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20. Symposium: Friday, 12:00 - 1:20 Marquis IV

False Issues and New Perspectives: Realigning
Recruiting Research for the 21st Century

Interest in recruiting appears to be at an all-time high. The current symposium brings together theory, research, and practical ideas about recruiting. The various perspectives offered establish a comprehensive knowledge base that will help both academics and practitioners move recruiting into the 21st century.

Mary L. Connerley, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Chair

Kurt Kraiger, University of Colorado–Denver, False Issues in Recruiting

Kevin D. Carlson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Mary L. Connerley, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Reconceptualizing Recruiting: A Process Model of Recruiting Strategy Development

Daniel M. Cable, University of North Carolina, Opening the "Black Box" in the Recruitment Literature Through a Brand Equity Perspective

Chris Collins, University of Maryland, Cynthia Kay Stevens, University of Maryland, Initial Organizational Images and Recruitment: A Within-Subjects Investigation of the Factors Affecting Job Choices

James A. Breaugh, University of Missouri–St Louis, Discussant

Daniel B. Turban, University of Missouri, Discussant


21. Symposium: Friday, 12:00 - 1:20 Madrid/Trinidad

Using Computers for Training Delivery: Cbt, Wbt, Isd, and Me

This symposium will examine the use of computers as a medium for training delivery. Each paper examines real-life applications of computer-based (CBT) or web-based (WBT) training and draws on theory and research to address practical issues in the instructional systems design (ISD) processes of needs assessment, design, implementation, and evaluation.

Sandra L. Fisher, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Co-Chair

Kenneth G. Brown, University of Iowa, Co-Chair

Ann W. Howell, Strategic Interactive, Hyperlinking to Success: Designing Web-Based Training for Individual and Organizational Success

Kenneth G. Brown, University of Iowa, Individual Differences and Success in Web-Based Training

Sandra L. Fisher, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Amy L. Unckless, Towers Perrin, Evaluating Computer-Based Training in a Multi-faceted Learning Environment

J. Kevin Ford, Michigan State University, Discussant

Stuart Gittelman, Interactive Media, Discussant


22. Symposium: Friday, 12:00 - 1:20 Consulate

Emerging Topics in the Careers Landscape:
New Concepts, Approaches, & Discoveries

Employees’ career experiences have changed dramatically in two decades, impelling an emergence of "new" topics in the careers literature, as well as new approaches to "older" career issues. This symposium discusses five emerging topics in today’s career landscape: managerial career paths, work-life balance, relocation, contingent work, and psychological contracts.

Cynthia A. Prehar, Colorado State University, Chair

Joy Schneer, Rider University, Frieda Reitman, Pace University, Managerial Careers: Are They Following a New Path?

Karen J. Crooker, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Faye L. Smith, Emporia State University, Filiz Tabak, Towson University, Tidy Lives: Exploring the Relationship between Resource Munificence and Engagement Dissonance

Cynthia A. Prehar, Colorado State University, A Longitudinal Investigation of Relocation Behaviors and Willingness to Relocate

Deborah L. Kidder, University of Connecticut, Alternative Career Experiences: A Comparison of Full-Time and Temporary Nurses

Lynn M. Shore, Georgia State University, Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston, Kevin Barksdale, The Hutton Group, Transactional and Relational Exchange Relationships

Linda K. Stroh, Loyola University Chicago, Discussant

Belle Rose Ragins, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Discussant


23. Roundtable: Friday, 12:00 - 1:20 Sydney

The Employment Interview: Current Issues in Research and Practice

The reputation of the employment interview has been greatly enhanced in the last 10 years, but many questions remain unanswered. The purpose of this roundtable is for both practitioners and researchers to discuss important remaining issues such as barriers to structured interviewing.

Michael M. Harris, University of Missouri, Co-Host

Robert W. Eder, Portland State University, Co-Host


24. Panel Discussion: Friday, 12:00 - 12:50 Intl Salon G

Strategies for Development and Distribution of Psychological Measures

Test developers are confronted with the issue of how to market and maintain their instruments. Panelists representing three possible models for resolving this issue will share their perspectives. This discussion will help panelists and audience members understand the benefits and drawbacks of each model.

William K. Balzer, Bowling Green State University, Co-Chair

Karen Ury, Bowling Green State University, Co-Chair

Peter D. Bachiochi, Eastern Connecticut State University, Panelist

Kimberly R. Brinkmeyer, CDR Assessment Group, Panelist

Sandra E. Parham, SHL Landy Jacobs, Inc., Panelist


25. Roundtable: Friday, 12:00 - 1:20 Sydney

I-O Psychology and Small Business: Size Does Not Matter

This roundtable will discuss the use of I-O practices in small businesses and identify ways we can assist these businesses or any organization faced with the dilemma of small samples. Topics for discussion include job analysis, validation, technical feasibility, and costs associated with I-O practices in small businesses.

Jared D. Lock, Jeanneret & Associates, Co-Host

Mark H. Strong, Jeanneret & Associates, Co-Host


26. Practitioner Forum: Friday, 12:30 - 1:20 Marquis IIIv

"Best Practices" for Enhancing Assessment Validity
Through Rater Selection and Training

Many assessment procedures depend heavily on the accuracy of rater judgments. Historically, suggestions for reducing rater errors have focused on rater training and the structure of assessment devices. This forum examines current issues in rater accuracy and suggests practical ways, through examples of "best practices," to deal with these issues.

Elizabeth B. Kolmstetter, FBI, Chair

Russell E. Lobsenz, FBI, Selecting the Best to Select the Best

Christopher T. Rotolo, Sirota Consulting Group, It Is Never Too Late For Agreement: Enhancing Inter-Rater Agreement During the Assessment Process

Jill K. Wheeler, GEICO, Laura S. Hamill, Microsoft Corporation, Practical Considerations Related to Interviewer and Assessor Training


27. Panel Discussion: Friday, 12:30 - 1:50 Intl Salon A

International Global Perspectives on Issues in I-O Psychology

The panel will present a global perspective on current I-O topics and discuss ways in which membership in the Organizational Psychology Division of the International Association of Applied Psychology can facilitate SIOP members’ learning and research on global issues. Members of the division’s Executive Committee will lead the discussion.

Virginia E. Schein, Gettysburg College, Chair

Miriam Erez, Technion Institute of Technology, Panelist

H. Peter Dachler, University of St. Gallen, Panelist

Weining C. Chang, National University of Singapore, Panelist


28. Symposium: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50 Copenhagenv

Air Traffic Selection and Training Project

In a large-scale research project, computerized predictors for FAA Air Traffic Controllers were developed and validated. The test battery included simulation, multitasking, scanning, memory, math, and personality tests to capture the unique set of abilities required by controllers. The criteria consisted of multi-source performance ratings and two computer simulations. The unique job under investigation and organizational context issues presented many challenges to the researchers. Statistically significant relations between predictor and criterion measures were found.

Robert A. Ramos, HumRRO, Chair

Robert A. Ramos, HumRRO, AT-SAT: Overview of an Ambitious Project

Ned Reese, Federal Aviation Administration, AT-SAT: Organizational Context Issues

Walter C. Borman, University of South Florida/Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Jerry W. Hedge, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Mary Ann Hanson, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Kenneth T. Bruskiewicz, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Henry Mogilka, Federal Aviation Administration, Carol Manning, Federal Aviation Administration, Laura Bunch, University of South Florida/Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Kristen Horgen, University of South Florida/Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Development and Construct Validation of Air Traffic Controller Criterion Measures

Lauress Wise, HumRRO, William F. Kieckhaefer, RGI, Inc., Janis S. Houston, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Development of Air Traffic Controller Predictor Battery

Ray Morath, Caliber Associates, J. Anthony Bayless, Caliber Associates, Claudette Archambault, Caliber Associates, Linkage of AT-SAT Predictors to Controller Worker Requirements

Gordon Waugh, HumRRO, Lauress Wise, HumRRO, Doug Quartetti, HumRRO, Robert A. Ramos, HumRRO, Validation of the Air Traffic Controller Predictor Tests

Michael C. Heil, Federal Aviation Administration, Rebecca Agen, Federal Aviation Administration, Clara Williams, Federal Aviation Administration, The Effects of Practice and Coaching on Personnel Selection Decision Making


29. Panel Discussion: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50 Intl Salon B

Mergers, Acquisitions, and the Human Resource Function in Organizations

The role of human resource personnel during organizational mergers is becoming more widely recognized. Six I-O psychologists who have consulted with and experienced merging organizations will discuss their role in mergers and the manner in which these events affect, and are affected by, human resource activities.

Barbara L. Kruse, LOMA, Chair

Dennis Adsit, Rath & Strong, Panelist

David P. Jones, Aon Consulting, Panelist

Lisa Bordinat, Aon Consulting, Panelist

Bruce N. Barge, Aon Consulting, Panelist

Nancy T. Tippins, GTE, Panelist


30. Symposium: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50 Intl Salon D

Recent Advances in Knowledge About Retirement Decisions and Behaviors

As the available workforce ages, it becomes imperative for organizations to develop a clear understanding of issues that affect workers’ retirement decisions and post-retirement behaviors. This symposium presents recent empirical research that sheds new light on individual, organizational and environmental variables that play a role in retirement decisions and outcomes.

Janet L. Barnes-Farrell, University of Connecticut, Co-Chair

Kenneth S. Shultz, California State University–San Bernardino, Co-Chair

Gary A. Adams, University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh, Julie Prescher, University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh, Terry A. Beehr, Central Michigan University, Lawrence Lepisto, Central Michigan University, Applying Work-Role Attachment Theory to Retirement Decision-making

Janet L. Barnes-Farrell, University of Connecticut, Angela Lynch, IBM Global Employee Research, R. James Holzworth, University of Connecticut, The Decision to Retire Early: A Social Judgment Analysis

Kenneth S. Shultz, California State University–San Bernardino, The Influence of Health and Voluntariness on Retirement Decisions

Thomas Stetz, U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Terry A. Beehr, Central Michigan University, Environment and Retirement: Environmental Munificence, Dynamism, and Local Area Unemployment Rate as Predictors of Women’s Retirement

Tracy L. Lindbo, California State University–San Bernardino, Kenneth S. Shultz, California State University–San Bernardino, Modeling Individuals’ Post-Retirement Behaviors Toward Their Former Organization

James L. Farr, Pennsylvania State University, Discussant


31. Symposium: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50 Intl Salon E

Criterion-Related Validation Puzzles: Understanding
Predictor Constructs in Context

Published criterion-related validation research focuses on statistically significant results that affect the use of predictor measures for selection. But it is not uncommon in practice for validation results to be nonsignificant or opposite those expected. This symposium will describe several such "puzzling" findings and discuss their usefulness beyond selection applications.

