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16. Practitioner Forum: Friday, 12:00 - 12:50                                                      Miro

A Proposed Methodology for Strategic Job Analysis

A methodology for conducting strategic job analysis will be described. It is designed to replace the concept of periodic, large-scale job analysis efforts with continuous, small-scale job analysis activities. Its foundation is a dynamic information base that contains task and KSAO importance and linkage data. Audience reactions will be solicited.

Robert A. Ramos, HumRRO, Chair
Dana Broach, FAA Civil Aeronautics Institute, Strategic Job Analysis: Issues and Requirements
Deirdre J. Knapp, HumRRO, Ray A. Morath, Caliber Associates, Doug Quartetti, HumRRO, Robert A. Ramos,
            HumRRO, A Proposed Methodology for Strategic Job Analysis
John P. Campbell, University of Minnesota, Discussant

17. Practitioner Forum: Friday, 12:00 - 1:20                                        Obelisk A & B

The Challenge of Making Change Happen: A Case Study

This forum describes a failed first attempt at culture change within a client company followed by a successful, more psychologically oriented intervention. Attention is given to the use of a behavioral scorecard to measure implementation, identification and development of local change agents, and the logistical challenges of large-scale projects.

David Binder, Chase Manhattan Bank, Chair
Stephen Gravenkemper, RHR International, The Need for Change: Setting the Stage
Charles Evans, RHR International, Implementing Change: Aligning the Head, Heart, and Hands
Dan Ziebold, Client Organization, Implementing Change: An Insider’s Story
Guy Beaudin, RHR International, Measuring Change Effectiveness
David Binder, Chase Manhattan Bank, Discussant

18. Panel Discussion: Friday, 12:00 - 12:50                                                   Rosetta

Women Entrepreneurs in I-O Psychology: Thriving on Their Own

Over half of the new business owners in America are women. Following this trend, many women I-O psychologists are striking out on their own to practice psychology on their own terms. This panel discussion explores why and how these women built consulting businesses that fulfill their personal and professional goals.

Angela G. McDermott, Dell Computer, Chair
Joan P. Brannick, Brannick Consulting, Panelist
Kathleen Kappy Lundquist, Applied Psychological Techniques, Panelist
Bonnie Sandman, Management and HR Consulting, Panelist
Karla K. Stuebing, FSD Data Services, Panelist

19. Master Tutorial: Friday, 12:30 - 1:50                                                        Morocco

The Growing Trend of Educational Assessment: What Does

I-O Psychology have to Contribute?

This session informs participants of the growing trends in educational assessment. The development and institutionalization of a comprehensive assessment program, implemented in several undergraduate and graduate institutions, is described. Participants learn the steps required to gain constituent support and involvement. Case studies include the implementation of computerized assessment processes for the classroom.

Jack McGourty, Assessment Alternatives, Inc., Presenter
Kenneth P. DeMeuse, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, Presenter
Richard Reilly, Stevens Institute of Technology, Presenter

20. Symposium: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                                 Grand B

Meaning and Models of the Personality-Job Performance Relation

Many I-O psychologists now believe that competently developed personality measures are valid predictors of real world performance. However, explanations for this empirical regularity are in short supply, although we are now developing models that consider personality influences on job performance. This symposium presents theory, models, and empirical results to advance beyond personality prediction.

Joyce C. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Chair
Robert T. Hogan, University of Tulsa, Dana K. Shelton, University of Tulsa, Explaining the Personality-Job
            Performance Links
Stephan J. Motowidlo, University of Florida, Amy Brownlee, University of Florida, Effects of Personality,
            Ability, and Experience on Procedural Knowledge and Skill in Servicing Retail Customers
Joyce C. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Susan Rybicki, Hogan Assessment Systems, Occupational Status
            and Contextual Job Performance
Leaetta M. Hough, The Dunnette Group, Ltd., Job Performance Models and Personality Taxonomies
S. Morton McPhail, Jeanneret & Associates, Discussant

21. Panel Discussion: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                     Grand D

The Natural: Are Leaders Born or Made? Probably Yes!

The purpose of this panel is to reexamine a fundamental issue regarding leadership, which involves whether leaders are "born vs. made." Panelists will review their current research that focuses on examining early to later life experiences and heritability, to help explain who is more likely to emerge as a leader.

Bruce J. Avolio, SUNY-Binghamton University, Chair
Yair Berson, SUNY-Binghamton University, Panelist
Tony Vernon, University of Western Ontario, Panelist
Richard D. Arvey, University of Minnesota, Panelist
Doug Brown, University of Akron, Panelist
Robert G. Lord, University of Akron, Panelist
Bernard Bass, SUNY-Binghamton University, Panelist
Micha Popper, University of Haifa, Panelist

22. Poster Session: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                Chantilly East



Re-Examination of the Exercise Effect in Assessment Center Ratings

Kimberly Acree-Adams, University of Houston
Hobart G. Osburn, University of Houston

Assessors evaluated candidates on four dimensions in two exercises. Two correlation matrices were assembled and factor analyzed with oblique rotations. Four factors representing the dimensions were identified when the within-dimension rating process was used. Two factors representing the two exercises were identified when the within-exercise rating process was used.


Negative Affect and Selection Test Validation

Seymour Adler, Assessment Solutions Inc.
Miriam T. Nelson, Assessment Solutions Inc.
Matthew P. Hoffman, New York University

A sample of incumbent clerical workers participating in a concurrent validation study was administered a pilot selection test battery and a measure of Negative Affect (NA). NA generally was negatively associated with test performance and moderated the criterion-related validity of most tests, with stronger validity found for tests completed by employees experiencing high NA during testing sessions.


Effects of Checklist Design on the Behavioral Content of

Assessment Center Judgments

John F. Binning, Illinois State University
Matthew Hesson-McInnis, Illinois State University
John De Ville, Illinois State University
Nalini Srinivasagam, Illinois State University

Differences in the predictive validity of assessment center judgments derived from different behavior checklists were examined. The behavioral content of the judgments differed, suggesting a construct-based explanation for observed variations in empirical validity evidence. Ratings of certain types of behaviors were more affected by checklist design.


The Prediction of Job Knowledge Acquisition Using Structured Interviews

Kevin M. Bradley, Development Dimensions International
Paul R. Bernthal, Development Dimensions International
James N. Thomas, Development Dimensions International

The predictive validity of structured interview constructs was examined. Each predictor, attention to detail, tenacity, and oral communication, explained significant incremental variance in job knowledge acquisition over and above that explained by cognitive ability. The hypothesis that teamwork, also measured in the interview, would predict counterproductive behaviors was not supported.


Determinants of Perceived Job Relatedness

Stphane Brutus, Concordia University
Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University

Little research has focused on what determines perceptions of job relatedness. In addition to examining perceptions of four different types of selection procedures, this study looked at how individual characteristics affected perceptions. Biodata items were found to be predictors of perceived job relatedness of some of the measures. Directions for future research are discussed.


Selling the Structured Interview to the Telemarketing Industry

Michelle Bruzan, Illinois State University
Cynthia R. Nordstrom, Illinois State University
Karen B. Williams, Illinois State University

Telemarketing applicants were randomly assigned to interviewers who conducted structured/unstructured interviews and previewed/did not preview application materials. All applicants were hired, and their performance and turnover monitored. Structured interviews generated less confirmatory bias and better prediction of turnover than unstructured interviews. Performance ratings were unrelated to interview type.


Conscientiousness as a Predictor of Productive and

Counterproductive Behaviors


Jana Bunkley, University of Southern Mississippi
John Avis, University of Southern Mississippi
Jeffrey D. Kudisch, University of Southern Mississippi
Terence P. Gornet, University of Southern Mississippi
Alan G. Frost, The Home Depot

This paper extends the integrity testing literature by examining relationships between conscientiousness subscales and productive and counterproductive workplace behaviors. Correlational analyses (n = 359 employees) indicated conscientiousness predicted supervisory performance ratings, supervisors’ willingness to rehire and employee attendance, but not integrity/safety behavior. Conscientiousness subscales differentially predicted criteria and were more parsimonious.


