadership, and Feelings of Empowerment: A Multi-Level Analysis

Amy M. Larmore, Illinois Institute of Technology
Roya Ayman, Illinois Institute of Technology

Relationships are examined with data on a sample of 52 Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and 217 direct reports. Results demonstrated that CEOs and their direct reports did not agree upon perceptions of CEO empowering leadership. Within and between analysis indicates that perceptions of leader behavior were based primarily on individual differences.


The Effect of Leaders’ Values on Group Citizenship

Jared D. Lock, Jeanneret & Associates
Laura E. Thomas, Texas A & M University

This study examined the relationship between leaders’ values and their group’s adherence to the organization’s vision and whether they were fired. Leaders and subordinates from a small insurance provider completed a measure of values group citizenship, respectively. Results indicate significant relationships for some values. Implications for organizations are discussed.


Leading Diverse Teams: The Impact of

Demographic Diversity, Cognitive Diversity


Kevin B. Lowe, Florida International University
K. Galen Kroeck, Florida International University

The relationship between leadership behavior, team diversity, and team processes to eight team performance measures was tested. In intact teams, cognitive diversity had several impacts on team processes/outcomes, demographic diversity had few impacts. Demographic diversity did and cognitive diversity did not, moderate the leadership to team process relationship.


A Model of Effectiveness of Downward Influence Tactics in Organizations

D. Lyakhovistky, SUNY at Albany

A model of the effectiveness of downward influence tactics (ITs) is suggested. ITs are assumed to differ in the degree of their restrictiveness. The perceived restrictiveness of the superior is determined by the ITs used and determines the reactions of the subordinate moderated by the subordinate’s desire for control.


Does Supervisory Mentoring Add Value? A Five-year Investigation

Laura L. Paglis, Purdue University
Stephen Green, Purdue University
Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University

The impact of supervisory mentoring on protg productivity, career commitment, and self-efficacy was assessed in a longitudinal study spanning 5 years. Positive results were found for the influence of mentoring on subsequent productivity and self-efficacy. Mentoring was not significantly associated with later career commitment.


A Meta-Analysis of Relationships Between Climate Perceptions

and Work Outcomes


Chris P. Parker, Northern Illinois University
Scott A. Young, Northern Illinois University
Rob Altmann, Northern Illinois University
Boris B. Baltes, Northern Illinois University
Joseph Huff, Northern Illinois University
Heather A. LaCost, Northern Illinois University

A meta-analysis of the organizational climate literature revealed significant relationships between employees’ perceptions of their work environment and their work attitudes, psychological well-being, motivation, and performance. Structural equation modeling analyses indicate that the relationship of climate with employee motivation and performance is fully mediated by employee work attitudes.


Bridging the Climate-Outcome Gap:

An Investigation of Service Employee Behaviors


Michelle C. Paul, University of Maryland

The organizational climate–organizational outcome relationship was conceptualized as one that is mediated by employee behavior. The present study was specifically concerned with the service climate–service quality relationship as mediated by customer-focused employee behavior. Using employee and customer data from 16 hotels, general support was found for employee behavior as a mediator of the climate–outcome relationship.


Work-Force Diversity Effects on Organizational Climate Quality and Strength

W. Grant Pierce, NCS/London House
Roya Ayman, Illinois Institute of Technology

This study investigated the relationship between work place diversity and the strength and quality of organizational climate at 100 retail stores. Results revealed a significant relationship between tenure diversity and organizational climate quality. Tenure diversity and demographic diversity variables were significantly related to different dimensions of organizational climate strength.


Furthering our Understanding of Willingness to Relocate

Cynthia A. Prehar, Colorado State University

A new model of relocation decisions was tested in a sample of 205 working MBA graduates. Attitudes toward relocating and perceived social pressures explained over 50% of the variance in willingness to relocate. By moving beyond demographic research, the results further our understanding of relocation behavior.


Leadership Style, Change, and Stress Resiliency From the Leader’s Perspective

Mark T. Rohricht, University of Tennessee
Michael C. Rush, University of Tennessee

The purpose of this research was to investigate how stress, pressure of change, and hardiness relate to transactional and transformational leader behaviors. Findings suggest that stress and pressure of change relate differently to leader behaviors and that hardiness and stress are related both directly and interactively to certain leader behaviors.


Relationship Between LMX and Subordinate Health Outcomes

Under Varying Conditions


Mark Rose, University of South Florida
Carnot E. Nelson, University of South Florida

The relationship between LMX and various stress-related outcomes was examined. Results showed that LMX was positively related to job satisfaction, and negatively related to Type A impatience-irritability, burnout, and medical problems. Further, task analyzability and various individual needs (e.g., growth need strength) moderated some of these relationships.


Reliability of Autonomy Scales: A Meta-Analysis

Nila Sinha, Florida International University
Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University

A meta-analysis was conducted on reliability coefficients reported for autonomy scales. Ninety-nine samples were analyzed (N = 45,124; M = .69). Reliabilities for managerial, nonmanagerial, and heterogeneous samples were separately analyzed. No differences existed between overall and heterogeneous samples. Nonmanagers possessed the largest estimates. Implications for the future of autonomy study and organizational behavior are discussed.


Predictors of Advancing in Management at Three Points

Phyllis Tharenou, University of Queensland

Managerial advancement was predicted by different factors at three transition points. Important for entry to management were career tournament wins, managerial traits, and gender-linked social factors; for lower to middle manager advancement, traits, gender-linked social factors, promotion opportunities, and human capital; and for middle to upper manager, challenging work and male hierarchies.


Attributional Complexity: A Link Between Decision Latitude,

LMX, and Performance


Joellyn Townsend, University of Houston
Nancy Dasilva, University of Houston
Lorin Mueller, University of Houston
Pat J. Curtin, University of Houston
Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston

Attributional complexity (AC) was related to job performance and decision latitude but not to leader-member exchange (LMX). Contrary to expectations, social and task complexity of jobs did not moderate these relations. Results suggest that experience making decisions gained from having a high LMX leads to higher AC and performance.


Converging Evidence of Horizontal and Vertical Individualism and Collectivism

Harry C. Triandis, University of Illinois
Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland

While the utility of the individualism and collectivism constructs has been widely documented, there is the tendency to conceive of them as pure dichotomies. Four studies examine an additional attribute that further defines the constructs, and demonstrates that both constructs may be horizontal (emphasizing equality) or vertical (emphasizing status).


