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Coffee Break: Saturday, 7:30 - 8:00 South Hall/North Foyer

70. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50 Marquis III

Frontiers of Leadership: The Multiple-Level Approaches

The most recent theorizing and empirical results about five multiple-level approaches to leadership are presented. The approaches are classical (participative decision making; contingency model), contemporary (transformational leadership), alternative (information processing), and new wave (individualized leadership) in nature. Multiple-level leadership issues are addressed from theoretical, measurement, and analytical perspectives.

Francis J. Yammarino, SUNY–Binghamton, Chair

Roya Ayman, Illinois Institute of Technology, Martin M. Chemers, University of California–Santa Cruz, Fred E. Fiedler, University of Washington, Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness: A Level of Analysis and Source Variance Contribution

Arthur G. Jago, University of Missouri, Situation Effects and Levels of Analysis in the Study of Leader Participation

Bruce J. Avolio, SUNY–Binghamton, Migrating Leadership "Up": Transforming Transformational Leadership Theory and Its Measurement

Robert G. Lord, University of Akron, Rosalie J. Hall, University of Akron, Multi-Level Consequences of Self-Concept-Based Explanations of Leadership Perceptions

Fred E. Dansereau, SUNY–Buffalo, An Extension of the Individualized Leadership Approach: How and When Does Individualized Leadership Emerge?

Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, Discussant

71. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50 Copenhagen

The New Reality of Employee Retention: Issues and Initiatives

Data will be presented which address issues relevant to retaining employees including: linkages between attitudes and turnover, personality’s relationship to turnover, and the special case of part-time employees. Programs (mentoring, exit interview, and a comprehensive plan) designed to assist companies dealing with the question of retention will also be presented.

Richelle B. Southwick, Southern Company, Chair

Lorrina J. Eastman, Bass Hotels & Resorts, Robert J. Vandenberg, University of Georgia, Christopher D. Kline, Life Office Management Association, Organizational Predictors of Employee Retention: The Linkage Between Employee Opinion Survey Results and Turnover

Suzanne L. Bollar, Management Psychology Group, William J. Flanagan, Management Psychology Group, The Value of Person Variables in Understanding Employee Retention: Using the Big Five Personality Factors to Predict Voluntary Turnover

William H. Newbolt, Burke Strategic Consulting Group/University of Georgia, Heather Pierce, Burke Strategic Consulting Group/Georgia Institute of Technology, Retention of Part-Time Employees: The Relationship Between Attitudes and Turnover

Marsha B. Welles, First Tennessee Bank, Shenece Garner, First Tennessee Bank, Jenni Nieman, First Tennessee Bank, A Needs Assessment: Exploring the Mentoring Needs of High Potential Managers and Professionals

Christine E. Schoob, Corporate Insights & Development, Inc./Georgia Institute of Technology, Alison G. C. Mallard, Corporate Insights & Development, Inc., Reducing Turnover: A Real-World Approach to a Real-World Problem

Laura L. Wolfe, Southern Company, Michael E. Moomaw, Southern Company, Exit Interviews: Creating the Process, Analysis of Findings, and Lessons Learned.

72. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50 Consulate

Personality in Models of Managerial Performance: Getting Beyond the Lists

80 years of research on managerial performance provides a wealth of information about effective behavior and personality characteristics. Performance taxonomies organize managerial requirements and serve as benchmarks and reference systems. This symposium expands the catalogue of dimensions and addresses explanations, omissions, and personality applications of new views about managerial performance.

Joyce C. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Chair

Robert P. Tett, Wright State University, A Trait-Based Interactionist Model of Managerial Performance

Paul M. Connolly, Performance Programs, Inc., Integrating Behavioral Feedback and Personality Characteristics in Leadership Coaching: What and Why

Joyce C. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Walter C. Borman, University of South Florida/Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, How and Why Contextual Performance Contributes to Managerial Performance

Jared D. Lock, Jeanneret & Associates, Evolution of Managerial Characteristics: To Teams and Back Again

Stephan J. Motowidlo, University of Florida, Discussant

73. Symposium: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50 Sydney

The Validity of Job Analysis Judgments

Development of various human resource programs (e.g., selection, performance appraisal, training) involves the use of the judgments of subject matter experts. Papers in this symposium are directed to an assessment of the validity of various types of expert judgment across different organizational contexts and applications.

Jeffrey A. Ryer, Aon Consulting, Chair

Juan I. Sanchez, Florida International University, Edward L. Levine, University of South Florida, Inaccuracy in Job Analysis Data: How Does One Know?