A Signaling Theory Perspective on Hiring Decisions in Academia

Daniel M. Cable, University of North Carolina
Brian Murray, University of Texas at San Antonio

We tested signaling theory in the context of universities’ hiring decisions. Using data from multiple sources, we examined how applicant attributes affect universities’ hiring decisions (e.g., job offers). Consistent with signaling theory, results indicated that the academic job market responds most favorably to signals that are more expensive for less-talented applicants.


Criterion and Construct Validity Evidence for a Situational Judgment Measure

Kathryn Carlisle Smith, University of Akron
Michael A. McDaniel, University of Akron

The usefulness of a situational judgment measure was evaluated in a series of five studies. Findings suggest that SJM’s assess multiple construct domains (experiential, personality, and cognitive) and have predictive value for job performance. The validity coefficients for the prediction of job performance were .31 and .32.


Background Experience Correlates of Job Performance:

An Expanded Predictor Space


Kathryn Carlisle Smith, University of Akron
Michael A. McDaniel, University of Akron

This research focused on developing a Background Experience Measure to explore and expand Quiones, Ford, and Teachout’s (1995) conceptualization of the multidimensional work experience domain. Performance appraisal criterion validity evidence for the nine cell framework of work experience is examined. Construct validity is assessed with the NEO-FFI and the Wonderlic.


Appropriateness Fit, Reactions, Motivation, Conscientiousness,

Subgroup Differences and Test Validity


David Chan, Michigan State University
Joshua M. Sacco, Michigan State University
Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University
Lynn A. McFarland, Michigan State University
Danielle Jennings, Michigan State University

Appropriateness fit indices (lz and multitest lzm) derived from item response theory and used to identify aberrant responders were computed based on responses to cognitive ability and personality measures. Relationships between aberrant responses and test reactions, test-taking motivation, conscientiousness, race and gender subgroup differences, and test validity were examined.


Perceptions of Test Fairness: Integrating Justice and

Self-Serving Bias Perspectives


David Chan, Michigan State University
Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University
Danielle Jennings, Michigan State University
Catherine S. Clause, Michigan State University
Kerry A. Delbridge, Michigan State University

Using data from 492 applicants to a State Police Trooper position, this study integrates both the justice and self-serving bias perspectives to achieve a better understanding of test fairness perceptions. Results show that perceived job-relevance affects perceived fairness. In addition, test performance affects both perceptions indirectly through perceived performance.


Stability and Change in the Psychometric Properties of the ASVAB

Kim-Yin Chan, University of Illinois
Fritz Drasgow, University of Illinois
Linda L. Sawin, US Air Force Armstrong Lab

The psychometric stability of the ASVAB reference battery is studied with data collected at 5 points over a 16-year period using item response theory methods. While 25 of 200 items changed significantly over the years across three different gender-ethnic groups, the overall characteristics of the tests were not severely affected by item level changes.


The Influence of Videoconference Technology and Interview Structure on the Recruiting Function of the Employment Interview

Derek Chapman, University of Waterloo
Patricia M. Rowe, University of Waterloo

This field experiment examined the effects of interview medium and level of interview structure on the recruiting function of employment interviews. Evaluations of 25 interviewers from 23 organizations were provided by 92 job applicants. Videoconference-based and highly structured interviews proved to be less effective for recruiting applicants.


Test Preparation Activities and Employment Test Performance

Catherine S. Clause, Michigan State University
K. Delbridge, Michigan State University
Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University
David Chan, Michigan State University
Danielle Jennings, Michigan State University

This study examined the influence of test preparation activities (meta-cognition and learning strategies) on employment test scores using data from 493 applicants to a state law enforcement agency. Results show that motivational factors affect the amount and types of preparation activities which, in turn, affect test performance.


Shifting Definitions of "Jobs:" Exploring Occupational

Families Using Subgroup Analysis


David W. Dorsey, American Institutes for Research
Wayne A. Baughman, George Mason University
Ashley E. Cooke, George Mason University
Michael D. Mumford, American Institutes for Research

This effort describes an analytic approach to exploring broad occupational families, in terms of task-based subgroups. Specifically, we review the use of a comprehensive task survey instrument, a psychometric model and statistical analyses for assessing task-based similarity, and internal validity and external comparison evidence for the subgroup analyses.


Warning: Proceed With Caution When Warning Applicants Not to Dissimulate

Stephen A. Dwight, SUNY at Albany
John Donovan, SUNY at Albany

This paper questions the assumption that warning applicants not to misrepresent reduces faking. The assumption is shown to be largely speculative, based almost entirely upon statistically significant results. A more interpretable index of warning effects, a meta-analytically derived mean effect size, is presented. In addition, concerns about using warnings are discussed.


Adverse Impact and the Comparison of Utility of Selection Procedures

Tina M. Everest, Colorado State University

A written test and assessment center were compared when selection ratios reflecting points where adverse impact occurs and validity levels were varied. More severe levels of adverse impact greatly reduced the operational utility of the written test, suggesting that adverse impact be considered when evaluating the utility of selection methods.


A Contemporary Look at Task Analysis: Alternative Task Rating Scales

Melissa Feigelson, SUNY at Albany
George M. Alliger, SUNY at Albany

This study was conducted to assess cognitive interpretations of task rating scales and the impact of nontraditional task rating scales. The results of a task analysis and a multidimensional scaling analysis suggest using new task rating scales to update task analyses for the changing nature of work.


Predictors of Workplace Deviance Among Employed Adolescents

Michael R. Frone, Research Institute on Addictions

The prevalence and predictors of three forms of workplace deviance (on-the-job substance misuse, economic deviance, and interpersonal deviance) were examined. All three forms of workplace deviance were prevalent. Regression results revealed several consistent predictors: gender, psychological reactance, job meaninglessness, verbal/physical abuse at work, and work-school conflict.


Detecting Deception and Qualifications in Interviews:

Effects of Applicant Rehearsal


Laura Galarza, Rice University
Robert L. Dipboye, Rice University

As hypothesized, observers of simulated interviews awarded more positive evaluations to rehearsed than to unrehearsed applicants. However, contrary to expectations, rehearsal benefited the accuracy of detecting deception by enhancing the "hiring" of applicants whose interests matched the job. Judges’ gender also affected accuracy levels. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.


More is Not Always Better: A Critical Analysis of a Behavioral Checklist

Laura A. Gniatczyk, University of Tennessee
Debra Zegelbone-Migetz, University of Tennessee
James M. LeBreton, University of Tennessee

The following study compares the predictive validities of two behavioral checklists of different structures (6 dimensions with 45 items vs. 3 dimensions with 24 items). Results demonstrate that the checklists have similar predictive validity (.36 compared to .32). Based on these results, we suggest that the shorter behavioral checklist may be preferable for a variety of reasons.


Educational Attainment as a Proxy for Cognitive Ability in Selection

Melissa L. Gruys, University of Minnesota
Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota

This study examines the use of educational attainment as a proxy for cognitive ability in employee selection. Analyses produce tables which clarify the degree to which mean levels of cognitive ability achieved through selection based on educational attainment standards differ from the mean levels achieved through selection on cognitive ability.


Applicant Perceptions of Selection Procedures and Future Job Seeking Behavior

David Hamill, University of Baltimore
Simon Bartle, Old Dominion University

A study is reported that assessed applicants’ perceptions of five personnel selection procedures. Applicant perceptions of face validity, fairness, test performance expectations, and intentions to apply were measured. Results suggested that interviews were rated most favorably and that only test performance expectations significantly predicted applicants’ intentions to apply for the job.


Understanding the Underlying Structure of Work Activities and

Worker Ability Requirements


Mary Ann Hanson, Personnel Decision Research Institutes
U. Christean Kubisiak, University of South Florida
Walter C. Borman, University of South Florida

This poster describes the development and evaluation of new rational/empirical models to describe the structure of the work activities and ability requirement domains. These models combine theoretical considerations with data from a large, national sample of jobs. Thus, the new taxonomies can be viewed as providing critical information concerning the underlying structure of these two important domains.


Personality and Job Performance: Will the Real "Big Five" Please Stand Up?

Gregory M. Hurtz, SUNY at Albany
John Donovan, SUNY at Albany

A meta-analysis was conducted examining the validity of the Big Five personality dimensions as predictors of job performance, considering only studies utilizing personality measures designed specifically to measure the Big Five. Results indicated that conscientiousness was the most valid predictor of job performance, supporting Barrick and Mount’s (1991) meta-analytic results.