Robert G. Jones, Southwest Missouri State University, Chair

Michael J. Stevens, Psychological Associates, Inc., Discussant


32. Poster Session: Friday, 1:00 - 2:50 Intl Hall South Foyer

Performance Appraisal, Statistics, and Research Methods

 

32-1

1999 John Flanagan Award for Outstanding Student Contribution
to the SIOP Conference

Person-Job Matching in the Context of Computerized Career Information Delivery

Chris Kubisiak, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes/University of South Florida

Mary Ann Hanson, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes

Daren E. Buck, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes

This poster describes the evaluation of several algorithms used to match workers to occupations using quantitative job-descriptive data. The results suggest that an innovative, flexible, two-stage methodology that incorporates score profile and level information at separate points in the analysis yielded the best potential person-job matches.

 

32-2

The Impact of Same-Sex LMX Dyads on Performance Evaluations

Arup Varma, Loyola University

Linda K. Stroh, Loyola University–Chicago

In a field study, the authors explored the hypothesis that females are often rated lower than male employees as a result of the dyad composition, rather than simply a case of male discrimination against female subordinates. Results confirmed that both male and female supervisors exhibit positive bias toward subordinates of the same sex.

 

32-3

Assessing and Testing Interrater Agreement in Multi-Item Rating Scales

Michael K. Lindell, Texas A&M University

Interrater agreement in multi-item rating scales was examined by using the variance of respondents’ mean scale scores as the numerator and four different random response terms as the denominator. All four variants were inferior to the r*WG index, which divides the average item variance by the variance of uniformly distributed responses across items.

 

32-4

Impression Management by Association: Construction and Validation of a Scale

Martha Andrews, Florida State University

K. Michele Kacmar, Florida State University

This paper presents a scale development effort for indirect impression management tactics identified and conceptualized by Cialdini (1989). The scale was designed to measure the connection-focused tactics of boasting, blurring, blaring, and burying. Factor analyses of two separate data collections indicated four factors representing each of the a priori components.

 

32-5

A Comparison of Three Impression Management Scales

K. Michele Kacmar, Florida State University

Dawn S. Carlson, University of Utah

A general model of impression management was used to test three different impression management scales that encompassed a variety of impression management tactics. Results from 203 matched pairs of supervisors and
subordinates showed that similar measures of tactics across the three scales did not always work in the same way. Implications of these differences and opportunities for future research are discussed.

 

32-6

Moderated Multiple Regression Tests Are Criterion Specific

Ronald S. Landis, Tulane University

William P. Dunlap, Tulane University

This paper demonstrates how the form of the interaction term impacts results in moderated multiple regression (MMR). Examples illustrate that alternative analyses in which predictor and criterion terms are inverted are not symmetrical and that a significant interaction may be observed in one case but not the other.

 

32-7

Feedback Seeking and the Relationship Between
Self-Supervisor Performance Ratings

Benjamin B. Dunford, Cornell University

Jane Williams, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis

This study examined the influence of feedback seeking on the relationship between self- and supervisory performance ratings of 200 nurse-supervisor dyads. Contrary to predictions, results suggested that the relationship was strongest for individuals who sought feedback less frequently. Tenure and the self-regulation process are used as explanatory mechanisms for this finding.

 

32-8

Examination of the Feedback-Seeking Process:
The Effect of Source-Supportiveness

Jami Thomas, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis

Jane Williams, Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis

The current research study examined the feedback-seeking process to clarify how managerial behaviors influence feedback-seeking costs and feedback-seeking frequency. Results suggested that a source who promotes and is supportive of feedback-seeking can positively influence perceptions of feedback-seeking costs and feedback-seeking frequency, even for participants with negative performance expectancies.

 

32-9

Latent Growth Models of Individual Change: The Case of Newcomer Adjustment

Charles E. Lance, University of Georgia

Robert J. Vandenberg, University of Georgia

The current study examined the work adjustment of newcomers over a 6-month period. Adjustment was operationalized as individual change using a latent growth modeling approach. Antecedents to as well as consequences of adjustment were introduced into the model using second-order factoring procedures. Substantive and methodological implications are discussed.

 

32-10

Understanding Disagreement Across Rating Sources: An Assessment
of the Measurement Equivalence of Raters

M. Kathleen Sheehan, Texas A&M University

David J. Woehr, Texas A&M University

Winston R. Bennett, Air Force Research Laboratory

Relations among ratings of multiple performance dimensions by multiple rating sources are examined. Confirmatory factor analysis is used to evaluate a series of models representing levels of measurement equivalence across rating sources. Results indicate the relative impact of dimension, rating source, and unique effects on ratings. Implications for practice (e.g., 360 feedback systems) are considered.

 

32-11

Personal Characteristics and Rater Congruence in Multi-Rater Feedback

James H. Brooks, DePaul University

Alice F. Stuhlmacher, DePaul University

The congruence of managerial self-ratings with supervisor and peer ratings was compared for overall performance, contextual performance and task performance. Underraters received the highest ratings for nearly all performance ratings. Overraters scored higher on conscientiousness than in-agreement or underraters. No difference in extraversion between congruence categories was found.

 

32-12

FOR and FOR/Observational Trainings’ Effects on Rating Accuracy and Recall

Brian J. O’Sullivan, Illinois Institute of Technology

Sylvia Roch, Illinois Institute of Technology

The effect of FOR and FOR/Observational training on rating accuracy and behavioral recall were examined. Results suggest that FOR training is a robust procedure that increases rating accuracy and allows for effects to be maintained over time. In addition, the inclusion of observational training may increase behavioral recall.

 

32-13

Rater Variability Training: An Alternative to Rater
Error Training and Frame-of-Reference Training

Neil M. A. Hauenstein, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Jeffrey D. Facteau, Auburn University

Jean-Anne H. Schmidt, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

A new rater training paradigm, rater variability training (RVT), was evaluated against frame-of-reference training (FOR), rater error training (RET), and structure of training (SOT) using Cronbach’s (1955) deviational accuracy components. Results indicate that RET is detrimental to dimensional accuracy. Results indicate no empirical distinction between RVT and FOR. Implications for rater training programs are discussed.

 

32-14

Rater Ability and Motivation Effects on Self-Appraisal Accuracy

Timothy P. McGonigle, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Neil M. A. Hauenstein, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Influences on performance appraisal accuracy have been categorized as ability-based and motivation-based. This study investigates the effects of rater ability and motivation (goal orientation) on self-appraisal accuracy. Results indicate that rater training strategies (i.e., FOR Training) can serve to improve self-appraisal accuracy.

 

32-15

Role Conflict and Feedback-Seeking Behavior
as Moderators in 360-Degree Assessments

Stacy L. Jackson, Washington University in St. Louis

The current study investigated the moderating effects of role conflict and feedback seeking on the relationship between self and other responses to a 360-degree assessment. Data from 350 participants produced 839 assessments (86% return rate). Results indicated partial support for effects of role conflict and weak support for effects of feedback seeking.

 

32-16

Statistically Correcting Rater Bias in
Multi-Rater Performance Appraisal Systems

Delbert M. Nebeker, California School of Professional Psychology

Paul Christensen, California School of Professional Psychology

Lee E. Maes, California School of Professional Psychology

Christopher Stephens, California School of Professional Psychology

What can be done to eliminate or reduce rater bias in performance appraisal and rating systems? Bias within rating systems is one of the most persistent criticisms of performance appraisal systems. Linear regression was found to be a remarkably robust means to identify and correct systematic rater bias in multiple raters systems.

 

32-17

Implications of Imprecision in Psychological Measurement
for Moderated Multiple Regression

William M. Rogers, Grand Valley State University

By reconceptualizing the interval-ordinal scale dichotomy as a continuum of precision, this study demonstrates that the interpretability of interaction effect size is based on the measurement precision of both predictor and criterion. The use of non-interval measurement scales in interactive models poses problems for the meaningful interpretation of moderator effects.

 

32-18

Assessing the Robustness of Previous Supervisory Performance Rating Models

Gary J. Greguras, Louisiana State University

William K. Balzer, Bowling Green State University

Several models of supervisory performance ratings exist. These models generally have not been cross-validated or replicated. The current study assessed their robustness by testing their structural models using a different sample and data collection design. Results differed depending upon the criterion used for assessing model fit.

 

32-19

An Integrated and Expanded Model of Supervisory Performance Ratings

Gary J. Greguras, Louisiana State University

William K. Balzer, Bowling Green State University

To better understand the factors that influence supervisory performance ratings, the current study hypothesized a model that integrated previous supervisory rating models and expanded them to include a more comprehensive set of ratee, rater, and contextual characteristics. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit the data reasonably well.

32-20

Strategic Issues in Reducing the Length of Psychological Measures

Evan F. Sinar, Bowling Green State University

Amanda L. Julian, Bowling Green State University

Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University

William K. Balzer, Bowling Green State University

Patricia C. Smith, Bowling Green State University

Luis F. Parra, William M. Mercer, Inc.

Despite the benefits of instrument brevity, literature is scarce on optimal methods for reducing scale length. Using the JDI Norming Sample (N = 1512), we explicate conceptual and empirical frameworks for item evaluation and propose alternative strategies for scale reduction. We discuss implications for researchers or practitioners shortening psychological instruments.