Thomas L. Dallam, Capital One, Mark H. Ludwick, Capital One, Paige Porter Wolf, Aon Consulting, Matthew R. Redmond, Aon Consulting, Subject Matter Experts (SME) vs. I-O Psychologists: A Comparison of Competency Profiles

David B. Schmidt, Aon Consulting, Matthew R. Smith, Aon Consulting, Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, Jeffrey A. Ryer, Aon Consulting, The Validity of Future Job Analysis Ratings

Jeff W. Johnson, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Gary W. Carter, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, David H. Oliver, GTE, Agreement in Job Analysis Ratings Between Incumbents and Supervisors

Sheldon Zedeck, University of California–Berkeley, Discussant

74. Special Event: Saturday, 8:00 - 8:50 Intl Salon B

1998 Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions

Modeling Job Performance: Promising Questions and Questionable Promises

Based on meta-analytic cumulation of the literature reporting intercorrelations among job performance measures over the past 100 years, a reconceptualization of the construct of job performance is advanced. Variance attributable to source (e.g., supervisor), halo and other effects are estimated by an innovative application of meta-analytic techniques. Implications are discussed.

Frank L. Schmidt, University of Iowa, Chair

Chockalingam Viswesvaran, Florida International University, Presenter

75. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50 Intl Salon D

Career Paths in I-O Psychology: Early Career Choices

Training in I-O psychology allows many career paths. This panel discussion explores early career choices made by a group of recent I-O graduates in a variety of academic and industrial positions. The panel members will answer a series of questions related to their career decisions. Audience participation will be encouraged.

Ronald G. Downey, Kansas State University, Chair

Robert P. Delprino, SUNY–Buffalo, Panelist

Marc C. Marchese, King’s College, Panelist

Patrick R. Powaser, Frito-Lay North America, Panelist

Deidra J. Schleicher, Kansas State University, Panelist

Carla K. Shull, Aon Consulting, Panelist

Connie Wanberg, University of Minnesota, Panelist

76. Poster Session: Saturday, 8:00 - 9:50 Intl Hall South Foyer

Gender, Aging, Decision Making, and Culture/Climate



1998 S. Rains Wallace Dissertation Award

Alternative Models of Organizational and Managerial Decision Making: An Analysis of Compensation Decisions Using Soft Computing Methods

David W. Dorsey, American Institutes for Research

This research focuses on the emerging area of "soft computing" methods as useful isomorphic models of important cognitive processes. Research was conducted using actual managers and a simulated organizational decision task relating to merit pay. The results indicate that soft computing models generally outperform traditional methods. Conceptual implications are reviewed.



Factorial Invariance and Multirater Feedback

Robert B. Stennett, University of Georgia

C. Douglas Johnson, University of Georgia

Janet E. Hecht, University of Georgia

Troy Dwayne Green, University of Georgia

Kim Jackson, Assessment Plus, Inc.

Welyne M. Thomas, Assessment Plus, Inc.

The current, two-study investigation examined rating source issues as applied to multi-rater feedback systems. Differences (e.g., definitional differences, different opportunity to observe ratee behavior, factor structure) were evaluated using principal components analyses, structural equations modeling and multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Implications for the use of multi-source feedback are discussed.



Gender Differences in Mechanical Comprehension:
Reducing the Disparity Through Training

Christine Rechenberg, University of Akron

David S. Bernal, University of Akron

Andrea F. Snell, University of Akron

Two methods of training were evaluated on reducing gender differences in mechanical comprehension. The two interventions consisted of explicit and implicit training. Results demonstrated that both interventions enhanced performance across subjects. More importantly, gender differences existing prior to training were eliminated after the training interventions were completed.



A Climate for Customer Orientation in the Product Development
Department: Antecedents and Consequences

Karlien VanderHeyden, Vlerick School of Management

This is a study on the climate for customer orientation in the product development department of 14 manufacturing companies. The influence of some organizational practices (strategy, work facilitation, connectedness of departments) on the climate for customer orientation was examined. We also investigated the link between the climate for customer orientation and the perceptions of the customers.



Perceived Person-Organization Fit (P-O Fit) and Organization Choice Decisions

Meredith A. Ryan, Colorado State University

Research on subjective P-O fit has demonstrated that the direct measure plays an important role in determining job choice, but no research has been conducted with the indirect measure. The indirect measure was found to be positively related to objective P-O fit, the direct measure, organization attraction, and organization choice.