The Effects of Interview Structure and Post-Interview

Information on Recruiting


Sylvia J. Hysong, Rice University
Robert L. Dipboye, Rice University

Independent of whether there was an opportunity after the interview to gather information, participants in laboratory experiments were more attracted to an organization in response to unstructured and semi-structured interviews than to a highly structured interview. Liking for the interviewer appeared to serve as a partial mediator of this effect.


Effect of Disability Accommodations Information

on Personnel Selection Decisions


Harry E. Katzmann, lllinois Institute of Technology
Elizabeth Manibay, Baruch College

The ADA has influenced testing organizations to provide accommodations in testing to individuals with disabilities. The current experimental study examines the effect of knowledge of a job applicant having been given an accommodation has on the perceived qualifications of the applicant for the job.


Ability and Personality as Predictors of Performance and

Counterproductive Behavior


Arno R. Kolz, Manhattan College
Edward Cardillo, Manhattan College
Sugeily Pena, Manhattan College

The Wonderlic Personnel Test and the NEO-Five Factor Inventory were used to predict work performance and counterproductive behavior in retail employees. Customer Service was significantly predicted by cognitive ability and agreeableness. Merchandising and store operations were predicted by ability and conscientiousness. Conscientiousness predicted counterproductive behavior.


Content and Commonality of Recruiters’ Judgments of P-O Fit

Amy L. Kristof-Brown, University of Iowa

Using repertory grid methodology, recruiters from four consulting firms were interviewed about characteristics indicating applicant person-organization fit. Results suggest recruiters use KSAs, personality and values, but not goals, to assess applicants’ fit. Most characteristics were idiosyncratic recruiter preferences, but there was also support for organization-specific and universally desirable characteristics.


Reactions to Compensatory Versus Non-Compensatory Selection Systems

Douglas C. Maynard, Bowling Green State University
Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University

The effect of selection system design on procedural fairness perceptions was examined. Employment services customers (N = 73) read a scenario describing a selection process (either compensatory or non-compensatory) and reported job beliefs and fairness perceptions. Mean ratings of job-relatedness and administration consistency were significantly higher for the compensatory scenario.


An Exploration of Stevens and Campion’s Teamwork KSA Instrument

Anita McClough, Bowling Green State University
Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University

The validity of the Teamwork KSA instrument was investigated. Direct teamwork behaviors were obtained through ratings of videotaped interactions. Evidence of criterion related validity was found. Self-monitoring was found to be significantly related to teamwork behavior and offered incremental validity over the Teamwork KSA test in predicting teamwork behavior.


Affirmative Action as Help: An Attributional Analysis

Aletta Machell Merz, Louisiana State University
Eric P. Braverman, Louisiana State University

The current paper utilized Weiner’s (1980) attribution framework to compare a traditional affirmative action program (AAP) based on race and an alternative AAP based on economic need. Observers’ attributions of controllability and locus of causality predicted their endorsement of AAPs. There were no significant differences between endorsement of race-based and economic need-based AAPs.


Significance Tests and Confidence Intervals for the Adverse Impact Ratio

Scott B. Morris, Illinois Institute of Technology
Russell E. Lobsenz, Federal Bureau of Investigation

Since introduction of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, courts have increasingly relied on statistical evidence in adverse impact cases. There are several shortcomings associated with current statistical methods for determining adverse impact. We propose an alternative framework for evaluating adverse impact based on confidence intervals around the impact ratio.


Situational Judgment Testing: Will the Real Constructs

Please Present Themselves?


Morell E. Mullins, Michigan State University
Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University

While situational judgment tests have gained popularity in both research and applied settings, it remains unclear what they are actually measuring. An approach similar to that used in construct validation was utilized to explore one possibility, that situational judgment is actually isomorphic with Wagner and Sternberg’s notion of tacit knowledge.


Computerization of Paper-Pencil Tests: When Are They Equivalent?

George A. Neuman, Northern Illinois University
Ramzi B. Baydoun, Motorola
Kelly Higgins, Northern Illinois University

The cross-mode equivalence of paper-pencil and computer administered-scored clerical tests is examined. Participants were administered timed clerical tests. No differences across modes between paper-pencil and computer administered-scored tests were found. Equivalence is discussed at three levels: parallel, tau equivalent, and congeneric. No differential validity across formats was indicated.


Personality in Police Selection: Examining Training and

Job Performance Longitudinally


John Palmatier, Michigan Dept of State Police
Christina Brandt, Michigan State University

The predictive validity of five personality factors was examined in a police selection context using several performance measures gathered over 8 years. Findings suggest that (a) personality measures add to the variance explained by cognitive ability, and (b) training academy success and job performance are differentially predicted by personality.


Applicant Reactions to Selection Procedures: Expanding the Justice Framework

Robert E. Ployhart, Michigan State University
Lynn A. McFarland, Michigan State University
Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University

Two applicant samples were used to study perceptions of a selection process before and after a hiring decision, and also reasons for withdrawal from a selection process. Most applicants considered factors that are unrelated with current conceptualizations of applicant reactions, indicating that there are other factors applicants consider important.


Review of The Employment Interview: Findings, Trends and Future Directions

Richard Posthuma, Purdue University
Frederick P. Morgeson, Purdue University
Michael A. Campion, Purdue University

This exhaustive review of the recent employment interview articles is incorporated in a framework which shows the number of articles by research topic. This review highlights the substantial complexity of the employment interview and suggests future research methods and topics.


Understanding Managers’ Hiring Concerns: Building Bridges

Between Science and Practice


Joseph G. Rosse, University of Colorado, Boulder
Margaret Nowicki, University of Colorado, Boulder

Forty-eight managers were asked to describe what questions about hiring they would most like to have answered. Managers’ concerns were fairly basic, and most can be answered by current research. The scientist-practitioner gap thus seems to relate more to usage of research than to the focus of research.


Effect of Rater Race on Differential Prediction Using Cognitive Tests

Maria Rotundo, University of Minnesota
Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota

Conclusions that cognitive ability tests lack predictive bias hold only if the criterion used is unbiased. In response to concerns about possible cultural bias in ratings, a sample permitting analysis by same-race and different-race raters was obtained. Rater race did not affect conclusions about predictive bias.


Rational Versus Empirical Integrity Test Scoring:

Development and Comparative Validation


Andrew L. Solomonson, University of Georgia
Timothy Irwin, Irwin & Browning, Inc.
P. Gail Wise, Irwin & Browning, Inc.

Potential differences in criterion-related validity levels of integrity test scores were explored using polygraph-based empirical keys versus a rationally developed scoring key. Results showed the rational key produced acceptable validity levels, whereas empirical keys showed little validity evidence. Development and implications of both types of keys are discussed.


Reducing Adverse Impact with Structured Interviews

Mark H. Strong, Jeanneret & Associates

Although valid predictors of job performance, cognitive ability measures often result in adverse impact against members of minority groups. The structured interviews developed for this study resulted in validities comparable to that of cognitive ability measures and reduced adverse impact with respect to Blacks.


Effect of Job Advertisement Specificity and Inferences about Organizational Characteristics as Applicant Attraction

Todd J. Thorsteinson, Bowling Green State University
Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University
Lynn A. McFarland, Michigan State University

This study investigated the effects of specificity of job advertisements and inferences about organizational characteristics on organizational attractiveness and likelihood of applying. Participants were less attracted to the organization when applicant requirements were specific and exclusionary. In addition, participants’ perceived qualifications and inferences about organizational characteristics were related to organizational attractiveness and likelihood of applying.


Specificity in Job Advertisements as Signals of

Unknown Organizational Characteristics


Todd J. Thorsteinson, Bowling Green State University
Lynn A. McFarland, Michigan State University
Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University

This study investigated whether specificity in job advertisements would signal potential applicants about characteristics of the organization. Results revealed that participants who received a specific job description perceived the organization to treat its employees better than participants who received a nonspecific job description. However, perceptions of organizational characteristics were not related to participants’ likelihood of applying.


Reactions of Entry-Level Applicants to Test Score Banding

Donald M. Truxillo, Portland State University
Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University
Francine Loranger, Portland State University

Using a justice framework, we studied the reactions to test score banding of 369 police applicants. Race interacted with belief that banding is associated with affirmative action, affecting perceived fairness and employee relations. The perceived rationale for banding also affected applicant reactions. Future research and implications for organizations were discussed.