Determinants of Organizational Culture Impressions Among Job Seekers

Michael Wesson, Michigan State University
Alison Barber, Michigan State University

Verbal protocol analysis was used to assess determinants of organizational culture impressions among job seekers. Results suggest that respondents used a variety of sources to assess organizational values and that industry/occupa-tion and recruitment practices were the most frequently used sources. Suggestions for influencing applicant impressions are offered.


Substance and Form: Self-monitoring, Purpose-in-Life,

and Charismatic Leadership


John J. Sosik, Pennsylvania State University-Great Valley

This research examined the effect of leader self-monitoring on follower ratings of charismatic leadership of 64 managers. Results revealed that self-monitoring was positively related to ratings of charismatic leadership in the overall sample. Moreover, this relationship was found for managers with high purpose-in-life, but not for managers with low purpose-in-life.

95. Symposium: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                      Governors

Space. The Final Frontier: Enhancing Performance Through Workspace Design

This symposium will present business, organizational and research perspectives to clarify the factors behind the corporations’ increasing transition to the new workspace environments (open space officing, hoteling, telecommuting, neighborhood officing, virtual officing, virtual teams, home officing, etc.) The presenters, senior representatives of the key US organizations and organizational consultants, will discuss the emerging workspace solutions and the subsequent organizational and performance changes.

Ardeshir Mehran, Compass Management Solutions, Chair
Karen Lalli, The Hillier Group, Creating Team Spaces That Work: Trends, Solutions and Case Studies
Ardeshir Mehran, Compass Management Solutions, Managing Cultural and Team Attributes in Workspace
            Redesign: Case Study Presentation
Jim Lawler, Steelcase, Creating the Leadership Community: Enhancing Executive Team Performance Through
            Workplace Redesign
John Adams, Sun Microsystems, Collaborative Strategies for Enhancing Workplace Effectiveness
Kathryn Goldman, Coherent Change Management, The Role of Executives, History and Culture in Workspace

96. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                       Miro

High Performance Work Systems: Critical Issues of Definition,

Implementation and Outcomes

High performance work systems (HPWS), while not yet well defined in the literature, involve field experiments with various human resource management strategies and ideal sets of practices. Our panel examines theoretical approaches to high performance work systems, implementation strategies, the impact on employees and firm performance, and future research challenges.

Wendy S. Becker, Pennsylvania State University, Chair
Eileen Appelbaum, Economic Policy Institute, Peter Berg, Economic Policy Institute, High Performance Work
            Systems and the Economics of Organizations
Gerald R. Ferris, University of Illinois, Gloria Harrell-Cook, University of Illinois, David Kaplan, University of
            Illinois, Human Resource Management and Organizational Performance: Theory and Research
Mark A. Huselid, Rutgers University, High Performance Work Systems: Impact of Human Resource
            Management Systems and Strategic Alignment on Firm Effectiveness
Wendy S. Becker, Pennsylvania State University, Field of Dreams: Human Resource Management Practices in
            New Plant Start-ups
Edwin A. Locke, University of Maryland, Discussant

97. Roundtable: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                               Wyeth

Innovating Organizational Justice: Cultural, Value,

and Stakeholders’ Perspectives

The organizational justice area is ripe for theoretical innovation and the development of new ideas. Directions for these ideas are provided through four themes: values, culture, stakeholders, and new theoretical perspectives. With four simultaneous roundtables followed by a general discussion, there will be ample opportunity for initiating in-depth discussions that can alter the way we think about justice.

Dirk D. Steiner, Universit de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Co-Chair
Stephen W. Gilliland, University of Arizona, Co-Chair
Russell S. Cropanzano, Colorado State University, Host
Daniel Skarlicki, University of Calgary, Host
Dianna L. Stone, SUNY at Albany, Host
M. Audrey Korsgaard, University of South Carolina, Host
Debra Shapiro, University of North Carolina, Discussant

98. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50                                              Grand B

Partnerships in Leading Strategic Organizational Change

The forum will present three examples of strategy-based partnerships between corporations and consulting groups. The three papers will be co-presented and will describe why and how each effort was designed, how they linked to strategy, and what the results have shown. The discussant will encourage and lead audience participation.

Sandra L. Davis, MDA Consulting Group, Chair
Robert Barnett, MDA Consulting Group, Judy O’Hagan, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp., Partnerships in
            Merging Corporate Culture
Robert F. Silzer, HR Assessment & Development, Roberta Douma, Capital One Financial, Partnership on
            Strategic Selection and Development: Building a High Growth, High Technology Generation X
Pierre G. Meyer, MDA Consultants, Lisa Shumpert, Mervyn’s California, Partnership in Strategic Development
            of Talent
P. Richard Jeanneret, Jeanneret & Associates, Discussant

99. Symposium: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50                                                         Senators

Utility Analysis: Acceptance and Implementation

The issues of utility acceptance and implementation appear to be at the forefront of utility research. This symposium will focus on replications and extensions of Latham and Whyte (1994), managerial views of ways to estimate SDy, the relationship between rxy and rx$ and a model to guide acceptance research.

Philip L. Roth, Clemson University, Chair
Kenneth P. Carson, University of Tennessee-Chattanooga, Chieh-Yu Lo, University of Tennessee, The Utility of
            Utility: A Cross-Cultural Investigation
Michael K. Judiesch, Baruch College, CUNY, Using Estimation of SDr to Improve the Accuracy and User
            Acceptability of Utility Estimates
Craig J. Russell, University of Oklahoma, When rxy Does not Equal rx$: An Application of Sensitivity Analysis
            to the Brogden-Cronback-Gleser Utility Model
Philip L. Roth, Clemson University, Albert Segars, University North Carolina, Patrick M. Wright, Cornell
            University, Developing a Theoretical Model to Study Utility Analysis Acceptance
John W. Boudreau, Cornell University, Discussant

100. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50                                        Wedgwood

Job Analysis for Teams: Fitting Square Pegs Into Round Holes?

The panel will address several issues related to team task analysis including research needs, methodological requirements, use of results, and lessons learned. A primary topic for discussion will be the extent to which tools and methodologies from job analysis can be generalized to teams.