 

32-21

System Knowledge, Fairness, and Beliefs About OCB:
Organizational Implications

Chera L. Haworth, University of Akron

Paul E. Levy, University of Akron

This study investigated the relationships among procedural justice (PJ), perceived system knowledge (PSK), and Beliefs about OCBs, and their relationships with OCBs. Results extended previous research to show that the effect of PJ on OCBs is not simple, but rather interacts with both system knowledge and OCB Beliefs to affect exhibition of OCBs.

 

32-22

Examining Self-Appraisal Formality and Expectations on Appraisal Reactions

Lisa Keeping, University of Akron

Paul E. Levy, University of Akron

Douglas J. Brown, University of Akron

Employees who were asked to formally self-appraise were compared to those who informally engaged in self-appraisal. Results indicated that those who formally self-appraised expressed more positive appraisal reactions than informal self-appraisers, but these effects were attenuated when employees did not expect their self-ratings to be considered by their managers.

 

32-23

360-Degree Feedback Ratings: Effects of Method of Rater Selection

Kim Stepanski, Wayne State University

Sebastiano A. Fisicaro, Wayne State University

Five types of raters provided feedback ratings to managers. Ratees selected client raters in 1996 and 1997; ratees selected peer and subordinate raters in 1996, but not 1997. Self, supervisor, and client ratings did not vary from 1996 to 1997; however, peer and subordinate ratings were higher for 1996 than 1997.

 

32-24

Differential Comparsion Standards and Subjective
Occupational Effects on Performace Ratings

Jamie Kieffer, Our Lady of the Lake Regional Medical Center

Brian W. Schrader, Emporia State University

Examined the effects of six differential comparison standards on the level of inter-rater agreement between self- and supervisory performance ratings within the context of a subjectively evaluated occupation. Results indicated differential comparison standards did cause inter-rater agreement to change when evaluating occupations that rely on subjective criteria.

 

32-25

Motivated Reasoning and Bias Correction in Performance Appraisal:
A Test Involving Mixed Rating Motives

James M. Wilkerson, Georgia Institute of Technology

Christina E. Shalley, Georgia Institute of Technology

This research addresses how motivated reasoning and bias correction impact performance appraisal accuracy and leniency. Ninety-one participants rated an instructor’s performance under variable strengths of pitted rating goals. Support for the notion of accuracy goals enhancing biased reasoning was found, as well as some support for bias correction hypotheses.

 

32-26

A Comparison of Missing Data Techniques in Small Samples

Daniel P. Russell, American Institutes for Research/Aon Consulting

The present study examines many of the techniques currently used to deal with missing data. Those considered here are: listwise deletion, pairwise deletion, mean imputation, hot deck imputation, regression imputation, and maximum likelihood estimation via the EM algorithm. Factors affecting the estimation of missing data are examined and discussed.

 

32-27

The Effects of Similarity and Attributions on Performance Appraisal

Kerry A. Delbridge, Michigan State University

Richard P. DeShon, Michigan State University

This study examined the effect of rater-ratee similarity on performance appraisal, mediated by rater attributions. Results indicated the use of actual similarity alone was problematic whereas a model incorporating perceived similarity and liking better fit the data. The mediating effects of attributions allow a better understanding of the underlying processes.

 

32-28

Relative Influence of Direct and Indirect Observations on Performance Ratings

Timothy D. Golden, University of Connecticut

Janet L. Barnes-Farrell, University of Connecticut

Increasingly supervisors are forced to rely upon indirect performance information when constructing ratings. This study investigates the relative contribution of directly and indirectly observed performance to evaluations of the overall performance of workers. Results reveal a bias in the direction of information observed directly, regardless of the level of performance.

 

32-29

Can Accountability Assure the Accuracy of Upward Appraisals?

Denise Haeggberg, The Ohio University

Peter Y. Chen, The Ohio University

Scott Finlinson, The Ohio University

Rowland P. Hanley, The Ohio University

Observational and rating accuracy of upward appraisal under the conditions of accountability and expected future interaction was investigated utilizing a team decision simulation. Anonymous team members were more accurate on observational accuracy indexes but made more errors on rating accuracy indexes than accountable team members.

 

32-30

A Re-Examination of Schriesheim and Hinkin’s (1990)
Measure of Upward Influence

Wayne A. Hochwarter, University of Alabama

Allison W. Harrison, Mississippi State University

Gerald R. Ferris, University of Illinois

Pamela L. Perrew, Florida State University

David A. Ralston, University of Connecticut

This article reexamines a taxonomy originally presented by Kipnis, et al. (1980) and modified by Schriesheim and Hinkin (1990). We assess the factor structure, convergent, and discriminant validity of the 18-item, six-factor measure. Although concerns regarding lower than acceptable reliability estimates and item cross loadings surface, overall findings generally support the validity of the measure.

 

32-31

Sample Size Required for Adverse Impact Analysis

Scott B. Morris, Illinois Institute of Technology

Describes a method for computing the minimum sample size needed to test for adverse impact with adequate statistical power. The required sample size is often extremely large, particularly when the overall selection rate and the proportion of minority applicants are small.

 

32-32

Rater-Ratee Race Effects on Performance Ratings
for Understudied Ethnic Groups

Kathleen Tuzinski, University of Minnesota

Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota

Previous research on race effects in performance ratings have examined Black-White differences. We explore whether Black results generalize to Asians and Hispanics. 44,925 managers were rated by 231,350 supervisors, peers, and subordinates. Hispanic results approximated Black results; differences were found for Asians. Researchers must be cautious generalizing Black and Hispanic research findings to Asians.

 

32-33

Evaluating Gender Biases on Actual Job Performance of Real People

Chieh-Chen Bowen, Cleveland State University

This study examines gender biases on job performance in work settings where confounding variables were cautiously taken into consideration to ensure fair comparisons. Overall, we found very little evidence of gender bias in performance appraisals. However, individual moderators, such as measure-specific gender stereotypicality and raters’ gender showed significant gender bias in performance appraisals.

 

32-34

Gender and Ethnicity-Based Differential Item Functioning
on the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery

Shanan Gibson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Item Response Theory methodologies were used to examine the potential for scale-level bias on multiple versions of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery. Although substantial levels of differential item functioning were found, results at the scale level were mixed, with some tests favoring the majority and some the minority group.

 

32-35

Social Power in Teams: The Effects on Peer Rating Behavior

Stacy E. McManus, University of Tennessee

Joyce E. A. Russell, University of Tennessee

Robert T. Ladd, University of Tennessee–Knoxville

This paper investigated the effects of social power on peer rating behavior. Dominance analysis results indicate that individuals with coercive power generally gave performance appraisal ratings with less halo and leniency, but greater discrimination between teammates’ performance. Referent power was related to greater halo and leniency, and less discriminability.

 

32-36

Comparing Explicit and Implicit Measures of
the Importance of Performance Dimensions

Caroline Cochran, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes

Kenneth T. Bruskiewicz, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes

Jeff W. Johnson, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes

This paper compared explicit and implicit measures of the importance of individual performance dimensions to ratings of overall performance and advancement potential. The results suggest that raters may actually be more aware of how individual dimensions of performance relate to overall job performance than previously thought.

 

32-37

A Computer-Mediated Assessment of the Stepladder Technique

Lori L. Foster, University of South Florida

Michael D. Coovert, University of South Florida

An established technique for improving face-to-face team decision quality was extended to computer-mediated teams. Results revealed partial support for the use of the stepladder technique across different communication media. Patterns and perceptions of team member influence and team member satisfaction were also examined.

 

32-38

Social Network Analysis in Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Michael J. Howard, Pennsylvania State University

Social network analysis examines relationships between individuals. Despite the importance of maintaining relationships to many of today’s jobs, I-O psychologists have typically overlooked the social network perspective. This paper presents a brief overview of network analysis and illustrates its potential application to I-O psychology using data from a psychology department.

 

32-39

Feedback Cue and Sign: Effects on Performance, Cognition, and Affect

Neta Moye, University of Maryland

Jennifer E. Joseph, University of Maryland

Kathryn M. Bartol, University of Maryland

This study investigated the impact of two feedback characteristics, cue (task-oriented or ego-oriented) and sign (positive or negative). Negative feedback resulted in higher negative self-reactions and output, but more mistakes. Interactions between negative sign and ego-orientation led to lower levels of performance evaluation concern, supervisor satisfaction, and interactional justice perceptions.

 

32-40

Metatraits: Enhancing Criterion-Related Validity
Through the Assessment of Traitedness

Stephen A. Dwight, Aon Consulting

Paige Porter Wolf, Aon Consulting

John H. Golden, III, Aon Consulting

It has been hypothesized that taking into consideration the relevance of a trait (i.e., traitedness) for a person would enhance predictions about trait behaviors. Consistent with this hypothesis, traitedness moderated the relationship between personality and an objective criterion and provided incremental validity, above personality, for a subjective criterion.

 

32-41

Clarifying Constructs: Affect and the Five-Factor Model of Personality

James M. LeBreton, University of Tennessee–Knoxville

D. Lawrence LeBreton, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

John Deville, Illinois State University

Hypotheses relating affect and the five-factor model of personality were extracted from the literature. Models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis. A hierarchical model with the source traits of positive and negative affect causing the five-factor model had the best fit to the data.

 

32-42

Institutional Review of Research Conducted in Work Organizations

Bradford S. Bell, Michigan State University

Daniel R. Ilgen, Michigan State University

This research compared the reactions of Human Subjects Review Board members to typical test validation studies to the reactions of human resource managers, job applicants, and university faculty members. Overall, review board members were more stringent on consent procedures and less sensitive to the demands of work settings.


33. Special Event: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50 Imperial A

Developing Organizational Fitness: Toward a Theory
and Practice of Organizational Alignment

We have known for 40 years that organizations achieve high performance through a tight fit between business strategy, organizational arrangements, culture and leadership. Yet, theory and practice for developing fit lag far behind. Professor Beer will discuss a theory and method for achieving fitness that has emerged from his research and practice in change.

Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland, Chair

Michael Beer, Harvard Graduate School of Business, Presenter


34. Practitioner Forum: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50 Marquis III

Relating Employee and Customer Opinions: Drilling Into the Dynamics

To say employee and customer opinions are linked is no longer news. This forum addresses narrowing the focus of what employee issues are most related, how they combine to predict customer satisfaction, and understanding the conditions where relationships are strongest. New attention is given to understanding the customer criterion.