Item Level Analysis of Integrity: A Judgmental Approach

to Defining Sub-Factors


James E. Wanek, Boise State University
Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota
Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota

A series of judgmental sorts of items from seven paper-and-pencil integrity tests produced a twenty-one factor solution representing common dimensions across instruments. The pattern of associations between the resulting factor composites and integrity test scores advances our knowledge of how these tests are similar, and how they differ.


Test-Taker Perceptions of Overt and Personality-Based Integrity Inventories

David J. Whitney, California State University - Long Beach
Judith Diaz, University of Minnesota
MaryAnn Minneghino, California State University - Long Beach
Karen Powers, Purdue University

Test-taker perceptions of overt and personality-based integrity tests were examined both immediately following testing and upon receipt of performance scores. An overt integrity test was perceived to have greater job-relatedness than a personality-based integrity test. Perceptions of an employer using an integrity test were dependent upon attitudes directly following test administration, test performance, and justice perceptions.


Predicting Sales Performance: Incremental Validity Using Person-Job Fit

Matthew R. Smith, Michigan State University
Kirk L. Rogg, Kansas State University
Mark H. Ludwick, Capital One Services, Inc.

Since tasks/rewards can vary widely across sales occupations, the current study proposed a methodology to examine a person’s fit between their preferences and the unique characteristics of sales jobs. Results found that fit moderated the relationship between ability and performance with the interaction adding incremental validity over traditional selection measures.

23. Symposium: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                            Governors

Choices at the Top: Learnings and Teachings on Selecting Executives

This symposium discusses a program of research designed to better understand and improve executive selection at the top of organizations. This symposium begins with a demonstration of a multi-media, several-phase simulation and learnings and teachings from the use of it are discussed from the laboratory to the field.

Jennifer J. Deal, Center for Creative Leadership, Co-Chair
Valerie I. Sessa, Center for Creative Leadership, Co-Chair
Valerie Sessa, Center for Creative Leadership, Richard J. Campbell, Center for Creative Leadership,
            The Development of the Peak Selection Simulation (PSS)
Jodi Taylor, Center for Creative Leadership, Learning and Training in Top Management Teams:
            Impacting the "Real World" Using PSS
Jennifer J. Deal, Center for Creative Leadership, Individual Search: How Executives Look at
Richard A. Guzzo, University of Maryland, Shannon L. Palmer, University of Maryland, Group Decision Process
            and Effectiveness in Executive Selection
Gina Hernez-Broome, Center for Creative Leadership, Valerie Sessa, Center for Creative
            Leadership, The Impact of Assessment Measures on both Individual and Team Outcomes
Jon Wampler, PacifiCare Health Systems, Discussant

24. Symposium: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                              Senators

New Developments and Applications in Utility Analysis

In practice, many organizations use categorical scales to assess employees’ job performance (i.e., criterion). Therefore, using logistic regression, a new model of utility analysis appropriate for categorical (or polytomous) criterion measure has been proposed and tested. Also addressed are the questions of judgment and accuracy of estimation in utility analysis.

Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chair
Liang-Yu Dai, Georgia Tech, Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, Development and Application of
            Polytomous Utility Model
Kenneth S. Law, Hong Kong University of Science & Technology, Brett Myors, Macquarie University, Two
             Applications of Utility Analysis in Australia
Brett Myors, Macquarie University, Jane Carstairs, Macquarie University, Natasha Todorov, Macquarie
            University, How Serious Is the Problem of Judgment in Utility Analysis?
Doug Quartetti, HumRRO, Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, A Monte Carlo Assessment of
            Estimation in Utility Analysis
Michael J. Burke, Tulane University, Discussant
Robert A. Ramos, HumRRO, Discussant

26. Symposium: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                                        Miro

Job Analysis Inaccuracy: Cracks in the Foundation of HR Management?

Job analysis forms the foundation upon which virtually all human resource management systems are built. Although many assume job analysis information is accurate, there is growing evidence suggesting that this may not be the case. This symposium presents recent theoretical and empirical work which examines issues of job analysis inaccuracy.

Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Co-Chair
Frederick P. Morgeson, Purdue University, Co-Chair
Frederick P. Morgeson, Purdue University, Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Framework of Social and
            Cognitive Sources of Potential Job Analysis Inaccuracy
Edward L. Levine, University of South Florida, Juan I. Sanchez, Florida International University, Sources of
            Inaccuracy in Job Analysis and Suggestions for Remediation
Mark A. Wilson, North Carolina State University, The Ergometric Study of Tasks: Review and
Marilyn K. Gowing, US Office of Personnel Management, Accuracy Across Job Analysis Methodologies
Kenneth Pearlman, Lucent Techologies, Discussant
Michael D. Mumford, American Institutes for Research, Discussant

27. Symposium: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50                                                                    Monet

Selection into I-O Programs: Focus on GRE Validity

Most graduate programs require GRE scores for admission. Recently the validity of the GRE has come under intense scrutiny. The purpose of our symposium is to examine the current validity evidence for the GRE. The influences of range restriction, criterion conceptualization and measurement, and sampling error will also be highlighted.

John P. Campbell, University of Minnesota, Co-Chair
Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, Co-Chair
Olelsandr Chesyneshenko, University of Illinois, Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, How Selective Are I-O
            Psychology Graduate Programs: The Effect of the Selection Ratio on the GRE Validity
Jerilee Grandy, ETS, Graduate Record Exam Validity at ETS
John P. Campbell, University of Minnesota, Nathan R. Kuncel, University of Minnesota, Frederick L. Oswald,
            University of Minnesota, Predicting Performance in Graduate School: The Criterion Problem
Nathan R. Kuncel, University of Minnesota, Sarah A. Hezlett, University of Minnesota, Deniz S. Ones, University
            of Minnesota, The Predictive Validity of the Graduate Record Examination: A Meta-Analysis
Wayne J. Camara, The College Board, Discussant

28. Conversation Hour: Friday, 1:00 - 1:50                                                    Rosetta

Integrating I-O Training Concepts Into Curricula for

Occupational Health Psychology

In 1997, APA and NIOSH entered into a 5-year agreement to implement graduate-level curricula in a new field called occupational health psychology. APA will call upon psychology departments to develop proposals for funding to develop a course of study. Participants will share ideas about I-O involvement in this project.

Heather Roberts Fox, American Psychological Association, Host
Michael Colligan, NIOSH, Host

29. Roundtable: Friday, 1:00 - 2:20                                                                     Wyeth

Launching a Research Program in a Consulting Context

Our goal is to initiate programmatic research at Aon on various topics that involves researchers working in different areas at different universities. The discussion will focus on the identification of worthy research areas, problems and ways to confront and solve them, and the solicitation of potential collaborators in this effort.

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, Host
John D. Arnold, Aon Consulting, Host

30. Symposium: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50                                                                Grand A

Racial Discrimination, Harassment, and Workplace Climate

This symposium focuses on data from field studies assessing the impact of racial climate and experiences of racial discrimination and harassment. Taken together, the papers report similar outcomes of racial discrimination and harassment experiences in samples as diverse as university students, organizational employees, and community members.

Kimberly T. Schneider, University of Texas at El Paso, Chair
Landon Reid, University of Illinois, Fact to Factor: Race, Self-Perceptions of Competence, and the Mediating
            Role of Racial Climate
Sharon Goto, Pomona College, Predicting Asian American Experiences with Racism: The Role of
            Demographics, Occupation, and Workplace Composition
Phanikiran Radhakrishnan, University of Texas at El Paso, The Effect of Racial Climate on Psychological and
            Health Outcomes: The Mediating Role of Racial Discrimination and Harassment
Keith James, Colorado State University, Discussant

31. Symposium: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50                                                                 Grand E

Planning for Work in the 21st Century:

What Does it Mean for I-O Psychologists?

Understanding the constant changes in the workplace and the implications this has on organizations is of significant importance to many I-O psychologists. This symposium will specifically address the notion of how the changing nature of work and working makes an impact on us as I-O psychologists and the way we do business.

Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, Chair
Ann Howard, Development Dimensions International, Gearing Up for the Future: I-O Psychology for a
            Changing Workplace
Vicki V. Vandaveer, The Vandaveer Group, I-O Practice Strategy in a Era of Rapid and Multi-Faceted Change
Michael G. Rumsey, US Army Research Institute, Sheila T. Simsarian Webber, George Mason University, Henry
            Busciglio, US Office of Personnel Management, Foretelling the Future with Science: NCO Jobs in the
            21st Century
Robert J. Vance, Pennsylvania State University, Information Technology Applied to Work Force Transitions

32. Symposium: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50                                                         Metropolitan

Longitudinal Examinations of Self-Efficacy: Methodological,

Theoretical, and Practical Contributions

These four studies address two unresolved issues in the growing self-efficacy literature. A theoretical issue concerns individual versus collective levels of self-efficacy, whereas a methodological issue concerns process versus outcome levels of measurement. Each study employs longitudinal data collection and analyses to extend our understanding of self-regulation.

Mark A. Mone, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Chair
Michelle Marks, Florida International University, Does Collective Efficacy Help Teams Perform in Unfamiliar
Amy L. Unckless, Pennsylvania State University, John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University, Jennifer W.
            Martineau, Center for Creative Leadership, Motivational and Dispositional Predictors of Performance: A
            Comparison of Static and Dynamic Conceptualizations of Performance
Thomas D. Kane, Southwest Missouri State University, Tim Baltes, Southwest Missouri State University,
            Efficacy Assessment in Complex Social Domains: Leadership Efficacy in Small Task Groups
Gilad Chen, George Mason University, Robert Kilcullen, US Army Research Institute, Jon-Andrew Whiteman,
            George Mason University, A Longitudinal Examination of the Unique Roles of Trait-Like and
            State-Like Individual Differences in Self Regulation
Dov Eden, Tel Aviv University, Discussant
Ruth Kanfer, Georgia Tech, Discussant

33. Practitioner Forum: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50                                         Obelisk A & B

Alternative Strategies for Developing Highly Predictive

Low Adverse Impact Tests

Cognitive ability is espoused as the single most reliable predictor of job performance, but cognitive skills do not represent many critical job performance areas. Using cognitive tests results in high adverse impact against minorities. This forum presents alternative strategies for developing selection instruments with high prediction and low adverse impact.

Ted R. Axton, CWH Management Solutions, Measuring the Importance of "Multiple Intelligence" in
            Firefighter and Police Positions
Jack M. Feldman, Georgia Tech, Conditional Reasoning Approaches to Measuring Motivational Constructs
Kurt Kraiger, University of Colorado at Denver, Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver, Kristin
            Taylor, University of Colorado at Denver, Work Readiness as a Predictor of Employee Acceptability and
Kevin R. Murphy, Colorado State University, Discussant
Chris Hornick, CWH Management Solutions, Discussant

34. Special Event: Friday, 2:00 - 2:50                                                       Manchester

Meet the TIP Board: The Shape of Things to Come

Following the April 1998 issue of The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, the editorship passes from Michael Coovert to current board member Allan Church. This session will provide SIOP members with an opportunity to meet, exchange ideas, provide feedback, discuss ways to increase member contributions, and generally get involved in TIP.

Allan Church, W. Warner Burke Associates, Host

35. Panel Discussion: Friday, 2:00 - 2:50                                                     Morocco

The Internet as a Research Tool: Challenges and Opportunities

This discussion group will explore challenges and opportunities associated with using the Internet as a research tool. Discussion topics will include: duplicate publishing, the lack of peer reviewers, standards for on-line research, data warehousing/public domain measures, and pay-for-use publications.

J. Philip Craiger, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Chair
Michael D. Coovert, University of South Florida, Panelist
Jeffrey M. Beaubien, George Mason University, Panelist
Deanna Banks, George Mason University, Panelist

36. Practitioner Forum: Friday, 2:00 - 2:50                                                    Rosetta

Next Generation Performance Management: Applications and Trends

Many companies have found themselves on the leading edge in addressing issues related to executing integrated performance management systems. This practitioner forum will cover future trends in performance management systems and discuss several areas in which companies are currently expanding their performance management processes.

Kalen F. Pieper, Pepsi Cola, Chair
Ann Maurer, Towers Perrin, Strategic Performance Management for the Future
Lisa M. Collings, Harris Methodist Health System, The Performance Management Process at Harris Methodist
            Health System
James D. Eyring, Pizza Hut, Simplifying and Integrating Performance Systems: Too Many Systems, Not Enough
Kalen F. Pieper, Pepsi Cola, Integrating Function Specific Competencies into the Performance Management

Coffee Break: Friday, 3:00 - 3:30                                  Near SIOP Meeting Rooms


37. Poster Session: Friday, 3:30 - 5:20                                               Chantilly East

Job Performance, Performance Appraisal, Compensation, and Training



The Relationship Between Performance Appraisal Session Characteristics and Ratee Reactions: A Meta-analytic Review

Edward P. Zuber, SUNY at Albany
Scott J. Behson, SUNY at Albany

Meta-analysis was used to investigate the effects of various performance appraisal characteristics on ratee reactions to performance appraisal. Hypotheses regarding these relationships are supported. Evidence for the discriminant validity between perceived accuracy and fairness is also revealed. Finally, rating favorability was substantially correlated with performance appraisal characteristics. Implications are discussed.


The Relationship Between Personal Values and Job Performance

Cynthia Banas, University of Tulsa
Robert R. Sinclair, University of Tulsa

This study examined the relationship between personal values and the performance domains of interpersonal effectiveness, organizational involvement, and task performance. The results suggest that specific values are differentially related to performance domains.


Effects of Performance Evaluation Categories on Motivation

and Fairness Perceptions: Three Buckets or Five?


Kathryn M. Bartol, University of Maryland
Cathy C. Durham, Pepperdine University
June Poon, University Kebangsaan Malaysia

This study investigated the impact of using three versus five categories or "buckets" for performance evaluation. Results indicated that the five-bucket system motivates greater performance improvements, but its use may result in lower perceptions of fairness among lower-rated participants who would receive a middle rating in a three-bucket system.


Pay Systems, Personality, and Person-Organization Fit

Daniel M. Cable, University of North Carolina
Matthew C. Bloom, Notre Dame University

We extend past pay system fit research beyond the realm of organizational entry. Results indicated that pay system fit (fit between contingent pay and employees’ tolerance for ambiguity) affected employees’ perceptions of how well they fit the organization. This study extended the person-organization fit research literature by demonstrating that fit processes operate after organization entry.


Training Partner’s Cognitive Ability and Training Performance

Eric Day, Texas A & M University
Travis C. Tubre, Texas A & M University
Winfred E. Arthur, Texas A & M University
Wayne Shebilske, Texas A & M University

Results of the present study demonstrated that, in a dyadic training protocol, a participant’s performance is related to their partner’s general cognitive ability (g). In addition, both high and low g trainees are equally influenced by their partner’s level of g. Implications for the forming of "optimal" training groups are discussed.


The "Reaction-to-Diversity Inventory": The Development and Application of a Measure of Workplace Diversity

Kenneth P. DeMeuse, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire
Todd Hostager, University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire

Despite the wealth of information on the "how to’s" of workplace diversity, relatively little attention has been paid to developing measures of workplace diversity itself. In our research paper, we propose a multi-level conceptual framework to measure workplace diversity and develop an instrument to assess an individual’s perceptions and reactions to workplace diversity. This measure can be used to help trainers diagnose an organization’s diversity culture, tailor diversity training to the specific needs of employees, and measure the efficacy of training efforts.


Impact of Appraisal Purpose on Evaluations of Employees with Disabilities

Angelo S. DeNisi, Texas A & M University
Adrienne J. Colella, Texas A & M University

We examine inconsistencies in past research on appraisal of employees with disabilities. Ratee disability, appraisal purpose, and performance level were manipulated in a laboratory experiment. Results indicated bias in favor of disabled ratees when ratings were for research purposes. Raters discounted good performance by disabled ratees when ratings were for administrative purposes.


Multirater Tools for Development and Appraisal:

Do We Measure the Same Things?


Anna Erickson, SBC Communications
Maynard Goff, Personnel Decisions International
LeAnne Bennett, Chase Manhattan Bank

Two-wave multi-rater feedback (MRF) data were used to investigate the factor structure of an MRF measure in development and performance appraisal conditions. Longitudinal relations with performance appraisals (PA) were examined. Comparable factor structures were found across conditions. Correlations with PA were largely, but not exclusively, halo related.