David P. Baker, University of Central Florida, Co-Chair
Eduardo Salas, Naval Air Warfare Center, Co-Chair
Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Panelist
Janis Cannon-Bowers, Naval Air Warfare Center, Panelist
A. Catherine Higgs, Allstate Insurance Company, Panelist
Edward L. Levine, University of South Florida, Panelist

101. Symposium: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50                                                Metropolitan

Elaborating the Nomological Network of Job Performance: Measurement, Methods, and Evidence for Construct Validity

Estimating the construct validity of job performance calls for a multidimensional approach that investigates interrelations among a wide range of job performance components. In this symposium, empirical results are presented from investigations of four different aspects of this job performance nomological network. The audience serves the role of discussant.

Winfred E. Arthur, Texas A & M University, Chair
Chera L. Haworth, University of Akron, Paul E. Levy, University of Akron, Investigating the Motivation Basis of
            Organizational Citizenship Behavior
Robert P. Tett, Wright State University, Angela Bleier, Wright State University, Hal Guterman, Wright State
            University, Patrick Murphy, Wright State University, Support for Specificity in the Conceptualization of
            Managerial Performance
David J. Woehr, Texas A & M University, Jeffrey S. Kane, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Frequency-Based
            Performance Assessment: An Overview and Meta-analytic Review of the Accuracy of Frequency
Judith M. Collins, Texas A & M University, Stepping Out on the Performance Limb: Testing Campbell’s (1990)
Jack M. Feldman, Georgia Tech, Discussant

102. Symposium: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50                                                             Monet

Seasons of A Leader’s Life: From Adolescence to Late Career

This symposium will focus on the seasons of leadership in organizations, beginning with adolescence and progressing through the selection, mid-career, and late career of the leader. Each participant will address a particular stage and explore issues relevant to that season of leadership.

David P. Campbell, Center for Creative Leadership, Chair
George P. Hollenbeck, Hollenbeck Associates, A Moving Target: Seasonal Changes in Selection of Leaders
David B. Peterson, Personnel Decisions International, Mary Dee J. Hicks, Personnel Decisions International,
            Coaching Leaders at Mid-Career: Fewer Answers, Better Questions
Douglas T. Hall, Boston University, Succession and Mentoring Roles: The Older Leader
Karen Holcombe, University of Maryland, Mark Ehrhart, University of Maryland, Benjamin Schneider, University
            of Maryland, Growing Leaders: The Adolescent Years
David P. Campbell, Center for Creative Leadership, Discussant

103. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50                                          Morocco

Succession Management: Issues and Challenges in Identifying

and Developing Effective Leaders

Identifying and developing effective leaders is critical to organizational success. Succession management provides a systematic approach by which to accomplish this. This forum will provide a conceptual framework and key features of an effective succession management system and will address the issues and challenges faced by practitioners in various industries.

Ann Marie Yanushefski, Personnel Decisions International, Chair
Elaine Sloan, Personnel Decisions International, Claire Bender, Mayo Clinic, Robert Blomberg, Mayo Clinic,
            Developing Mayo’s Physician Leaders for the Twenty-first Century
John Tracy, SBC Communications, Impacting Executive Development to Meet Companies’ Needs
Jeffrey J. McHenry, Microsoft Corporation, Succession Management Within a High Velocity Environment

104. Special Event: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50                                           Obelisk A & B

Town Meeting for the Regional and Local I-O Psychology Groups

Come and exchange ideas with other local groups, plan joint efforts, and discuss support needed from SIOP. Current and newly appointed SIOP Professional Association Affairs Subcommittee Chairs will attend.

Donna L. Denning, Host

105. Symposium: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50                                                         Rosetta

Predicting, Training, and Motivating Safe Driving Behaviors

in Delivery Occupations

This symposium reviews the development and analysis of industry-based interventions to promote safe driving among soft drink distributors and pizza deliverers as well as presents the preliminary validation of predictors for safe driving in these occupations. Research reports focus on goal setting and behavioral feedback to improve driving practices.

Timothy D. Ludwig, Appalachian State University, Chair
Steven W. Clarke, Virginia Tech, E. Scott Geller, Virginia Tech, Amy Gershenoff, Virginia Tech, Using
            Self-Monitoring to Improve the Driving Safety of Professional Drivers
Julie A. Caplinger, Center for Organizational and Health Behavior, Timothy D. Ludwig, Center for Organizational
            and Health Behavior, Yasmin Benton, Center for Organizational and Health Behavior, Providing Pizza
            Deliverers Normative Feedback and Rewards for Safe Driving
Jay Biggs, Appalachian State University, Timothy D. Ludwig, Appalachian State University, Shannon Reynolds,
            Appalachian State University, Proximal Versus Distal Goal Setting as a Safe Driving Intervention
Tori L. Terrizzi, Appalachian State University, Sandy Edwards, Appalachian State University, Mary Mcinnis,
            Appalachian State University, Timothy D. Ludwig, Appalachian State University, Delivering Safely:
            Multiple Predictors for Selecting Safe Deliverers
Jason P. DePasquale, Safety Performance Solutions, E. Scott Geller, Virginia Tech, Michael Rowe, Virginia Tech,
            Larry Littleton, Virginia Tech, Feedback or Feedforward? Optimal Training for Increasing Safe Driving

Coffee Break: Saturday, 3:00 - 3:30                       Near SIOP Meeting Rooms


106. Poster Session: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20                                       Chantilly East

Diversity Issues, Decision Making, and Team Behaviors


Career-Related Variables and Planned Retirement Age:

Extension of Beehr’s Model


Gary A. Adams, University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh

Relationships between three career-related variables and planned retirement age were examined using a sample of older workers. Regression analysis indicated that career commitment and occupational goal attainment related to planned retirement age after personal and work-related variables were held constant. An interaction between career commitment and goal attainment was supported.


A Cross-Level Examination of Factors Influencing

Union Commitment and Participation


Mark Agars, Pennsylvania State University
Amy Unkless, Pennsylvania State University
Paul Tesluk, Tulane University

A cross-level model is used to examine individual and union-level variables related to commitment to and participation in a teachers’ union. Results (N = 1,256) provide evidence for the importance of both individual and union-level factors. Especially notable are observed relationships for factors under union control, such as union-level socialization and communication.