Jack W. Wiley, Gantz Wiley Research, Chair

Robert J. Vance, Pennsylvania State University, Scott M. Brooks, Gantz Wiley Research, Paul Tesluk, Tulane University, Effects of Climate for Change on Work Unit Customer Service

Joerg Dietz, Tulane University, Jack W. Wiley, Gantz Wiley Research, Serving Employees in Service Organizations: Effects of an Organizational Climate for Employee Well-Being on Customer Satisfaction

Scott M. Brooks, Gantz Wiley Research, Terrence Guth, Payless Shoe Source, When Service Support Means More: Its Impact on Customer Opinions Across Work Environments

Stephanie D. Kendall, Gantz Wiley Research, Carmen Barker Lemay, Gantz Wiley Research, When Does Service Matter? Linking Employee Service Emphasis to Customer Satisfaction within Heavy, Lapsed, and Light Customer Segments


35. Symposium: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50 Marquis IV

Learning to Fail or Failing to Learn? The Role of Errors,
Failures, and Feedback in Learning Environments

Traditionally errors, failures, and negative feedback are construed as inhibitory to learning. Recently, however, researchers have suggested that failures may be beneficial and even necessary for learning. This symposium comprises some of the most recent research on the role of negative information in learning environments.

Stanley M. Gully, Rutgers University, Co-Chair

Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University, Co-Chair

Rebecca J. Toney, Michigan State University, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University, Shifting Feedback from Positive to Negative: Benefits of Evaluative Feedback on Learning and Training Performance

Shelda Debowski, Murdoch University, Robert Wood, University of New South Wales, The Role of Errors in Electronic Search Skill Development

Doerte Heimbeck, University of Amsterdam, Michael Frese, University of Amsterdam, Error Training and the Role of Goal Orientation

Stanley M. Gully, Rutgers University, Stephanie C. Payne, George Mason University, K. Lee Kiechel, George Mason University, Jon-Andrew Whiteman, Human Technology, Inc., Affective Reactions and Performance Outcomes of Error-Based Training

Michael Frese, University of Amsterdam, Discussant


36. Symposium: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50 Madrid/Trinidad

Current Issues in Organizational Socialization Research

Organizational socialization is a complex process influenced by the newcomer, organizational insiders, and the context in which it occurs. The aim of socialization research is to understand how each influence contributes to newcomer adjustment. This symposium highlights contemporary conceptual and measurement issues important to enhancing our understanding of newcomer socialization.

Debra A. Major, Old Dominion University, Chair

Jessica M. Sterling, University at Albany, SUNY, Kevin J. Williams, University at Albany, SUNY, Newcomer Socialization: The Impact of Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, and Desire for Control on Proactive Behaviors

Debra A. Major, Old Dominion University, Jonathan E. Turner, Old Dominion University, Victoria Cole, Old Dominion University, The Role of Supervisors in Newcomer Organizational Socialization

Jerel E. Slaughter, Bowling Green State University, Michael Zickar, Bowling Green State University, Climates for Socialization and Effective Career-Entry Facilitation Activities

David Chan, National University of Singapore, Understanding Newcomer Adaptation: A Unified Data Analytic Approach

Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University, Discussant


37. Symposium: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50 Consulate

Coaching Interviewees for Structured Employment Interviews:
Scientific and Practical Perspectives

Research on coaching for employment interviews is scarce. What is coaching, how is it done, and what effects does it have? What processes and constructs underlie these effects? This symposium will address both practical and scientific perspectives on coaching for interview performance (both situational and structured experience-based interviews).

Todd J. Maurer, Georgia Institute of Technology, Chair

Jerry M. Solamon, City of Atlanta, Developing Structured Interview Tutorial Programs for Public Safety Promotional Candidates

Todd J. Maurer, Georgia Institute of Technology, Jerry M. Solamon, City of Atlanta, Deborah Troxtel, City of Atlanta, Kimberly Andrews, Georgia Institute of Technology, Coaching and Situational Employment Interviews

Stuart A. Tross, Towers Perrin/Georgia Institute of Technology, Todd J. Maurer, Georgia Institute of Technology, Effect of Interviewee Coaching on Structured Experience-Based Interview Processes and Outcomes

Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Discussant


38. Roundtable: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50 Sydney

Distance Graduate Programs in I-O Psychology: Challenges and Solutions

I-O psychology graduate training is highly valued by employers. Many who could benefit from this training, however, are unable to pursue an I-O degree because of career and geographical barriers. One solution to this problem is distance learning. This roundtable examines the opportunities and challenges of distance I-O graduate programs.

Patrick A. Knight, Kansas State University, Co-Host

Clive Fullagar, Kansas State University, Co-Host


39. Symposium: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50 Intl Salon C

Cross-Cultural Research in Industrial and Organizational Psychology

American organizations are operating in a global environment. Thus, it is critical that industrial and organizational psychologists develop a better understanding of cross-cultural issues. Consequently, this symposium presents the results of theoretical and empirical research on cross-cultural issues in leadership, time orientation, attitudes toward work and family, and negotiation strategies.

Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University at Albany, SUNY, Chair

George B. Graen, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Chen Hui, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Cross-Cultural Leadership

Dirk D. Steiner, Universit de Nice–Sophia Antipolis, Jeffrey M. Conte, San Diego State University, Sylvie Guirard, Universit de Nice–Sophia Antipolis, Independent Development Versus Translation of the French Time Orientation Scale

Mary Gowan, University of Central Florida, Melanie Trevino, University of Texas at El Paso, A Comparative Analysis of Mexican National and Anglo-American Attitudes Toward Work and Family

Dianna L. Stone, University of Central Florida, Stephanie Newell, Eastern Michigan University, Dimitri Lyakhovitzky, University at Albany, SUNY, Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University at Albany, SUNY, A Comparison of Eastern European and North American Managers’ Negotiation Strategies.

Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University at Albany, SUNY, Discussant


40. Practitioner Forum: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50 Intl Salon F

An Integrated, Global HR System: Competency Profiles,
Development, Deployment, Compensation

This practitioner forum describes the four components of an integrated, global human resources system utilizing competencies as its foundation. We will discuss how each piece of the system was developed, rolled out to the organization, and the results after 2 years of implementation. Audience discussion will be encouraged.

Irene A. Sasaki, Dow Chemical Company, Competency Profiles: The Foundation

Steven W. Constantin, Dow Chemical Company, Employee Development Aligned to Competency Profiles

Kenneth R. Pederson, Dow Chemical Company, A Global Company = Global Career Opportunities

Steven J. Robison, Dow Chemical Company, Compensation: Supporting and Aligned With Other HR Processes


43. Symposium: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50 Intl Salon G

Advances in Multilevel Research: New Techniques and Methodological Issues

Multilevel research is becoming increasingly important in many areas of the I-O psychology literature. Each of the papers in this symposium takes a different angle in addressing the methodological issues surrounding the aggregation of individual-level data to represent group-level phenomena.

Shannon L. Palmer, University of Maryland, Co-Chair

George Ziets, University of Maryland, Co-Chair

Paul D. Bliese, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Using Resampling and Monte Carlo Simulation in Multilevel Research

Katherine J. Klein, University of Maryland, Shannon L. Palmer, University of Maryland, George Ziets, University of Maryland, Paul J. Hanges, University of Maryland, The Effects of Response Bias in Multilevel Research

Paul J. Hanges, University of Maryland, Naomi G. Dyer, University of Maryland, William P. Sipe, University of Maryland, Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis: Demonstration of Muthen’s Technique

Katherine J. Klein, University of Maryland, Amy Buhl Conn, University of Maryland, Brent Smith, Cornell University, Joann Speer Sorra, University of Maryland, An Exploration of Within-Group Agreement in Survey Responses

Fred E. Dansereau, SUNY–Buffalo, Discussant


44. Roundtable: Friday, 1:30 - 2:50 Sydney

Making Employment Relationships Work in the 21st Century

Psychological and real contracts between employees and employers have changed significantly. In many organizations, these changes have catapulted the workforce into a state of uncertainty that is negatively affecting productivity and satisfaction. This session will provide a framework for redefining employment relationships and will explore strategies for managing these changes.

Karen E. May, Terranova Consulting Group, Co-Host

Katharine M. Jung, University of California–Berkeley/Terranova Consulting Group, Co-Host


45. Special Event: Friday, 2:00 - 2:50 Intl Salon A

1998 Distinguished Professional Contributions Award Winner

The Value of Journals for Informed Practice

Kurt Lewin’s dictum that there is nothing so practical as a good theory is the underlying theme of this presentation. The primary focus will be four-fold, namely research on selection, performance appraisal, training, and motivation. The role of being knowledgeable on prior research will be discussed in the (a) development of behavioral observation scales as dependent variables against which to evaluate interventions and validate predictors, (b) the application of goal setting to the training and motivation of such diverse populations as loggers and scientists, and (c) the development of the situational interview to predict who will do well in a given organizational setting.

Edwin A. Locke, University of Maryland, Chair

Gary P. Latham, University of Toronto, Presenter


Coffee Break: Friday, 3:00 - 3:30 South Hall/North Foyer 


46. Special Event: Friday, 3:30 - 4:20 Imperial A

1998 Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award Winner

Leadership and Decision Making Revisited

It has been a quarter of a century since the publication of the Vroom-Yetton model. Since then there have been over 100 scientific articles and doctoral dissertations devoted to either normative or descriptive aspects of participation in decision making. Professor Vroom will describe the major learnings from that research along with the latest formulation of the model.

Lyman W. Porter, University of California, Irvine, Chair

Victor H. Vroom, Yale University, Presenter


47. Symposium: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50 Marquis III

Subgroup Differences in Employment Testing

It is well known that cognitive ability tests demonstrate subgroup differences. This symposium will examine potential determinants of subgroup differences in cognitive ability tests. In addition, research on subgroup differences will be extended to the domains of assessment center exercises and personality measures. Implications for practitioners will be discussed.