Are Performance Ratings From Different Sources Comparable?

Jeffrey D. Facteau, Auburn University

This study tested for the measurement equivalence of a multi-source performance appraisal instrument across self-, peer, supervisor, and subordinate raters. Several ways in which the measurement properties of the instrument differed across sources were identified. Implications for understanding rating source differences and the practice of multi-source performance appraisal are discussed.


The New Supervisor: Advantages and Disadvantages of

Computer Performance Monitoring


Kimberly A. Firment, University of Colorado at Denver
Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver

I-O psychologists have long sought to accurately assess employee performance and productivity. Computer performance monitoring (CPM) is pervasively used in today’s organizations. However, users of CPM should be aware of their advantages as well as disadvantages. We review research-based conclusions regarding positive and negative effects of using CPM.


Effect of Performance Appraisal System Knowledge on Rater Agreement

Leah Groehler, Illinois Institute of Technology
Scott B. Morris, Illinois Institute of Technology

The study examined whether a subordinate’s understanding of the performance appraisal system predicted the agreement between self- and supervisor ratings. While perceived system knowledge (PSK) predicted rater agreement, actual system knowledge did not. Low PSK led to inflated self-ratings, while high PSK led to deflated self-ratings, relative to supervisors.


Do You Know What Others Think of You?

Martha Hennen, Applied Psych Techniques
Janet L. Barnes-Farrell, University of Connecticut

Analyses based on the Social Relations Model (Kenny & La Voie, 1984) were used to explore meta-accuracy, the ability to estimate others’ impression of self, in performance appraisal. Results showed that within group settings participants could estimate a general evaluation, but had trouble specifying how performance was differentially evaluated.


Cognitive Processing Biases and Frame-of-Reference Training Effectiveness

Jody Hoffman, Bowling Green State University
Lorne Sulsky, University of Calgary

Undergraduates (N = 81) trained with FOR or control procedures were exposed to ratees who performed either consistently or inconsistently on specific performance dimensions. As predicted, dimensional performance inconsistency led to (a) either negativity biases or contrast effects depending upon the specific dimension, and (b) an attenuation of FOR training effectiveness.


What’s Your Angle: Does Rater Viewpoint Matter in 360 Feedback?

Jody Hoffman, Bowling Green State University
Allison Elder, Bowling Green State University
Sandra Stierwalt, Bowling Green State University
Jenifer A. Kihm, Bowling Green State University
Milton D. Hakel, Bowling Green State University

Nontraditional and multi-source viewpoints within a 360-degree feedback system designed for school principals were investigated with respect to how their ratings compare with ratings from more traditional or single-source viewpoints. Results indicate that both nontraditional and multi-source viewpoints offer unique feedback.


The Impact of Benefit Perceptions on Turnover Intentions and Earnings

David Kaplan, University of Illinois

Evidence was found supporting the proposition that the relationship between employer turnover intentions and fringe or nonwage benefit provision is in part a function of how benefits are measured. Specifically, employer reports, employee perceptions, and difference scores garnered varying results. Similar results were found between benefit level and cash earnings.


The Effects of Training with Situational Constraints on Rating Accuracy

Janine Keown, University of Calgary
Lorne Sulsky, University of Calgary

The effects of training on the accuracy of ratings of both performance and situational constraints was examined. Frame-of-reference training was effective in increasing the accuracy of observed performance and situational constraint ratings. Task Information training was effective in increasing the accuracy of deserved performance ratings.


Honesty Testing in the Workplace: Why? Because, Because, or Because

Deborah L. Kidder, University of Connecticut

Research on honesty testing has been accused, unfairly, of being atheoretical in nature. This paper outlines how three theories implicitly frame the issues surrounding honesty in the workplace. Trait theory, agency theory, and psychological contracts theory all contribute to our understanding of (dis)honest behaviors at work.


Cognitive Processes in Performance Appraisal:

Prior Impressions and Delayed Evaluations


Craig V. King, Kansas State University
Ronald G. Downey, Kansas State University

The effects of prior impressions, retention interval, and cognitive processes on accuracy of ratings were investigated. There was a three-way interaction between retention interval, cognitive processes, and prior impressions. Specifically, raters in the immediate, on-line good prior impression conditions were better at identifying specific behaviors than participants in delay conditions.


Good News: Work Samples Are (About) As Valid As We’ve Suspected

Charles E. Lance, University of Georgia
Shane Douthitt, University of Georgia
C. Douglas Johnson, University of Georgia
Winston R. Bennett, Air Force Research Lab

Data obtained on over 1,500 first-term enlisted airmen indicated that administrators’ rating of work sample performance substantially reflect actual ratee behavior in the work sample, and not potentially biasing factors (e.g., race, gender, amount of recent experience), support the "folk wisdom" that work samples are high fidelity, valid measures of performance.


Replication and Extension of Models of Job Performance Ratings

Charles E. Lance, University of Georgia
Winston R. Bennett, Air Force Research Lab

This study tested causal models of job knowledge, job proficiency and supervisor ratings (n = 838 enlisted airmen). Results indicated that (a) effects of ability and experience were linear, not interactive, (b) different conceptualizations of "experience" play somewhat different causal roles, (c) general support for the mediational roles of job knowledge and job proficiency, and (d) supervisor ratings reflect both "can-do" and "will-do" aspects of performance.


Contextual Behavior, Performance Evaluation, and

Moderating Effects of Cognitive Style


Christopher R. Leupold, Wayne State University
Sebastiano A. Fisicaro, Wayne State University

Compared to a control condition in which no contextual information was provided, field dependent raters rated a lecturer’s performance more leniently when provided with positive contextual behaviors but not more severely when provided with negative contextual behaviors, whereas field independent raters rated the lecturer’s performance more severely in both conditions.


Predicting Task and Contextual Performance in a Team Setting

Greg E. Loviscky, Pennsylvania State University
Adam S. Rosenberg, Pennsylvania State University
John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University
Susan Mohammed, Pennsylvania State University

This study tested hypotheses directed at the differential prediction of task and contextual performance criteria by cognitive ability and personality factors. Using a sample of managers working in interdependent work teams, we found that cognitive ability predicted task but not contextual performance; additionally, agreeableness predicted contextual but not task performance.


The Effects of a Compensation System Implementation on Pay Satisfaction

Carl Maertz, Purdue University
Frederick P. Morgeson, Purdue University
Michael A. Campion, Purdue University

Job evaluation is presumed to improve pay satisfaction, yet there are few demonstrations. A quasi-experimental study examined the effects of job evaluation on pay satisfaction among 200 salaried manufacturing employees. No effect was demonstrated based on analyses of treatment and control groups, level of participation, or differential effects on criteria.


Intentions to Use Feedback to Improve Work Performance

Robert McDonald, SUNY at Albany
Michael J. Kavanagh, SUNY at Albany

This study examined organizational and individual factors that influenced employees’ perceptions about the accuracy of their feedback and intentions to use feedback to improve work performance. Data was collected from 85 department managers who worked in 15 grocery stores. Perceived accuracy of feedback and capacity to improve influenced intentions.



Work Reinvention: Redesigning Jobs to Improve Satisfaction and Efficiency


Frederick P. Morgeson, Purdue University
Michael A. Campion, Purdue University

Although cross-sectional job design research highlights a tradeoff between satisfaction and efficiency-oriented outcomes, the redesign literature is more equivocal. A theoretically based methodology is developed which provides a way to influence both independently. Differential predictions from a longitudinal, quasi-experimental field study strongly support the study’s hypotheses over a 2-year period.


Rules Don’t Always Work: Unexpected Findings in Complex Dynamic Systems

Andrew Neal, University of Queensland
Beryl L. Hesketh, Macquarie University

The study examined the effectiveness of rule-memorization and rule-understanding training in a fire problem involving interactive effects of temperature, windspeed and slope on rate of spread. Rule-training was not superior to no training, with all trainees massively underestimating interactive effects involving transfer to a different area of the problem space.


Contrast, Halo, and Accuracy

Jerry K. Palmer, Georgia Tech
Jack M. Feldman, Georgia Tech
Todd J. Maurer, Georgia Tech

Four datasets from prior studies on contrast effects were combined (N = 620). A strong performance context was found to produce halo in addition to contrast effects; this effect was strongest for a poor performance context. In addition, the "V" relationship (Fisicaro, 1988) between halo and accuracy was found to occur across all performance contexts.