Gender and Family Structure:

Effects on Perceived Relocation Commitment and Resistance


Tammy D. Allen, University of South Florida
Lillian T. Eby, University of Georgia
Shane Douthitt, University of Georgia
Carry Noble, University of Georgia

The effects of applicant gender, family type (single-earner, dual-earner), and family status (child, no child) on perceived commitment to relocate geographically and expected spouse resistance to relocation were investigated. Interactions among the gender and family structure variables were revealed that may be used to help explain differences in geographic relocation mobility opportunities.


Procedural Justice Perceptions of Peer and Managerial Appeal Systems

Shelley N. Baker, University of Akron
Rosalie J. Hall, University of Akron

Procedural justice perceptions of peer versus managerial grievance appeal systems were compared. Peer appeal was rated significantly higher on justice dimensions of neutrality, standing, trust, and anticipated favorable outcome. Justice perceptions positively correlated with belief-in-a-just-world.


Cultural Differences in Attitudes Toward Peer Evaluation:

An Exploratory Study


K. Denise Bane, Baruch College

This study compared attitudes of 47 MBA students representing 15 countries toward using peer evaluations as part of the course grade. It was hypothesized that cultural differences would influence perceptions of distributive and procedural justice, punitive value, and level of comfort evaluating the performance of others. Hypotheses were partially supported.


An Investigation of the Career Woman/Career Man Stereotype

Gerald Bartlett, University of Akron
Corey E. Miller, University of Akron
Dennis Doverspike, University of Akron
Eric Olesen, Barrett & Associates
Cathleen Callahan, Barett & Associates

Gender stereotype theory is often applied in employment discrimination cases even though research consistently finds little or no direct effects of gender on evaluations. The current research examines the career woman stereotype and suggests a possible reason why the bias predicted by lack of fit theories is not observed.


Predicting Perceptions of Quality Circle Effectiveness

and Commitment Using Lisrel


Suzanne R. Bennett, University of Tennessee
Larry Williams, Virginia Commonwealth University

A model of Quality Circle effectiveness was developed and tested using LISREL. Nine variables were proposed to be related to Quality Circle effectiveness and commitment. Perceived significance, peer support, and team process were related to both effectiveness and commitment. Furthermore, problem solving skills were related to effectiveness, and voluntary participation was related to commitment.


Test of a Model of the Union Contract Ratification Process

Dawn M. Borovsky, Wayne State University
James Martin, Wayne State University

A model of the union contract ratification process was developed, which explained 80% of the variance in voting behavior. The results supported the hypothesis that the economic costs of contract rejection, union representation of members’ interests, working conditions, contractual information from the union, and bargaining issues affect members’ voting behavior.


Employee Reprimands: Do Observers’ Fairness Perceptions

Change with Contrasting Information?


Larry Bunce, Kansas State University
Jeffrey Gibbons, Kansas State University
Ronald G. Downey, Kansas State University

Perceptions of fairness are important to the effective functioning of organizations, yet research has typically ignored the fairness judgments of impartial observers. This study shows that observers’ perceptions of fairness change when given contrasting information. Care should be taken by supervisors to establish the facts before reprimanding employees in public.


Personality and Role Variables as Predictors of WFC

Dawn S. Carlson, University of Utah

Time, strain, and behavioral-based conflict are three dimensions of work-family conflict and are thought to have unique antecedents. To determine if this is the case, both dispositional and situational factors are considered as predictors of these three types of conflict. Results suggest that each of the types of conflict do have a unique set of antecedents.


Intra-Group Differences in Majority Managers’ Ethnic Identity

and Self-Identification


Donna Chrobot-Mason, Xerox Corporation

In this study, the development of ethnic identity in majority managers was examined. Results suggest intra-group differences in ethnic identity development and self-identification with an ethnic group. Consequences for minority employees were also examined. Implications for corporate diversity initiatives are discussed.


Leading Workers to Help Themselves: A Contingency Approach to Cooperation

Jason A. Colquitt, Michigan State University
Raymond A. Noe, Michigan State University
Brian Janz, University of Memphis

The relationship between leadership and cooperation was examined in a team setting using a contingency paradigm wherein leader, subordinate, and team context factors were examined. Cooperation was shown to be an interactive function of leader participative style, job satisfaction, and team context (e.g., identity, size, skill, and material resources).


The Search for Ambivalent Sexism: A Comparison of Two Measures

Amy B. Conn, University of Maryland
Paul J. Hanges, University of Maryland
William P. Sipe, University of Maryland
Amy Salvaggio, University of Maryland

We compared the properties of two widely used sexism measures. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the factor structure of the scales. The relationships between these scales were explored to examine the empirical overlap of these scales. Our findings suggest that both measures may tap certain aspects of ambivalent sexism.


Demographic Moderators in a Model of Work-Family Conflict

J. Philip Craiger, University of Nebraska at Omaha
R. Jason Weiss, University of Nebraska at Omaha
Adam B. Butler, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay

Research on work-family conflict (WFC) typically attempts to locate demographic differences in the level of conflict experienced. We examined subgroup differences in the relationships between WFC and its antecedents and consequences. Results revealed significant differences by gender and marital status, suggesting that "universal" models of WFC are inappropriate.


Social Information Processing and Sex Bias in Employee Selection

Deborah A. Danzis, High Point University

The interplay between stereotype and individuating information in selection was examined by having subjects rate a male or female job applicant for a sex-typed job. Subjects were given a small, medium, or large amount of individuating information. Results showed that information amount had a significant effect on ratings.


Time Orientation and Decision Making Under Time Pressure

David N. Dickter, AT&T
Mary A. Roznowski, Ohio State University
Robert S. Billings, Ohio State University

Time orientation, an individual difference in the attention to time and the perception that time is a scarce resource that must be conserved carefully, was hypothesized to influence individuals’ responses to time-pressured decisions. Time orientation was positively related to perceived time pressure and the use of time-saving decision heuristics.


Glass Ceiling: Relationships with Stereotypes, Mentoring,

and Perceived Mobility Channels


Tina Elacqua, Central Michigan University
Terry A. Beehr, Central Michigan University
Curtiss P. Hansen, Lincoln National Corporation

Managers (N = 708) at a large insurance company in the Midwest completed an anonymous questionnaire assessing employee attitudes about women at work. This study provides further explanation for the role of stereotypes, mentoring, and perceived mobility channels on the perception of glass ceiling. Implications for the findings are discussed.