Brent Smith, Cornell University, Co-Chair

Michael W. Grojean, University of Maryland, Co-Chair

Aleks Ellis, Michigan State University, Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Racial Differences in the Use of Test-Taking Strategies

Michael W. Grojean, University of Maryland, Paul J. Hanges, University of Maryland, Adverse Impact in Cognitive Ability Tests: The Role of Values and Test-Taking Attitudes

Harold W. Goldstein, Baruch College, CUNY, Yoneko Riley, Baruch College, CUNY, Kenneth P. Yusko, Arlington County Department of Personnel, Exploration of Black-White Subgroup Differences on Interpersonal Constructs

Kimberly R. Brinkmeyer, CDR Assessment Group, Brent Smith, Cornell University, An Examination of Subgroup Differences in Personality Measurement: Race and Gender Measurement Equivalence

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, Discussant


48. Practitioner Forum: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50 Marquis IV

Beyond Linking Employee, Customer, and Business
Measures: Working the Results

Thanks in part to the visibility of work at Sears, the linking of employee opinions, customer opinions, and business performance has become a feature of many survey programs. Because developing an elegant, sound model is not enough, these presenters describe how they put "linkage research" to work in their organizations.

Scott M. Brooks, Gantz Wiley Research, Chair

Jack W. Wiley, Gantz Wiley Research, Bruce H. Campbell, Gantz Wiley Research, From Linkage Research and Best Practices Analysis to Action Planning: A Case Study

Sally F. Hartmann, Sears, Transformation at Sears: Putting the Linkage Model to Work

Terry Guth, Payless Shoe Source, Putting Linkage Results to Work: A Description of One Organization’s Follow-Up Strategy

Sherilyn M. Kam, Kaiser Permanente Hawaii, Fran Sincere, Kaiser Permanente, Robert A. Jako, Kaiser Permanente, The Use of Linkage Research Findings in a Health Care Organization


49. Practitioner Forum: Friday, 3:30 - 4:20 Copenhagen

Using Competencies as the Basis for Integrating Human Resource Systems

Aligning I-O psychology practice with theory and research is often challenging. One practice area where this challenge has become evident is job definition. This session addresses questions about competency-based systems. Is competency methodology valid, or are we shortcoming a more rigorous process at a cost that is too high?

Sharon Wagner, Golden Gate University, Chair

Jill L. Geehr, CSX Transportation, Transportation, Building Towards Integrated Human Resource Policies and Procedures

Karin S. Fulton, Humana, Inc., Integrating Competencies into Human Resource Systems and Processes

Mila N. Baker, Baptist/St. Vincent’s Health Systems, The Use of Competency Models in Team-Based Organizations

Charley C. Morrow, Linkage, Inc., Management and Compensation Using Competency Models: New Methods, Old Problems


50. Symposium: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50 Madrid/Trinidad

Work Team Effectiveness: Recent Studies of Context & Composition

Research and practice concerning work team effectiveness continue to emphasize context factors, and the way members conduct external interactions—along with composition or mix of member characteristics. This international symposium presents four empirical studies of work teams focused on context or composition, from varied perspectives in diverse contexts.

Eric Sundstrom, University of Tennessee, Chair

Janice Langan-Fox, University of Melbourne, Sharon Code, University of Melbourne, Lillian T. Eby, University of Georgia, Kim Langfield-Smith, LaTrobe, Teams, Managers and Experts in Context: Unstructured-Structured Tasks, Task Difficulty and Strategies

Frederick P. Morgeson, Texas A&M University, Incorporating Context into Team Research: An Exemplar from the Field

Terry Halfhill, University of Tennessee, Adam D. Weilbaecher, University of Tulsa, Eric Sundstrom, University of Tennessee, Personality Predictors of Performance in Military Teams: Agreeableness and Conscientiousness

Susan Mohammed, Pennsylvania State University, Linda Angell, Pennsylvania State University, Ronald Johnson, Pennsylvania State University, Erika Ringseis, Pennsylvania State University, Group Composition and Group Performance in an Academic Setting.

Richard Moreland, University of Pittsburgh, Discussant


51. Symposium: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50 Consulate

Recent Issues and Innovations in Personality Assessment

A variety of methods are available to assess personality; however, most of these methods translate into nothing more than basic self-reports of "normal" personality. This symposium introduces two alternative measurement systems available to assess personality, as well as issues associated with assessing the "dark side" of normal personality.

James M. LeBreton, University of Tennessee–Knoxville, Co-Chair

John F. Binning, Illinois State University, Co-Chair

John F. Binning, Illinois State University, James M. LeBreton, University of Tennessee–Knoxville, Anthony J. Adorno, The DeGarmo Group, A Research Agenda for Assessing Personality in the Employment Interview

D. Lawrence LeBreton, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Sigrid B. Gustafson, American Institutes for Research, ADA Implications of Measuring Personality

Debrah Z. Migetz, University of Tennessee–Knoxville, Lawrence R. James, University of Tennessee–Knoxville, Current and New Directions in Conditional Reasoning Measurement

William R. Walton, University of Tennessee– Knoxville, Identification and Characterization of Antisocial Personality Disorder

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston, Discussant


52. Roundtable: Friday, 3:30 - 4:20 Sydney

The Future Organization: Telework, Intelligent Agents,
and Nomadic Computing

Organizations and their workers continue to be impacted by technological evolution. This roundtable describes three developments having the greatest influence: Telework, intelligent (software) agents, and nomadic (mobile) computing. Our focus is on considering these forces, and in facilitating the efforts to manage their influence on workers and in organizations.

Michael D. Coovert, University of South Florida, Co-Host

Lori L. Foster, University of South Florida, Co-Host

J. Philip Craiger, University of Nebraska–Omaha, Co-Host

R. Jason Weiss, University of Nebraska–Omaha, Co-Host


53. Special Event: Friday, 3:30 - 5:20 Intl Salon A

SIOP/EAWOP Symposium: International Perspectives in Selection Research

European Association of Work and Organizational Psychology (EAWOP) is the equivalent of SIOP in Europe. In this joint EAWOP-SIOP symposium, participants from both sides of the Atlantic will address issues in personnel selection. A particular focus of the session will be personality measures used in personnel selection and placement.

Neil Anderson, University of London, Chair

Robert Roe, Tilberg University, Selection in the New Millennium: A European View on Development in Methods and Research

Neil Anderson, University of London, Deniz Ones, University of Minnesota, Gender and Ethnic Group Differences on Personality Scales: Some Data from the UK

Ivan Robertson, Manchester School of Management, Sharon Clarke, Manchester School of Management, Personality and Accident Involvement: Implications for Personnel Selection

Jesus Salgado, University of Santiago de Compostela, Silvia Moscoso, University of Santiago de Compostela, Construct Validity of Two Personality Inventories Based on the Five Factor Model: A Spanish Investigation

Chockalingham Viswesvaran, Florida International University, Deniz Ones, University of Minnesota, Do Individuals Gravitate to Jobs Commensurate with Their Personality: Data from Jobs in the U.S.


54. Symposium: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50 Intl Salon B

Personality and Performance: Boundary Conditions
for Measurement and Structural Models

This symposium contains four papers that, as a set, address the question, under what conditions do (and don’t) measures of personality correlate with measures of performance? This question is addressed through treatment of topics such as self-regulatory mediators, cross-cultural differences, differences across rating sources, and contextual influences.

Walter C. Borman, University of South Florida/Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Chair

Wendy J. Casper, George Mason University, Gilad Chen, George Mason University, Jos M. Cortina, George Mason University, Meta-Analytic Examination of the Relationships Among Cognitive Ability, Conscientiousness, Self-Efficacy, and Task Performance

Judith M. Collins, Michigan State University, Paul R. Bly, Texas A&M University, David J. Woehr, Texas A&M University, The Incremental Validity of the Socialization Trait over the Socialization Process for the Prediction of Task and Contextual Performance

Stacy L. Jackson, Washington University, St. Louis, Performance Through the Eyes of Those Who See You Less: The Credibility of Others’ Assessments

Mark J. Schmit, Personnel Decisions International, Jenifer A. Kihm, Personnel Decisions International, Chet Robie, University of Houston, Refining a Personality Test to be Used in Selection Across Several Cultures

Frank L. Schmidt, University of Iowa, Discussant


55. Special Event: Friday, 3:30 - 5:20 Intl Salon C

A Beginner’s Manual: Keys to Success in Practice

This panel will seek to unlock the secrets for achieving success as an I-O psychologist in the applied setting. Drawing on a range of experience and perspectives, the panel will discuss how to best prepare for careers in a variety of business settings, recount the pitfalls to avoid and offer helpful tips for succeeding.

John C. Scott, Applied Psychological Techniques, Chair

Robert T. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Panelist

James L. Outtz, Outtz and Associates, Panelist

Ben E. Dowell, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Panelist

Jeffrey J. McHenry, Microsoft Corporation, Panelist

Gordon J. Curphy, Personnel Decisions International, Panelist


56. Master Tutorial: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50 Intl Salon D

Adult Intelligence and Work from Knowledge and Trait-Complex Perspectives

This master tutorial will review the state of the science and practice of intellectual assessment, and discuss new ways of assessing adult intelligence that may substantially improve the accuracy and efficiency of applications for selection, training and classification. Over 90 years has passed since the introduction of the modern intelligence test for children and adolescents. Extension of the Binet-Simon methods to occupational and vocational testing started in earnest in the 1910s. However, at various times during this century, researchers have recognized that the received view of child intelligence is inadequate for characterizing adult intellect in general, and intellect in the workplace in particular.

Simcha Ronen, Tel Aviv University, Chair

Phillip L. Ackerman, Georgia Institute of Technology, Presenter


57. Special Event: Friday, 3:30 - 4:20 Intl Salon E

Ad Hoc Committee on Ethnic Minority Participation

The hosts of this session along with task force leaders will provide an overview of 1998–1999 developments for the Ad Hoc Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs. Following this brief presentation, participants will be asked to help set agenda items for the coming year. All minority and non-minority conference participants interested in ethnic minority issues are encouraged to attend. A reception will follow.