Effect of Incremental Informational Value of ProMES

Feedback on Productivity


Anthony R. Paquin, Illinois Institute of Technology

The goal of this study was to determine if the variability observed in the degree of impact of ProMES on productivity could be attributed to the incremental informational value of ProMES feedback over prior feedback. Results indicated incremental informational value of ProMES feedback was significantly related (r = .60) to productivity gain.


Fairness in Supervisory Behavior: Two Experimental Investigations

Norman E. Perreault, University of Connecticut
Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University
Janet L. Barnes-Farrell, University of Connecticut

Organizational justice theories can provide a basis for understanding workers’ fairness reactions to supervisory activities. Two experimental studies examined the role of supervisory behavioral consistency and social accounts on individuals’ perceptions of fair treatment. Results indicated that these factors influenced workers’ perceptions of procedural and interactional fairness.


The Substantive Nature of Performance:

Interindividual Differences in Intraindividual Performance


Robert E. Ployhart, Michigan State University
Milton D. Hakel, Bowling Green State University

The substantive nature of intraindividual performance variability over time was examined using latent growth curve methodology. Sales performance for securities analysts (n = 303) was measured at eight quarters. A cubic model best explained intraindividual performance, although measures from a biodata inventory accounted for little variance in these change parameters.


Managerial Training Effectiveness: How Far Have We Come?

Anne Reither, Northern Ilinois University
Teresa K. Pappas, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

The purpose of this study was to extend prior research examining managerial training effectiveness across various content areas and methods (e.g., Burke & Day, 1986). Findings of the current meta-analysis identified significant moderator variables that may impact managerial training results. Implications for future research and industry training are discussed.


Team Training Needs Assessment: A Multi-Method Validation

Juan I. Sanchez, Florida International University
Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University

The validity of training need assessments provided by managers of seven facilities was evaluated by (a) a known-group approach and (b) convergence with independent assessments and related hard criteria. It was concluded that aggregation at substantially distinct units of analysis (i.e., plants) may be needed to identify meaningful training needs.


Getting Ahead in Organizations: Instrumentality, Attitudes, and Performance

Robert R. Sinclair, University of Tulsa
Cynthia Banas, University of Tulsa
Cheryl Wright, University of Tulsa

We contend that instrumentality perceptions predict performance, citizenship, and commitment. Study 1 examined the structure and correlates of 18 instrumentality items. Study 2 replicated Study 1 and examined correlations between instrumentality, the FFM, and social desirability. Study 3 reports correlations between self- and supervisor ratings of performance and instrumentality.


Personality Similarity, Liking, and Performance Ratings:

Testing Byrne’s Similarity Hypothesis


Judy Strauss, Augustana College
Mary Connerley, Virginia Tech
Murray R. Barrick, University of Iowa

Byrne hypothesized that similarity leads to positive evaluations and that an affective response mediates the relationship. This study investigated actual and perceived personality similarity effects on performance ratings with liking as the mediating variable. Results indicate that perceived similarity (not actual) related significantly to performance and liking mediated the relationship.


Organizational Citizenship as a Source of Unwanted Rating Variance

Lorne Sulsky, University of Calgary
Daniel Skarlicki, University of Calgary
Janine Keown, University of Calgary

We examined whether organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) performed by ratees would influence supervisor ratings of in-role behavior and attenuate the effectiveness of frame-of-reference (FOR) training for improving performance rating accuracy. Results indicated that OCBs influenced in-role ratings and affected the efficacy of FOR training for improving accuracy.


Identifying Categories of OCB Using Hierarchical Clustering

Thomas D. Taber, SUNY at Albany

Our literature review cataloged 100 different OCBs proposed by researchers. The behaviors were inductively content-sorted by multiple raters, then analyzed using agglomerative hierarchical clustering. The analyses identified new forms of citizenship behavior, confirmed OCB types proposed by theorists, and suggested modifications to others. Identifying distinct clusters of OCBs may help clarify the motivational bases of each type.


Training Effectiveness Using a Self-Generation Approach

Jonathan E. Turner, Old Dominion University
Debra A. Major, Old Dominion University

This study compared the effects of training using self-generated strategies on a complex task to having those strategies explicitly provided on self-efficacy, performance, and transfer. Results showed that generation was superior to the explicitly provided strategies on performance and transfer. However, no differences were found for self-efficacy. Implications for training are discussed.


The Effects of Incentive-Based Benefits on Fairness, Climate, and Health

Dierdre Wasson, Michigan State University
Daniel R. Ilgen, Michigan State University
Ellen Ernst Kossek, Michigan State University
Jack Knott, Michigan State University

This study compares the effects of two types of benefits programs on fairness perceptions, climate, and health in two organizations, one using a traditional program and the other using a new program where employees are differentially charged for health insurance based on their overall health.


Development and Validation of a Transfer of Retraining Climate Scale

Marsha B. Welles, First Tennessee Bank
Charles E. Lance, University of Georgia
Michael J. Kavanagh, SUNY at Albany

Research has documented the significant transfer of training problem experienced in organizations and has further established the significance of post-training environment variables as hindering or optimizing positive transfer of training. This study extends the research by developing and validating a transfer of lateral cross-job retraining climate scale.


Reducing Performance Cue Effects: An Intervention Attempt

Boris B. Baltes, Northern Illinois University
Chris P. Parker, Northern Illinois University

Prior research has not successfully mitigated the performance cue effect (PCE). This study addressed this shortcoming by testing a structured free recall intervention strategy. The intervention was successful at reducing the PCE, and future uses of this intervention are discussed.

38. Practitioner Forum: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50                                               Governors

Applications of I-O Psychology in a Global Marketplace

I-O as a profession has the opportunity to make unique and important contributions to organizations working in a global marketplace. To help corporations address their critical business issues in today’s global environment, I-O psychology needs to apply and adapt traditional methodologies.

Karen Schneider, Motorola, Co-Chair
William H. Mobley, Personnel Decisions International Global Research Consortia, Co-Chair
Daniel B. Turban, University of Missouri, Recruiting College Graduates in the People’s Republic of China
Alison R. Eyring, Caltex Petroleum Corp, Integrating HR Systems with a Competency Framework: A Case in
            Asia and the Middle East and Africa
Karen Schneider, University of Houston, Linking Cross-cultural Competence with Expatriate Selection: It’s
            About Time
William H. Mobley, Personnel Decisions International Global Research Consortia, I-O Psychology and
            International Joint Ventures

39. Symposium: Friday, 3:30 - 5:20                                                               Senators

Grouping Jobs: Technical Approaches and Practical Advice

This symposium focuses on methods and techniques for defining job domains and for creating sensible and useful job families. Practical advice will be offered to guide applied researchers through the challenging (and often seemingly mystical) process of developing job title structures and job families.

Gary W. Carter, Personnel Decision Research Institutes, Chair
Leissa Nelson, University of Minnesota, Gary W. Carter, Personnel Decision Research Institutes, Alberto J.
            Galu, GTE Telephone Operations, An Application of a Model for Defining the Job Domain
S. Morton McPhail, Jeanneret & Associates, Mark H. Strong, Jeanneret & Associates, Practical Considerations
            for Job Grouping Analyses
U. Christean Kubisiak, University of South Florida, Walter C. Borman, University of South Florida, Mary Ann
            Hanson, Personnel Decision Research Institutes, Job Clustering Using the O*NET
Mary Ann Statman, HumRRO, Tirso Diaz, HumRRO, Robert A. Ramos, HumRRO, Application of a Cluster
            Analysis Validation Method to Form Job Families in a Telecommunications Setting
Michael D. Coovert, University of South Florida, Alisa Dobbins, University of South Florida, Uncovering Job
            Classification Decisions
Kenneth Pearlman, Lucent Techologies, Discussant

40. Panel Discussion: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50                                      Peacock Terrace

Team Research: Methodology and Measurement Challenges

The wealth of articles about teams illustrates the diversity of conceptual models, methods, and measurements used to study teams. Panelists will present current methods and measures used in their respective research programs, offer their perspectives on methodology and measurement issues critical to team research, and discuss challenges for future research.