The Role of Power in Sexual Harassment

Alexis A. Fink, Old Dominion University
Debra A. Major, Old Dominion University

Power is widely believed to play a key role in sexual harassment (SH). This research quantifies the role of social power in SH in a university sample of employees and students. Power is shown to be related to SH and victim responses to SH. Coercive power emerged as particularly important.


Justifications for Ratings of Old and Young Job Applicants

Lisa Finkelstein, Northern Illinois University
Kelly Higgins, Northern Illinois University
Margaret Clancy, Northern Illinois University

This study explored the content of managers’ written statements justifying their ratings of an older or younger job applicant’s interpersonal skills, economic worth, and likelihood of being interviewed. Age-related concerns were more often elicited in rating the older applicant, and most of these concerns were related to economic concerns.


Examining Individual-Level and Group-Level Influences on Helping Behavior

Mark B. Gavin, Oklahoma State University
Larry Williams, Virginia Commonwealth University
David A. Hofmann, Texas A & M University

The present study simultaneously investigated the influence of individual-level and group-level antecedents on helping behavior directed at both coworkers and the supervisor. Results supported the influence of variables at each level and highlight the importance of considering not only the individual’s but the group’s role in helping.


A Cultural Perspective on Judgment Biases in Negotiation

Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland
Lisa Nishii, University of Maryland
Marianne Higgins, University of Maryland
Christopher McCusker, Yale School of Management
Alexandria Dominguez, University of Maryland

The dominant paradigm in negotiation research has largely ignored the cultural context in which negotiations take place, and there is an implicit assumption that theories apply universally. This research focuses on negotiator cognition, and illustrates that two judgment biases, self-serving perceptions and fixed sum error, are attenuated in cultures which promote interdependence.


Factors That Mediate Sex Bias in Leadership Perceptions

Paul J. Hanges, University of Maryland
William P. Sipe, University of Maryland
Amy B. Conn, University of Maryland
Marianne Higgins, University of Maryland
Bradford S. Bell, Michigan State University
Amy Salvaggio, University of Maryland

The present study focuses on biases in information processing and how these biases contribute to women’s lack of progression to top management positions. We look at the effects of raters’ sexist attitudes and personality characteristics on their perceptions of emerging male and female leaders.


The Impact of Mental Models on Team Performance:

Sharedness, Quality, or Both?


Tonia S. Heffner, University Tennessee - Chattanooga
John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University
Janis Cannon-Bowers, Naval Air Warfare Center

Team members’ (N = 148) team and task mental models of a computer flight simulation task were examined. Repeated measures regression revealed sharedness and quality of team members’ mental models, indexed in relation to task and team experts, influenced team process. Consistent with the I-P-O model, team process influenced team performance.


Perceptions of the Members of Diverse Work Groups

Madeline E. Heilman, New York University
Brian Welle, New York University

To determine whether association with diversity initiatives inadvertently activate stereotypes of women in work groups, an experiment was conducted in which subjects provided ratings of members of a work group shown in a photograph. The gender composition of a group and the rationale for how the group members were assembled were varied. As expected, women were rated as less competent and less likely to emerge as the group leader when they were in a group with a diversity-related rationale for assembly than when other rationales were provided.


Individual Differences’ Effects on the Perception of Sexual Harassment

William H. Hendrix, Clemson University
Justin D. Rueb, US Military Academy
Robert P. Steel, Air Force Institute of Technology

Work status, initiator’s sex, respondent’s sex, age, position power, success status, and initiator’s attractiveness on the perception of sexual harassment was investigated. Behaviors were perceived as more sexually harassing if the individual was male, older, more successful, unattractive, and had higher position power. Males perceived males as more sexually harassing than females. Females perceived both sexes as equally harassing.


Effects of Advertised HR Practices on Attraction of Black Applicants

Scott Highhouse, Bowling Green State University
Sandra Stierwalt, Bowling Green State University
Peter D. Bachiochi, Bowling Green State University
Allison Elder, Bowling Green State University
Gwen G. Fisher, Bowling Green State University

Student members of a society for Black engineers (n = 1,019) were more attracted to an organization that advertised team-based work instead of individual-based work, described a compensation system that rewarded individual performance rather than group performance, and had an identity-conscious (AA) versus identity-blind (EEO) promotion policy.


Accuracy Decomposition and Team Decision Making:

Testing Theoretical Boundary Conditions


John R. Hollenbeck, Michigan State University
Jason A. Colquitt, Michigan State University
Daniel R. Ilgen, Michigan State University
Jeffrey A. LePine, Michigan State University
Jennifer Hedlund, Yale University

This study examined the implications of accuracy decomposition (Gigone & Hastie, 1997) for the multilevel theory of team decision making. It also tested the theory’s generalizability across different staff specialization levels. Results demonstrate that the validity of the theory generalizes across specialization levels, but not across different components of decision accuracy.


Affirmative Action Attitudes:

Beliefs About Targets, Actions, and Economic Effects


David A. Kravitz, Rice University
Ann Kim Nguyen, Rice University
Stephen Klineberg, Rice University
Christopher Lund, Rice University
Emery Fu, Rice University

Employed adults’ attitudes toward affirmative action were associated with demographic variables, correlated negatively with expectations of strong actions and harmful effects on company performance, and correlated positively with beliefs that the target group suffered employment discrimination and had poor employment opportunities. Identity of the target group did not affect attitudes.


Interfunctional Power and Perceptions of the Work Environment

Sabine Maetzke, University of Tennessee
Joyce E. A. Russell, University of Tennessee
Stephen Gaby, University of Tennessee
Richard Reizenstein, University of Tennessee
Joseph Rentz, University of Tennessee

The study demonstrates how different perceptions of power, at the interfunctional level, influence workers’ perceptions of their own work environment. Of the five power bases, coercive power is consistently related to a need to impose more environmental control. Perceived organizational support is also investigated within this framework.


Individual Constructs Applied to Groups:

Different Aggregates Have Different Meanings


Claire Mason, University of Queensland
Mark Griffin, University of Queensland

This study contrasts two approaches to conceptualizing and measuring group-level variables: the aggregate of an individual-focused measure versus aggregated perceptions of a group-focused measure. Individual-focused aggregates displayed less within-group agreement and a lower proportion of between-group variance. The two aggregates exhibited different patterns of relationships with other variables.