Beth Chung, Cornell University, Co-Chair

Dana McDonald-Mann, Center for Creative Leadership, Co-Chair


58. Practitioner Forum: Friday, 3:30 - 4:20 Intl Salon G

Developing an Ethical Organization: The U.S. Army’s Example

The United States Army developed an Ethical Climate Assessment Survey (ECAS) that can be used by leaders to assess, and improve, the ethical climate of their organizations. In conjunction with a comprehensive leader training program, this survey provides an excellent example for any organization desiring to maintain a healthy ethical climate.

Joe LeBoeuf, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, Chair

Gregory J. Dardis, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, Developing Leaders of Character

Kenneth A. Romaine, U.S. Military Academy, West Point, Assessing Ethical Climates: A Practical Tool

John W. Bressler, U.S. Army Headquarters, Using the Ethical Climate Assessment Survey: Some Evidence of Success


59. Symposium: Friday, 3:30 - 4:50 Intl Salon H

Technology Impacts on Impression Formation: Looking Inside the Black Box

Impression formation typically occurs through interpersonal interactions. Electronic communication technologies, such as computer conferences and videoconferences, are changing both opportunities to interact with others and the nature of those interactions. We present empirical findings about how communication technologies and contextual factors affect interpersonal impressions across a variety of organizational contexts.

Susan G. Straus, Carnegie Mellon University, Chair

Suzanne P. Weisband, University of Arizona, Jonathan Woodard, University of Arizona, Perceptions of Leaders at a Distance

Joseph B. Walther, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Is a Picture Worth a Thousand Words?

Pamela Hinds, Stanford University, Impressions of Members in Distributed Work Groups: The Relative Effects of Geographical, Informational, and Functional Distance

Susan G. Straus, Carnegie Mellon University, Laurie L. Levesque, Carnegie Mellon University, Effects of Communication Media and Nonverbal Cues on Judgments in Job Interviews

K. Michele Kacmar, Florida State University, Discussant


60. Poster Session: Friday, 3:30 - 5:20 Intl Hall South Foyer

Groups, Intergroup Conflict, Leadership, and Organizational Change

 

60-1

1998 Robert J. Wherry Award for Best Paper at the IO-OB Conference

Team Derailment: An Initial Examination

Dana M. Milanovich, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division

Elizabeth J. Muniz, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division

Eduardo Salas, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division

Janis A. Cannon-Bowers, Naval Air Warfare Training Systems Division

This paper describes a preliminary attempt to understand the teamwork deficiencies that contribute to team derailment. To study this phenomenon, we used the team competency framework offered by Cannon-Bowers, Tannenbaum, Salas, and Volpe (1995). This aided us in identifying the team skills and attitudes associated with team failures.

 

60-2

1998 S. Rains Wallace Dissertation Award

An Investigation of Work Group Management and Performance Barriers

Paul Tesluk, Tulane University

Using data from 88 road crews, this study investigated how groups manage performance barriers. Although performance constraints were negatively related to performance, crews that used problem management strategies minimized these effects directly and indirectly by maintaining cohesion under adverse conditions. Factors related to use of problem management strategies are discussed.

 

60-3

Person-Group Fit: Assessing the Interaction of Personality and Ability

Karen J. Jansen, Texas A&M University

This study investigates the effect of similar and diverse personality and KSAs on group performance and satisfaction by developing a typology of four types of person-group fit. Results suggest that the nature of the group’s task and required interaction determine the type of fit that will maximize performance and satisfaction.

 

60-4

An Examination of Ethnoracial Differences in Leader Prototypes

Michelle A. Marks, Florida International University

Annie A. Nguyen, Florida International University

Jennifer Kantrowitz, Florida International University

This study examines business, military, and religious leader prototypes for both White and Hispanic Americans. A sample of 91 Hispanics and 62 Whites rated Lord, Foti & De Vader’s (1984) leader traits for their representativeness of typical leaders. Findings indicate significant differences in leader prototype profiles between ethnoracial subgroups.

 

60-5

Performance Implications of Leadership and Training for
Team Adaptation to Novel Environments

Michelle A. Marks, Florida International University

Stephen J. Zaccaro, George Mason University

John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University

We examined how leader briefings and team interaction training influence team members’ knowledge structures concerning processes related to effective team performance. Findings indicated that leader communication of environment knowledge and team interaction training affected the development of team mental models, which influenced team communication and coordinated performance in routine and novel environments.

 

60-6

Sailing Crews and Measures of Team Process

Thomas R. Gordon, University of South Florida

Michael T. Brannick, University of South Florida

We compared measures of team process and outcome in sailing crews. Communication, assertiveness, and team viability measures were compared with order of finish in regattas. Multitrait-multimethod analysis showed that skippers and crewmembers converged on the team process measures and successfully discriminated between communication and assertiveness. Communication, assertiveness, and viability scores predicted order of finish across crews.

 

60-7

Relations Between Leadership, Potency, Group Processes,
and Work Group Effectiveness

Glenn E. Littlepage, Middle Tennessee State University

Steven D. Jones, Middle Tennessee State University

Richard Moffett, Middle Tennessee State University

Tressa Cherry, Middle Tennessee State University

Susan Senovich, Middle Tennessee State University

Members of 112 teams in an aerospace organization completed questionnaires assessing team potency, group processes, leadership, and group performance. Results of causal modeling suggest that leadership affects team potency and group processes, potency affects group processes and group performance, and group processes affect group performance.

 

60-8

Development and Validation of an Organizational
Learning Assessment Instrument

Nancy Da Silva, University of Houston

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston

Allan P. Jones, University of Houston

Kelley J. Slack, University of Houston

Jean K. Latting, University of Houston

Mary H. Beck, University of Houston

The organizational learning assessment instrument was designed in this study generally supported the dimensions of systems thinking, shared vision, team learning, mental models, and personal mastery. Evidence of construct validity was presented based on hypothesized correlates of the dimensions and their ability to predict personal and group innovation.

 

60-9

Individual and Group Innovation in Perceived Group Effectiveness

Kelley J. Slack, University of Houston

Allan P. Jones, University of Houston

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston

Nancy Da Silva, University of Houston

Jean K. Latting, University of Houston

Mary H. Beck, University of Houston

Interest in improving the effectiveness of work groups has increased (Campion, Medsker, & Higgs, 1993). The present study examined the role of individual and group innovation on group effectiveness. Support for learning and innovation were both directly and indirectly related to group effectiveness, through empowerment, individual innovation, and group innovation.

 

60-10

Perceived Similarity, Power, and Leader-Member Interaction

Joellyn Townsend, University of Houston

Allan P. Jones, University of Houston

This study explored linkages between leader-member similarity and interaction patterns. Similarity ratings were related to the perceived use of supervisory power and to the use of the supervisor as a source of work direction. Finally, similarity was related to employee and supervisor ratings of interaction frequency and LMX.

 

60-11

Citizenship Behavior at the Team Level of Analysis

Craig L. Pearce, University of Maryland

Pamela A. Herbik, University of North Carolina at Charlotte

We examined 71 teams in this research. Results indicate that team leadership, team dynamics, and the team’s environment, but not team demography, are highly correlated with team citizenship behavior (TCB). Hierarchical multiple regression results suggest that team leadership accounts for more unique variance in TCB, than do the other variables.

 

60-12

Effects of Social Cues and Opponent Gender on Performance Expectancies

Bryan Edwards, University of South Alabama

Many factors tend to affect self-efficacy of performance on an academic task, which invariably affects subsequent performance. The influence of two factors, social cues and perceived typed of opponent, on performance expectancies in a competitive situation appear to affect self-efficacy of males and females in the presence of a competitor.

 

60-13

Team Leader Behaviors and Member Satisfaction:
The Role of Procedural Justice

Mary Anne Hyland, Rutgers University

Elizabeth A. Douthitt, Rutgers University

Jean Phillips, Rutgers University

Procedural justice research has shown that team processes and leader interactions influence procedural justice perceptions, and procedural justice affects team member reactions. Partial support was found for the mediating effects of procedural justice perceptions on the relation of team leader consideration and team member influence with satisfaction.

 

60-14

Effects of Quality Circles on Performance and
Employee Attitudes: A Meta-Analysis

Gloria Pereira, Aon Consulting

Hobart G. Osburn, University of Houston

This study explores the relationship between quality circles (QCs) and employee attitudes and productivity. The sample included 36 studies with 42 independent samples. Mean effect sizes were small for employee attitudes and moderate for job performance suggesting QCs affected job performance to a greater degree than employee attitudes.

 

60-15

Team Competencies: Relationships With Perceived Patient Care,
Effectiveness, and Attitudes

Andrea M. Olson, University of Minnesota

Amy R. Wasserman, Illinois Institute of Technology

Relationships between team competencies and six team outcomes were explored. Feedback was the most important predictor of Perceived Patient Care Quality, Perceived Patient Care Efficiency, and Overall Team Effectiveness. Communication was the most important predictor of Individual Satisfaction and Individual Commitment. Orientation was the most important predictor of Team Commitment.

 

60-16

Meta-Analysis and Path Model of Work Group
Diversity, Processes, and Outcomes

Sheila Simsarian Webber, George Mason University

Lisa M. Donahue, George Mason University

Meta-analysis of the relationship of work group diversity (readily detectable and less observable) with cohesion and performance was conducted and then combined with the meta-analytic findings of Gully, et al. (1995) of the relationship between cohesion and performance to test an input-process-output model of the effects of diversity on work group performance.

 

60-17

The Roles of Teamwork-KSAs and General Cognitive Ability in Different Teams

Rowland P. Hanley, The Ohio University

Paula M. Popovich, The Ohio University

Peter Y. Chen, The Ohio University

Denise Haeggberg, The Ohio University

Scott Finlinson, The Ohio University

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between type of team and the instruments we use to predict performance. The Teamwork-KSA Test and tests of general cognitive ability were assessed across two different team simulations. The effectiveness of each test was dependent upon simulation type.