Sharon Arad, Personnel Decision Research Institutes, Co-Chair
Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Co-Chair
Eduardo Salas, Naval Air Warfare Center, Panelist
John R. Hollenbeck, Michigan State University, Panelist
Michael West, Institute of Work Psychology, Panelist
Diane Bailey, University of Southern California, Panelist

41. Special Event: Friday, 3:30 - 4:20                                                      Manchester

1997 Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award winner:

Our Theories Are About Constructs:

Why Do We Study Single Behaviors?

Early theorists (Hull, Thurstone) and contemporary writers (Azjen, Wicker) have argued that single behaviors tell us little about individuals’ orientations toward an object. The affective value of patterns of behaviors, not single behaviors, reveals individuals’ orientations toward an object that should generalize across situations and time.

Daniel R. Ilgen, Michigan State University, Chair
Charles L. Hulin, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Presenter

42. Symposium: Friday, 3:30 - 5:20                                                                        Miro

Greasing the Wicket: Addressing Some Sticky Issues in Modern Data Analysis

The purpose of this symposium is to address a variety of "sticky" issues that arise in data analytic procedures such as mediated regression, SEM, power analysis, and other procedures commonly used by SIOP members. The papers presented will be of interest to anyone, be they academic or nonacademic, who employs these procedures.

Jos M. Cortina, George Mason University, Chair
Stanley M. Gully, George Mason University, Michael R. Frone, Research Institute on Addictions, Jeffrey R.
            Edwards, University of North Carolina, Problems and Pitfalls in Mediational Tests
Jeffrey R. Edwards, University of North Carolina, Richard P. Bagozzi, University of Michigan, The Nature and
                Direction of the Relationship Between Latent and Manifest Variables: Implications for Construct
Richard P. DeShon, Michigan State University, Do Structural Equation Models Correct for Measurement Error
Jos M. Cortina, George Mason University, On the Inferences Drawn from Statistical Power Values
Herman Aguinis, University of Colorado at Denver, Robert J. Boik, Montana State University, Charles A. Pierce,
                Montana State University, Estimating the Statistical Power of Differential Prediction Analysis
Lawrence R. James, University of Tennessee, Discussant

43. Panel Discussion: Friday, 3:30 - 5:20                                              Metropolitan

Career Paths in I-O Psychology: Expanding the Horizons

Training in I-O psychology allows many career paths. This panel discussion explores the career alternatives some of our more successful women and men have taken during their professional lives. The panel members will answer a series of questions related to career choices and issues. Audience participation will be encouraged.

Ronald G. Downey, Kansas State University, Chair
Nita R. French, French & Associates, Panelist
Laura L. Koppes, Tri-State University, Panelist
Manuel London, SUNY-Stony Brook, Panelist
Frank L. Schmidt, University of Iowa, Panelist
Mary L. Tenopyr, AT&T, Panelist
Nancy T. Tippins, GTE Telephone Operations, Panelist
Vicki V. Vandaveer, The Vandaveer Group, Panelist

44. Symposium: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50                                                                    Monet

What Causes Behavior? Contemporary Viewpoints on

Personality, Situation, and P-O Fit

I-O psychologists have long debated about the causes of employee behavior. In this symposium we present current research on how the person, the situation, and Person-Organization (P-O) fit influence behavior in organizations. The effects of dispositions, personal identity, and climate on employee behavior will be discussed.

Barry M. Staw, University of California at Berkeley, Chair and Discussion Facilitator
Jennifer M. George, Texas A & M University, Positive Affectivity, Negative Affectivity, and Emotional
Robert T. Hogan, University of Tulsa, Personality and Organizational Behavior
David V. Day, Pennsylvania State University, Paul Tesluk, Tulane University, Person-Organization Fit and the
            Interpersonal Circumplex
Sandra Kim, University of Maryland, Amy N. Salvaggio, University of Maryland, Benjamin Schneider, University
            of Maryland, Personality, Behavior and Organizational Climate

45. Panel Discussion: Friday, 3:30 - 5:20                                                     Morocco

Psychological Contracts: Pitfalls and Opportunities

Psychological contracts are increasingly the focus of the popular press as well as the scientific literature. Panelists will (a) discuss existing conceptual and empirical literature on psychological contracts, (b) identify issues that haven’t been addressed well or at all and (c) propose new directions for research, theory, and practice.

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston, Co-Chair
Lynn M. Shore, Georgia State University, Co-Chair
Russell S. Cropanzano, Colorado State University, Panelist
Jone L. Pearce, University of California, Irvine, Panelist
Sandra Robinson, University of British Columbia, Panelist
M. Susan Taylor, University of Maryland, Panelist

46. Symposium: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50                                                      Obelisk A & B

Technological Advances in Human Resource Assessment

Technological advances continue to improve the quality and reduce the costs of human resource assessment systems. This symposium will review recent research in this area including administering tests over the telephone, using image scanning to distribute written responses to remote raters, and using the computer to score written responses.

Scott L. Martin, NCS/London House, Chair
W. Grant Pierce, NCS/London House, Scott L. Martin, NCS/London House, Examining the Validity of a
            Telephone-Administered Selection Instrument
Wayne J. Camara, The College Board, Generational Changes in Future Assessments: Capabilities Emerging
            from New Technologies
R. Robert Rentz, R & R Research, StarNET’s Image Scoring Intranet
Fritz Drasgow, University of Illinois, Discussant

47. Symposium: Friday, 3:30 - 5:20                                                                 Rosetta

The Safety Spectrum: Research and Application From

Multiple Perspectives and Levels of Analysis

Researchers, practitioners, and researcher/practitioner teams working from different theoretical perspectives report innovative field studies in occupational safety from the individual to market level of analysis. Suggestions for successful interventions, new measurement strategies and theoretical advances are developed from these research and application programs.

Jennifer D. Bragger, Montclair State University, Chair
Josh Williams, Virginia Tech, Jason P. DePasquale, Safety Performance Solutions, E. Scott Geller, Virginia Tech,
            The Impact of Global Versus Specific Behavioral Feedback in Influencing Organizational Safety
Michael O’Toole, Purdue University - Calumet, Successful Safety Committees: Participation, not Legislation
David A. Hofmann, Texas A & M University, Frederick P. Morgeson, Purdue University, Safety-Related
            Behavior as a Social Exchange: The Role of Leader-Member Exchange and Perceived Organizational
Donald A. Hantula, Temple University, Jonathan Krispin, Prestolite Wire Corporation, R. Wayne Clifton, CIGNA,
            The 12 Pillars of Safety Climate
Dee T. Smoot, Liberty Mutual Group, Increasing Safe Performance that Decreases the Cost of Risk: A
            Correlation Model

48. Special Event: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50                                                                 Wyeth

Ad Hoc Committee on Ethnic Minority Participation

The hosts of this session will provide a brief history of the SIOP Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs and discuss 1997-98 developments. Following this brief presentation, roundtable participants will discuss future directions for the Committee. The main goal of this discussion is to place volunteer names alongside specific proposed projects. All minority and non-minority conference participants interested in ethnic minority issues are encouraged to attend. It is anticipated that informal dialogue on the issues will continue in a reception that will follow the roundtable.

Robert A. Ramos, HumRRO, Co-Host
Jim Outtz, Outtz & Associates, Co-Host
Beth Chung, Cornell University, Co-Host

49. Special Event: Friday, 5:00 - 6:00                                                       Wedgwood

New Member Social Hour

All SIOP members are invited to attend the "New Member" Social Hour. Meet new acquaintances, renew old ones, and learn more about SIOP in an informal and relaxed atmosphere.

50. Special Event: Friday, 5:00 - 6:00                                                 Cardinal A & B

Ad Hoc Committee on Ethnic Minority Participation Social Hour

All minority and non-minority conference participants are invited to attend a reception that will follow a roundtable discussion on ethnic minority issues. We anticipate a lively informal dialogue on the diversity issues facing SIOP.

51. Special Event: Friday, 5:00 - 5:50                                                       Manchester

Memorial for Richard J. Campbell

Come join colleagues and friends in remembering the life of Richard Campbell, past SIOP president and scientist/practitioner deluxe.

George P. Hollenbeck, Hollenbeck Associates, Chair

Evening Reception: Friday, 6:00 - 8:00                                           Grand Ballroom

Friday AM

Saturday AM

Saturday PM

Sunday AM

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