Relationships Between Work Teams and "Complementary" HR Practices

Melinda S. Mayfield, Purdue University
Michael A. Campion, Purdue University

Teams continue to be the major work design trend in organizations. This study explores relationships between high-involvement practices like teams and traditional HR practices like training, selection, and compensation. The associations discovered may suggest that certain HR practices complement the use of teams.


Coping with Stress in Conflict Resolution:

Personality Moderators in Strategy Choice


Philip J. Moberg, Wayne State University

The present study examined the influence of job stress and personality on preference for conflict resolution strategy. Analysis of variance revealed main effects for personality, but none for stress level, and the presence of interaction effects, suggesting that personality traits moderate the impact of job stress on strategy choice.


Traditional and Flexible Work Schedules and Employee Satisfaction

Alison S. O’Brien, George Mason University
Wendy J. Casper, George Mason University
Louis C. Buffardi, George Mason University
Carol Erdwins, George Mason University

A survey of Federal Government employees was used to assess the impact of flextime, compressed work schedules, and kinship responsibility on six work attitude scales. Overall results suggest the attempt to find improved work attitudes when allowing employees to engage in flexible work arrangements may be misdirected.


Individual Preferences for Teams: A Policy-Capturing Study

Daniel Ostgaard, University of Minnesota
Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota

Individual’s preference for teams was examined through policy capturing. A set of six personal, social, structural, and task characteristics, identified by subjects as important to their preference, were used as cues. Results indicate that motivation of team members is the most important characteristic in determining an individual’s preference for teams.


Access Discrimination Among College Graduates

With and Without Physical Disabilities


Elissa L. Perry, University of Illinois
Wallace Hendricks, University of Illinois
Emir Broadbent, University of Illinois

Physically disabled and nondisabled college graduates were surveyed about their work experiences. Results revealed that disabled respondents reported significantly more access discrimination than nondisabled respondents. In addition, the specific type of physical disability influenced the extent of access discrimination experienced. The results are presented and their implications are discussed.


Defining and Measuring Employees’ Identification With Their Work Groups

Christine M. Riordan, University of Georgia
Elizabeth Weatherly, University of Georgia

The objective of this study was to develop a conceptually and methodologically sound measure of employee identification with the work group. Using content analysis as well as exploratory and confirmatory analyses, we found support for the measure and demonstrated its relation to, yet distinction from, both group cohesiveness and communication.


Extending the Stepladder Technique: An Examination of Self-Paced Groups

Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University
Matthew S. O’Connor, Bowling Green State University

Self-paced four-person Stepladder groups (n = 26) were found to outperform conventional groups (n = 26) on a problem solving task. Time spent in the last two steps of the Stepladder process was positively related to group decision quality. Furthermore, a proposed best member influence explanation for Stepladder group success was supported.


The Effects of Information Unreliability on Judgment and Decision Making

William M. Rogers, Michigan State University

Effects of unreliability on judgment and decision making are examined using an experimental task involving both multiple-cue probability learning and process-tracing components. Results suggest reliability of information affects judgment, but revealed no clear effects on decision making. Implications for future use of similar combined experimental tasks are discussed.


Perceived Fairness of Maternity Leave Policies in a University Setting

Elizabeth L. Shoenfelt, Western Kentucky University
Sarah J. Leider, Western Kentucky University

Faculty rated scenarios depicting three decision-making methods representing levels of procedural justice and five maternity-leave policy options. Methods that allowed more participation were rated as more fair and resulted in greater willingness to support the policy; policy options requiring less work from other faculty were rated as more fair. Implications for organizational decision making are discussed in terms of procedural justice.


Decoy Effects on Internal Promotion Decisions

Jerel Slaughter, Bowling Green State University
Evan Sinar, Bowling Green State University
Scott Highhouse, Bowling Green State University

This research examined the effect of a decoy candidate in a promotion decision-making context. Results showed that manipulating the effects of an asymmetrically dominated, inferior decoy led to a significant preference shift between two superior candidates. Implications for job-finalist choice are discussed.


The Effects of Disability and Assistive Technology on Performance Evaluation

Steven E. Stern, University of Pittsburgh-Johnstown
Stephanie Brandt, University of Pittsburgh-Johnstown
Donald A. Hantula, Temple University

This study investigated disability, assistive technology, and outcome on attributions and performance appraisal ratings. Employees with mental disabilities were rated lower than employees with physical disabilities or non-disabled employees. Technology made employees appear to be more dependable and their performance unexpected, but lowered attributions of effort when unsuccessful. Successful outcome was associated with higher ratings overall.


Applicant Race and Job Status as Predictors of Employment Discrimination

Lathonia Stewart, Clemson University
Richard Perlow, Clemson University

Applicant race, job status, and the evaluator’s racial attitude were examined as possible predictors of unfair selection decisions. While no differences in hiring emerged, a three-way interaction on the confidence in the hiring decision variable was found. These data suggest that unfair discrimination may operate in subtle ways.


Adult Attachment as a Moderator of Work-Nonwork Relationship

H. Canan Sumer, Middle East Technical University

Moderating effects of the self- and other models underlying adult attachment on the work–nonwork relationship were examined. Only the self-model moderated the relationship. Work and nonwork were significantly positively related among those with a positive self-model but were less strongly related or unrelated among those with a negative self-model.


Conflict Strategies: Their Relationship to

Group Performance and Group Viability


Donna Maria C. Vigil-King, University of Tennessee
Michael C. Rush, University of Tennessee

The relationship between conflict-handling strategies, group conflict, and group performance and viability was examined. Groups using a more integrative conflict-handling strategy had higher levels of viability and performance than those using less integrative strategies. Group conflict functioned as a suppressor variable in the relationship between conflict-handling strategies and performance.


Gender Differences in Upward Feedback Program Scores Over Six Years

Alan G. Walker, First Tennessee Bank
Susan A. Walker, Federal Express

Data is presented demonstrating incremental improvements in subordinates’ ratings of 218 managers in a major Southeast financial institution over 6 years. Score improvement across the 6 years was found to be unrelated to manager gender as was score differences within any given year. Implications for practitioners are discussed.


Gender and Negotiator Competitiveness: A Meta-Analysis

Amy Walters, DePaul University
Alice F. Stuhlmacher, DePaul University
Lia L. Meyer, DePaul University

The present study investigated, through meta-analysis, the stereotypical perception that men are more competitive negotiators than women. The mean weighted effect size of 62 research reports indicated that women are slightly more cooperative in bargaining. This finding was moderated by characteristics of the bargaining interaction and of the opposing party.