 

60-18

Group Cohesion and Group Effectiveness: A Causal Analysis

Todd W. Little, University of Tennessee–Knoxville

This study was intended to estimate the reciprocal relationship between group cohesion and group effectiveness at the group level. The sample consisted of 243 students working in 65 groups. The reciprocal model was rejected and an exploratory analysis of a mediated model was conducted. Results supported the mediated model.

 

60-19

Effects of Team Size on a Model of Team Performance

Anthony M. Townsend, University of Nevada at Las Vegas

W. Kevin Baker, Roanoke College

K. Dow Scott, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

The Garland (1985) goal/expectancy model is adapted to a team environment and used to determine the impact of team size upon a complex team performance model. Analysis indicates a robust model for all teams together, but that when tested among large and small teams, the structure of the model changes.

 

60-20

Team Racial Composition, Member Attitudes, and Performance: A Field Study

Anthony M. Townsend, University of Nevada at Las Vegas

K. Dow Scott, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Attitudinal, performance, and demographic data from 126 work teams are examined to determine: (a) Does the racial composition of teams affects team performance; (b) Do African Americans and whites have different attitudes toward their teams and their teams’ performance, and (c) Do they explain performance differences in teams with different racial composition?

 

60-21

A Multi-Dimensional Approach to the Group Cohesion and
Group Performance Relationship

Artemis Chang, University of Queensland

Prashant Bordia, University of Queensland

This study investigated the relationship between group level task and social cohesion (Carron, 1985) and task effectiveness, system viability, and group members’ professional growth (Hackman, 1990) over time. Results of this study suggested that task cohesion was the only predictor of the self-rated performance and social cohesion was the only predictor of system viability and group performance.

 

60-22

Team Creative Performance: The Effects of Characteristics of Individual
Team Members and Team Composition and Characteristics

Lucy L. Gilson, DuPree, Georgia Institute of Technology

Christina E. Shalley, Georgia Institute of Technology

Terry C. Blum, Georgia Institute of Technology

A field survey of intact self-managed teams found individual member characteristics (i.e., creative personality and intrinsic motivation) and team characteristics (i.e., norms that support and reward creativity, shared goals, and democratic processes) were positively related to team creative performance. Team size was negatively related to creative performance.

 

60-23

Gender Differences in Negotiation Outcome: A Meta-Analysis

Alice F. Stuhlmacher, DePaul University

Amy E. Walters, DePaul University

Studies reporting the objective settlements obtained by male and female negotiators were reviewed. Men negotiated significantly better outcomes than women. Opponent sex, relative power, integrative potential, mode of communication and year of study were tested as moderators although none of these or several exploratory moderators reversed or eliminated the effect.

 

60-24

Individual Differences in Negotiation Effectiveness

Laura Gniatcyzk, University of Tennessee–Knoxville

Debrah Z. Migetz, University of Tennessee–Knoxville

Robert T. Ladd, University of Tennessee–Knoxville

Negotiation is becoming an increasingly important skill necessary to compete in today’s business environment. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the influences of individual differences on negotiation ability. Three types of individual differences including gender, personality, and cognitive ability were examined. Mixed findings for the proposed hypotheses are reported.

 

60-25

The Context of Accounts: Organizational Climate
and Ideological Justifications

Wayne Harrison, University of Nebraska at Omaha

Cheryl L. Hendrickson, American Institutes for Research

Information processing theory guided predictions regarding antecedents and consequences of the perceived adequacy of ideological accounts. Participants (N = 216) in a 322 laboratory experiment engaged in an interactive scenario of university life. Specific, but not vague, ideological justifications were effective across two outcome severity levels, especially in a trusting climate.

 

60-26

Group Identity and Majority Influence in Negotiation

Erika Peterson, George Washington University

In group negotiations, agreements were less integrative when negotiators identified with the group as a whole, rather than with their own party, particularly in negotiations between majority and minority factions. Also, the majority faction had a greater profit advantage over the minority faction when group identity was salient.

 

60-27

Negotiation at a Distance: Why You Might Want to Use the Telephone

Kenneth A. Graetz, University of Dayton

Cassie B. Barlow, U.S. Air Force

Nicole L. Proulx, University of Dayton

Laura A. Odenweller, University of Dayton

Simon Weierman, University of Dayton

Connie Blankenship, University of Dayton

Danielle Strazzo, University of Dayton

Same gender dyads engaged in a four-issue integrative bargaining task. Negotiator accountability and communication channel (face-to-face, teleconferencing, videoconferencing) were manipulated. Negotiators in the VC condition spent less time negotiating, obtained lower outcomes overall, and engaged in less logrolling that dyads in the other communication conditions. As predicted, negotiators in the TELE condition performed relatively well in the absence of visual access.

 

60-28

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of Interpersonal
Conflict Handling Styles at the Team Level

DonnaMaria C. Vigil-King, University of Tennessee

This study assessed the validity of two ROCI-II variations, modified to reflect the conflict-handling style used by individuals within teams and the conflict-handling style used by the team. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported the five-factor conflict-handling model for both variations. Interrater agreement (rwg) indicated members evaluated team style similarly.

 

60-29

Prevalence of Workplace Violence Among Substance Abusers

Susan McFarlin, Old Dominion University

William Fals-Stewart, Old Dominion University

Debra A. Major, Old Dominion University

Timothy T. Freitas, Old Dominion University

We examined the prevalence of workplace violence among substance abusers entering treatment. A significantly larger proportion of substance-abusing patients reported that they had engaged in workplace violence in the year before treatment and in their lifetimes than a sociodemographically matched sample of nonsubstance abusing individuals from the community. Factors associated with workplace violence in these patients included sex, age, and substance use frequency.

 

60-30

Examining the Role of Affect in Transformational Leadership

Lisa Keeping, University of Akron

Douglas J. Brown, University of Akron

To delineate the role of affect in transformational leadership as measured by the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, general affect and target-specific affect (liking of one’s supervisor) were modeled as method effects. Liking significantly altered both the measurement of transformational leadership as well as structural relations between it and three outcome variables.

 

60-31

Impact of Transformational Leadership Training on Follower Development
and Performance: A Field Experiment

Taly Dvir, Tel Aviv University

Dov Eden, Tel Aviv University

Bruce J. Avolio, SUNY–Binghamton

Boas Shamir, Hebrew University

The causal relationships between transformational leadership, enhanced through training, and follower development and performance were examined in a longitudinal true field experiment. The results confirmed that the transformational leaders had a more positive impact on their direct followers’ personal development and on their indirect followers’ objective performance than the control leaders.

 

60-32

Construct Validity of Measures of Transformational Leader Behavior

Sally A. Carless, Monash University

The construct validity of two popular measures of transformational leadership were examined. The instruments were the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X; Avolio, Bass, & Jung, 1995) and the Leadership Practices Inventory (LPI: Kouzes & Posner, 1988). LISREL 8 confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare three alternative models of leadership: a first-order multidimensional model, a single factor model, and a hierarchical model.

 

60-33

Female Leader Emergence: A Pattern Approach

Roseanne J. Foti, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Amy Gershenoff, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

A multi-variable pattern has been effective in predicting leadership emergence for all-male groups. In all-female groups, individuals with a high, high, high, high pattern of intelligence, dominance, general self-efficacy, and self-monitoring received higher leadership ratings and rankings than all other individuals, extending these findings to the female population.

 

60-34

Leader Assignment in Small Groups: Effects of Task Interdependence

Kevin J. Basik, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Amy Gershenoff, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Roseanne J. Foti, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

This study examined the contingent nature of the leader assignment-task relationship. High task interdependence with elected leaders resulted in high group performance, whereas low task interdependence with assigned leaders resulted in high group performance. Results demonstrated greater satisfaction with the group process and the leader in the high interdependence condition.

 

60-35

Influence Tactics in Upward and Downward Attempts and
the Relations to Other Variables With Korean Samples

Jinkook Tak, Kwangwoon University

Upward influence tactics included eight factors whereas downward influence tactics included nine factors. There were differences in the relative frequency of use between upward and downward influence tactics. Personality traits were closely related to upward influence tactics. Downward influence tactics were closely related to upward influence tactics and organizational effectiveness.

 

60-36

Effects of Personal Outcomes and Success on Charisma and Influence

Oriel Strickland, California State University–Sacramento

Carol J. MacMillan, California State University–Sacramento

Mark Galimba, California State University–Sacramento

This study examined the interactive effect of a leader’s personal outcome and prior success on perceptions of charisma, influence, and hiring decisions. Consistent with hypotheses, a leader who is personally suffering is only perceived as charismatic and influential when they also have been shown to be a successful influence agent.

 

60-37

Development of a Biodata Measure of Leadership
Effectiveness: A Life History Approach

Julia McElreath, Wayne State University

Alan R. Bass, Wayne State University

A life-history essay questionnaire was used to develop a biodata instrument to assess leadership potential, based on a leadership-skills approach; the measure is intended for career development and strategic staffing/succession planning. The life-history approach yielded valuable data for biodata item generation, and demonstrated the usefulness of a theory-based approach to item development.

 

60-38

HR Outsourcing and Its Impact: The Role of Transaction Costs

Brian S. Klaas, University of South Carolina

John McClendon, Temple University

Thomas W. Gainey, University of South Carolina

Organizations increasingly use outside contractors to perform HR activities traditionally performed in-house. However, little is known about this interfirm alliance. Using a Transaction Cost Economics perspective, this study found that several organizational-level factors moderated the relationship between overall reliance on outsourcing and the perceived benefits produced by this alternative.

 

60-39

Construction and Validation of a Measure of Resistance to Change

Tamara Pederson, Southern Illinois University

Catherine S. Daus, Southern Illinois University

Resistance to change is a subject of increasing importance in today’s rapidly changing workforce. Prior to making drastic changes, organizations need to identify resistance in employees. This poster explains the development and construct validation of a scale to measure resistance to change in employees in an organizational setting.

 

60-40

Measuring Compliance with Safety Behaviors at Work

Tara Smecko, Portland State University

Bob Hayes, Medical Consultants NW, Inc.