The Relationship Between Cognitive Heterogeneity and

Quality of Group Decisions


Joe Yum, Louisiana State University
Eric P. Braverman, Louisiana State University

The relationships between task-related cognitive heterogeneity, demographic heterogeneity, and the quality of group decisions were examined with a sample of 35 three-person groups. The results showed a significant relationship between task-related cognitive heterogeneity and group member heterogeneity in terms of gender. Implications of this finding are discussed.


Antecedents of Accurate Leader Utilization of Staff Information

in Decision-Making Teams


Jean Phillips, Rutgers University

Leader utilization of staff recommendations when a differential weighting strategy was appropriate was investigated. Eighty-four leaders participated in a computerized task. Staff past accuracy information was related to greater staff weighting accuracy. Although positively related to staff weighting, staff judgment confidence information did not improve leader weighting accuracy.

107. Symposium: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20                                                    Governors

Closing the Revolving Door: Theories on Selection at the Top

This symposium is designed to outline the theoretical frameworks and guides that both researchers and practitioners are using in the area of executive selection. The session will outline commonalities, discrepancies, and outright contradictions between these viewpoints and will provide impetus for the audience to discuss their views, what works and what doesn’t, and how to improve selection at the top.

Valerie Sessa, Center for Creative Leadership, Chair
Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland, Executive Selection in Context
Valerie Sessa, Center for Creative Leadership, Richard J. Campbell, Center for Creative Leadership, Robert Kaiser,
            Kaplan DeVries, To Look In or Out? Contextual and Procedural Distinctions Between Internal and
            External Executive Selection Decisions
Donald Nelson, Pfizer Pharmaceuticals Group, Selection or Anointment? Filling Positions at the Top
Jan Greenwood, Heidrick and Struggles, Competency and Urgency: Changes in Selection Practices
David DeVries, Kaplan DeVries, Inc., Facilitator

108. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 3:30 - 4:50                                          Senators

Understanding And Evaluating Integrity in Law Enforcement

Law enforcement officers continually encounter ethical dilemmas. This forum presents the FBI’s measurement of integrity in the testing and hiring process and its inclusion in the training of Special Agents. Experts from the selection program, background investigation, polygraph and ethics training units will review integrity as a critical characteristic in law enforcement. Policies, data analyses and research efforts will be discussed.

Kerrie Q. Baker, FBI, Chair
Elizabeth B. Kolmstetter, FBI, The Inverted U-Files: Hypothesizing a Curvilinear Relationship Between
    Integrity and Performance
Patrick Maloy, FBI, Behind the Scenes: Your Past Will Catch up to You
James Murphy, FBI, Down to the Wire: Truth or Consequences in Polygraph Testing
Frank Perry, FBI Academy, Training Law Enforcement Ethics: Can Integrity Be Trained?
Kerrie Q. Baker, FBI, Discussant

109. Symposium: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20                                                   Wedgwood

Multiple Predictors, Situational Influences, and Incremental Validity

This symposium focuses on improving prediction of a selection system by (a) using multiple predictors, (b) broadening the criterion domain to include contextual performance, and (c) taking situational moderators of predictor-criterion relationships into account. A diverse set of perspectives on improving prediction will be presented, including contrarian ones.

Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, Chair
Miquel Quiones, Rice University, Roman Longoria, Rice University, The Relationship Between Work
            Experience and Job Knowledge: A Theoretical and Empirical Reexamination
Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University, Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota,
            Relationships Among Integrity, Interview, Job Knowledge and Work Sample Measures: Implications
            for Incremental Validity
Handan Sinangil, Marmara University, Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, Personality, Ethnocentric
            Attitudes, and Experience in Predicting Expatriate Job Performance
Chet Robie, University of Houston, Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Effects of Nonlinearity and
            Heteroscedasticity on the Validity of Conscientiousness in Predicting Job Performance
Jos M. Cortina, George Mason University, Jeffrey M. Beaubien, George Mason University, The Impact of
            Situational Strength on the Prediction of Task- and Context-Related Behavior
Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University,
            Incremental Validity of Broad Homogeneous Composites versus Heterogeneous Measures
Malcolm Ree, Armstrong Laboratory, James Dulebohn, University of Texas-Austin, Incremental Validity
            Doesn’t Always Improve a Selection System
Donna L. Denning, City of Los Angeles, Discussant
Richard D. Arvey, University of Minnesota, Discussant

110. Symposium: Saturday, 3:30 - 4:50                                        Peacock Terrace

Organizational Culture, Work Quality, and Reactions

to Quality Management Programs

Elevated levels of trade among the world’s industrialized nations have resulted in (a) a greater focus on product and service quality by US firms and (b) a growing number of partnerships between firms in various nations. This symposium considers the human resource management implications of these and related trends.

Robert L. Cardy, Arizona State University, Chair
Eugene F. Stone-Romero, SUNY at Albany, Dianna L. Stone, SUNY at Albany, Religious and Moral Influences
            on Work Quality
Robert D. Gatewood, University of Georgia, Christine M. Riordan, University of Georgia, A Study of the
            Reactions of Work Groups to Quality Management
George B. Graen, University of Southwest Louisiana, The Psychology of Managing Across the Great
            Sino-American Divide: Bridging Cultural Difference for Mutual Advantage from the American
Chun Hui, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, The Great Sino-American Divide: The Chinese
Tom Ruddy, Xerox Corp, Discussant

111. Symposium: Saturday, 3:30 - 4:50                                                Metropolitan

Team Effectiveness as a Product of Individual, Team, and Situational Factors

In the team effectiveness model proposed by Cannon-Bowers et al. (1995), it was postulated that team performance is a function of both individual task competencies and team competencies, which may be knowledge-, skill-, and attitude-based. This symposium presents four investigations of team performance or team effectiveness that can be interpreted by the team effectiveness model.

Kurt Kraiger, University of Colorado at Denver, Chair
Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch, Naval Air Warfare Center, Janis Cannon-Bowers, Naval Air Warfare Center, Eduardo
            Salas, Naval Air Warfare Center, Kurt Kraiger, University of Colorado at Denver, A Data-Driven Model of
            Precursors to Teamwork: Implications for Training
John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University, Gerald F. Goodwin, Pennsylvania State University, Tonia S.
            Heffner, University Tennessee - Chattanooga, Eduardo Salas, Naval Air Warfare Center, Tests of
            Alternative Models of the Influence of Members’ KSAOs on Performance in Teams
Alicia J. Winckler, HR Avantis, Jill Schmidt, University of Colorado at Denver, Kurt Kraiger, University of
            Colorado at Denver, The Effects of Organizational and Situational Variables on Team Competencies
David A. DuBois, Psychological Systems & Res., Renee J. Stout, Naval Air Warfare Center, Individual and
            Team Situational Awareness: A Study of Air Crew Knowledge and Performance
Scott I. Tannenbaum, SUNY at Albany, Discussant

112. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20                                                  Monet

The Controversy Over Score Banding in Personnel Selection

Banding has been proposed as an alternative to the illegal practice of within-group norming, but it has been hotly debated among both scientists and practitioners. This panel includes proponents, critics, and moderates who will discuss their views of pros and cons, recent developments, issues, and recommendations.

Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Chair
James L. Outtz, Outtz & Associates, Panelist
Frank L. Schmidt, University of Iowa, Panelist
Frank W. Erwin, Richardson, Bellows, Henry, & Company, Panelist
Kevin R. Murphy, Colorado State University, Panelist
Robert M. Guion, Bowling Green State University, Panelist

113. Symposium: Saturday, 3:30 - 4:50                                                       Morocco

Climbing Ladders and Breaking Glass Ceilings:

Women in NonTraditional Careers

This symposium brings together both scientists and practitioners interested in women in male-dominated careers (e.g., firefighters, engineers, Wall Street executives). From both practical and theoretical perspectives, this symposium addresses some current issues regarding barriers women face for entry and success in these careers—and also ways to overcome these barriers.

Paula M. Caligiuri, Rutgers University, Chair
Laura J. Shankster-Cawley, Landy, Jacobs and Associates, Brian D. Cawley, Landy, Jacobs and Associates,
            Female Public Safety Officers: Battling More Than Fires and Crimes
Mona S. Lau, Bankers Trust, Women on Wall Street
Paula M. Caligiuri, Rutgers University, Aparna Joshi, Rutgers University, Mila Lazarova, Rutgers University,
            Blazing Trails on Foreign Soil: Women on Global Assignments
Clarence Butz, Azusa Pacific University, We Can Lead and We Like Math: Women as Managers and Engineers
Linda K. Stroh, Loyola University Chicago, Discussant

114. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 3:30 - 4:20                                   Obelisk A & B

Corporate Marriage Counseling:

Human Side of Mergers, Acquisitions and Joint Ventures

The pace of corporate alliances or, looking at it another way, corporate marriages, has uncovered a gap in practical and research-based knowledge concerning integrating organizational/human resource systems. The panel will explore the problems of corporate alliances and consider the human resource issues involved when those alliances fail.

Addie P. Williamson, Perkins Williamson Associates, Chair
Gary Rich, AC Nielsen, Panelist
Herb Johnson, CVS/Pharmacy, Panelist
Erika L. Hayes, Tulane University, Panelist
Cheryl Henderson, Henderson Associates, Panelist

115. Conversation Hour: Saturday, 3:30 - 4:20                                            Rosetta

Personnel Psychology’s Scientist-Practioner Forum

Personnel Psychology is launching a new section of the journal that will serve as an outlet for the work of I-O practitioners entitled "Scientist-Practitioner Forum." The goal of this new section of the journal will be to offer solutions, insights, lessons learned, and methods for addressing the problems and issues that confront practitioners. The editor and associate editor of the journal will discuss this new section of the journal with potential contributing practitioners.

John R. Hollenbeck, Michigan State University, Editor, Personnel Psychology, Co-Host
James W. Smither, LaSalle University, Associate Editor, Personnel Psychology, Co-Host

116. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20                                                 Wyeth

A Mock Ethics Tribunal: Cases from SIOP’s Revised Ethics Casebook

A mock ethics tribunal will be used to evaluate the behavior of I-O psychologists who faced challenging ethical dilemmas. The cases will be drawn from the second edition of SIOP’s ethics casebook which will be published by APA in 1998.

Scott L. Martin, NCS/London House, Chair
Wendy S. Becker, Pennsylvania State University, Panelist
Douglas W. Bray, Development Dimensions International, Panelist
A. Catherine Higgs, Allstate Insurance Company, Panelist
Rodney L. Lowman, Louisiana Tech University and Development Labs, Panelist

118. Special Event: Saturday, 4:00 - 5:50                                                             Miro

Open Forum: Long Range Planning Committee

SIOP Business Meeting


We will provide a report to SIOP members on the activities of the Executive Committee, the numerous Standing Committees and Task Forces, and the Administrative Office. We will discuss the activities of the SIOP Foundation and the SIOP strategic planning effort. Come ask questions and provide input.

Kevin R. Murphy, Colorado State University, Co-Convenor
P. Richard Jeanneret, Jeanneret & Associates, Co-Convenor
Elaine D. Pulakos, Personnel Decisions Research Institute, Co-Convenor

119. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 4:30 - 5:20                                 Obelisk A & B

Linking Employee and Customer Information:

Current Interest, Issues, and Implications

A recent trend in organizational survey research has been to link employee and customer surveys. The current forum examines the substantive and practical issues researchers and practitioners encounter when conducting linkage research in today’s organizations by bringing together three studies conducted in various field settings.

Scott M. Brooks, Gantz Wiley Research, Sherilyn M. Kam, Kaiser Permanente Hawaii, Linking Employee
            Opinions with Customer Satisfaction and Organizational Outcomes
Brenden Beckstein, Liberty Mutual Group, Linking Employee and Customer Psychological Contracts:
            Implications for Customer Perceptions of Service Effectiveness
Jack W. Wiley, Gantz Wiley Research, Using Culture Survey Results to Predict Dealership Satisfaction,
            Operational Performance

Evening Reception: Saturday 6:00 – 8:00                                   Grand Ballroom


Desserts Reception: Saturday 10:00 p.m. - Midnight           Grand Ballroom


Come join in the festivities! Eat (delicious desserts), drink (chilled champagne), and be merry.

It promises to be a magical evening.


Friday AM

Friday PM

Saturday AM

Sunday AM

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