The present study describes the development and validation of a self-report measure of compliance with safety behaviors at work. Results showed that the Work Safety Compliance Measure (WSCM) reliably measures four facets of compliance with safety behaviors and was significantly related to self-reported accident rates. Implications are discussed.

 

60-41

Organizational Innovation Through Human Resource
Management: A Structural Model

Annette Towler, Rice University

Steven C. Currall, Rice University

This theoretical paper explains how organizations can transform employee creativity into organizational innovations through successful use of human resource management practices and policies. Institutional polices such as management development facilitate the harvest of employee creativity into organizational innovation. Ultimately, organizational innovations enable an organization to obtain a competitive advantage.

 

60-42

An Investigation of Gender Influences on Job and Career Mobility:
What Interferes With Occupational Gravitation?

Bethany Klynn, The Ohio State University

Mary A. Roznowski, The Ohio State University

The present research investigates the gravitational hypothesis and seeks to understand why men and women do not advance to upper levels of management at the same rate, despite their similar levels of cognitive ability. Analyses show that life factors affect career mobility differently for women and men.

 

60-43

Leadership in Adolescence: Comparing Peer and Teacher Perspectives

Mark Ehrhart, University of Maryland

Karen Holcombe, University of Maryland

Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland

This study focuses on the predictability of adolescent leadership, with the goal of establishing its durability into the work setting. Peer nominations of leadership were predicted by a set of personal attributes. These nominations were related to, but distinct from, teacher leadership ratings and peer nominations of popularity and friendship.

 

60-44

Relations of Leader Perceptions to Personality,
Leadership Style and Self-Schema

Jeann D. Makiney, University of Akron

Christopher A. Marchioro, University of Akron

Rosalie J. Hall, University of Akron

The relationships of the Big Five personality dimensions, leadership style (MLQ), and leadership self-schema with leadership perceptions were examined. Personality alone explained a significant amount of variance in perceptions and both the MLQ and Leadership Self-Schema demonstrated meaningful increments over personality. Self-Schema explained variance above both personality and leadership style.

 

60-45

Gender and Leader Behavior: Differences Exhibited
Leading a Production Simulation

Cheryl Dyer, Southwest Missouri State University

Carol F. Shoptaugh, Southwest Missouri State University

Thomas D. Kane, Southwest Missouri State University

Four categories of leader behavior (overall leader activity, leader activity solicited by group members, motivating behaviors, and demotivating behaviors) were investigated in this empirical examination of the relationship between gender and leaders’ verbal behaviors. Only motivating behaviors significantly differentiated male from female leaders.

 

60-46

Cart and Neural Network Tests of Schneider’s (1987) Homogeneity Hypothesis

Michael J. Keeney, University of Akron

Daniel J. Svyantek, University of Akron

Andrea F. Snell, University of Akron

Steven J. Robison, Dow Chemical Company

Measures of personality and organizational climate were subjected to two recently available analytical methods that extract patterns from data, Classification and Regression Trees, and neural network classification analysis. Risk, openness, rewards, and neuroticism emerged as key variables in differentiating among three similar work groups. Implications for ASA research are discussed.

 

60-47

Effects of Leader Personality on Entrepreneurial Firm Performance

Theresa M. Welbourne, Cornell University

Marcie A. Cavanaugh, Cornell University

Timothy A. Judge, University of Iowa

This study’s purpose was to investigate the relationship between leader personality ("Big Five") and firm performance. Using a longitudinal sample of IPO firms, results indicated that leader emotional adjustment was positively associated with earnings per share and stock price growth. Leader extraversion was negatively associated with earnings per share.

 

60-48

Group Attendance and the Self-Reported Frequency of Absences

Amy E. Mills, Aon Consulting

Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University at Albany, SUNY

Few research studies have examined the construct validity of absence self-reports. Thus, this study examined the relationship between group-level attendance and biases in self-reports of one’s own and others’ absences. Results support cognitive and motivational predictions for biased self-reports.


61. Roundtable: Friday, 3:30 - 4:20 Sydney

Building Collaborative Relationships to Meet I-O Psychologists’ Needs
Within State Organizations

This roundtable encourages discussion on providing the networking and continuing education activities for I-O at the local level. We will summarize the activities occurring in the state of Ohio through joint relationships with organizations including the OPA as mandatory continuing education was implemented and collaboration with OH-IO and other groups.

Thomas G. Baker, ESS Corp, Co-Host

Diana L. Clarke, Brinoth Group, Co-Host


62. Panel Discussion: Friday, 4:30 - 5:50 Imperial A

Moving HR Programs to the Field: Implementation Challenges and I-O Responses

I-O practitioners must overcome many social, organizational, and environmental challenges and constraints in order to effectively implement HR programs. Panelists with extensive experience in moving HR programs to the field will discuss case studies and offer perspectives on issues and challenges faced during the implementation of selection programs.

Matthew R. Redmond, Aon Consulting, Chair

Steven T. Arneson, Pizza Hut, Inc., Panelist

Kelly J. Brookhouse, Motorola, Inc., Panelist

Michael E. Moomaw, The Southern Company, Panelist

Roland T. Ramsay, Ramsay Corporation, Panelist

Jim Livingston, International Paper, Panelist


63. Symposium: Friday, 4:30 - 5:50 Copenhagen

Revising a 360-Degree Feedback Instrument: Integrating
Quantitative and Qualitative Data

This symposium explores the process used to make content revisions to a 360-degree multi-rater assessment instrument. Integrating both quantitative and qualitative methodologies, the Center for Creative Leadership revised their Benchmarks instrument. This symposium will discuss the dilemmas and practical implications of this type of work. It will also explore the tradeoffs and business decisions made throughout the process.

Dana McDonald-Mann, Center for Creative Leadership, Chair

Christina A. Douglas, Center for Creative Leadership, A Content Validation Approach to Revising Benchmarks

S. Bartholomew Craig, Center for Creative Leadership, Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, Using Item Response Theory to Update Benchmarks

Jean Leslie, Center for Creative Leadership, Putting It All Together: Issues in Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Data

Marian N. Ruderman, Center for Creative Leadership, Silvia Swigert, Center for Creative Leadership, Examination of the Differential Validity of Benchmark Scores

Stphane Brutus, Concordia University, Discussant


64. Roundtable: Friday, 4:30 - 5:50 Sydney

The Retention of "Welfare to Work" Employees

Recent welfare reform legislation and the shortage of workers have caused organizations to look more closely at welfare recipients as viable candidates for employment. However, issues surrounding retention of these employees have plagued organizations that attempt to tap into this pool of candidates. I-O psychology needs to identify the ways in which it can help in the retention of these employees.

Cristina G. Banks, Terranova Consulting Group, Co-Host

Katharine M. Jung, University of California–Berkeley/Terranova Consulting Group, Co-Host


65. Symposium: Friday, 4:30 - 5:50 Intl Salon E

Person-Environment Fit: Alternative Conceptualizations
at Different Phases of Organizational Entry

Person-environment (P-E) fit is examined in one conceptual and three empirical papers. The purpose of the symposium is to present various conceptualizations of P-E fit as it occurs during pre-organizational entry, initial organizational entry, and post-organizational entry. Conceptualizations of P-E fit include person-organization, person-group, person-job, supplementary, complementary, comparative, and perceived fit.

Joan R. Rentsch, Wright State University, Chair

Amy L. Kristof-Brown, University of Iowa, Joyce Bono, University of Iowa, Kristy J. Lauver, University of Iowa, A Multi-Dimensional Model of Socialization and Person-Environment Fit

Daniel B. Turban, University of Missouri, Chung-Ming Lau, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Irene H.S. Chow, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hang-Yue Ngo, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Steven X. F. Si, Concordia University, Person-Organization Fit in the People’s Republic of China

Rosalie J. Hall, University of Akron, Anna Neumann, Arthur Andersen, P-E Fit During Socialization: Relationships with Attitudinal and Performance Variables

Joan R. Rentsch, Wright State University, Darcy Menard, Wright State University, Robert F. Scherer, Wright State University, The Effect of P-E Fit at Post-Organizational Entry: Perception or Reality?

Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland, Discussant


66. Special Event: Friday, 4:30 - 5:30 Intl Salon F

Reception: Ad Hoc Committee on Ethnic Minority Affairs

All conference participants are invited to attend a reception following a roundtable discussion on ethnic minority issues. This is an excellent opportunity to meet others with similar interests and to learn more about this ad hoc committee.

Beth Chung, Cornell University, Host


67. Roundtable: Friday, 4:30 - 5:50 Sydney

Doctoral Training in I-O Psychology: Are Team-Based Methods More Effective?

This roundtable discussion will focus on the use of teams as a tool to facilitate the training of I-O doctoral students as researchers. It is designed to create a dialogue among participants regarding issues and factors that may need to be taken into consideration before deciding whether or not to implement more formalized research team-based structure in an I-O doctoral program.

Donna E. Thompson, Baruch College, CUNY, Co-Host

Elizabeth Manibay, Baruch College, CUNY, Co-Host


68. Special Event: Friday, 5:00 – 6:00 Hub

New Member Social Hour

All SIOP members are invited to attend the "New Member" Social Hour. Meet new acquaintances, renew old ones, and learn more about SIOP in an informal and relaxed atmosphere.


69. Symposium: Friday, 5:00 - 5:50 Intl Salon D

Human-Computer Communication Systems: Research and Applications

Innovations in information technology have created new opportunities in the way we communicate, work, and learn. This symposium focuses on human-computer communication systems in organizations and schools. Presentations describe research to further our understanding of human-computer interaction, as well as novel applications of distributed communication systems.

J. Philip Craiger, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Chair

Jack McGourty, Columbia University, Morton Friedman, Columbia University, The Gateway Collaboratory at Columbia University: Enhancing Collaborative Behavior and Innovation through Technology

Mary Hawkins, Bellevue University, J. Philip Craiger, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Differential Effects of Feedback in Computer-Based Instruction

Karen Ury, Bowling Green State University, Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University, Explaining Individual’s Anxiety In Using Electronic Mail For Work-Related Tasks

Michael D. Coovert, University of South Florida, Discussant


Evening Reception 6:00 – 8:00 Skyline Level


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