Organizing for Service Quality: National Tests of a Linkage Model

Eric Sundstrom, University of Tennessee

DonnaMaria C. Vigil-King, University of Tennessee

Jack W. Wiley, Gantz Wiley Research

A model linking organizational structure and practices with service quality and customer satisfaction was tested using three national sample surveys of employees of medium-to-large firms in 1993, 1995, and 1997. Employee-based measures of customer-centered organization consistently predicted employees’ perceptions of service quality and customer satisfaction in all 3 years.



Polychronic Time as an Artifact of Organizational Culture

Richard L. Frei, Temple University

Bernadette M. Racicot, SmithKline Beecham

Angela Travagline, Temple University

147 faculty members of a midsized university responded to questionnaires measuring monochronic work behaviors, perceived departmental time organization strategy, job-induced stress, and research productivity. Monochronic behaviors were significantly correlated with job-induced stress and number of publications. Perceived departmental time organization strategy was unrelated to monochronic behaviors or the outcome variables.



A Multitrait-Multimethod Examination of Hierarchical
Models of Psychological Climate

Boris B. Baltes, Wayne State University

Chris P. Parker, Northern Illinois University

Heather A. LaCost, Northern Illinois University

Robert Altmann, Northern Illinois University

Joseph Huff, Northern Illinois University

Scott A. Young, Northern Illinois University

A multitrait-multimethod data collection design was used to examine the James and James (1989) hierarchical model of psychological climate (PCg). Support for the PCg model was not found, indicating that researchers should refrain from the aggregation of psychological climate dimensions until additional evidence is presented that supports the PCg model.



An Empirical Evaluation of Competing Safety Climate Measurement Models

Lorin Mueller, University of Houston

Nancy Da Silva, University of Houston

Joellyn Townsend, University of Houston

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston

Three safety climate measurement models have been proposed by various researchers. Methodological and conceptual issues relating to previous studies are discussed. Results indicated that a six-factor model adapted from Zohar’s (1980) model provides the best fit to the observed data.



Another Look at Market Pay Range Effects on Job Choice

Scott Highhouse, Bowling Green State University

Alexandra Luong, Bowling Green State University

Shreya Sarkar, Bowling Green State University

Conventional wisdom suggests that pay will impact choice more when there is a wide market range. We suggest that this conclusion tells only part of the story concerning how pay range influences job choice, and show how the stage of choice determines the direction of effects.



Self-Efficacy’s Mediating Role in Success-Bred Escalation

Sonia M. Goltz, Michigan Technological University

This study indicated that self-efficacy mediates an effect of performance-related task experiences on escalation. Subjects who previously experienced reinforcement patterns resulting in their increased success had higher self-efficacy levels and temporarily exhibited increased failure when reinforcement was no longer forthcoming, relative to subjects who previously experienced patterns resulting in decreased success.



Individual Unionization Decisions: The Relative
Importance of Perceived Costs and Benefits

Steven Mellor, University of Connecticut

R. James Holzworth, University of Connecticut

James M. Conway, Central Connecticut University

Using Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM), we examined a decision model based on the relative importance of costs and benefits of union representation as assessed by the individual. Policy capturing results confirmed predictions about judgment policies averaged across individuals and policies based on situational differences.



Debiasing Evaluations of Organizational Decisions

Adam B. Butler, University of Wisconsin–Green Bay

R. Jason Weiss, University of Nebraska–Omaha

Decision evaluation is an important activity in individual and team performance appraisal. However, research indicates these evaluations may be biased by outcome knowledge. We found that knowledge of decision processes played a greater role in determining evaluations. In addition, instructions to avoid the outcome bias improved evaluations.



Handling the Load: Making Selection Decisions in Busy Managerial Environments

Dawn Tomasiewicz, Illinois State University

Cynthia R. Nordstrom, Illinois State University

Karen B. Williams, Illinois State University

Participants were randomly assigned to evaluate job candidate credentials in managerial environments high/low in cognitive load. Individual difference variables (need for cognition, cognitive ability) interacted with type of managerial environment—influencing both selection decisions and the number of interview questions generated by participants. Practical and conceptual implications are discussed.



Perceptions of Facilitator Neutrality: Effect on
Distributed Computer Mediated Groups

Paul W. Thurston, Air Force Institute of Technology

Jeffrey A. Lea, Air Force Institute of Technology

Cassie B. Barlow, Air Force Research Laboratory

Kenneth A. Graetz, University of Dayton

Group support systems combine computer and communication technology with human facilitation to allow geographically separated parties to collaborate and make decisions. Results from an experimental study show that the co-location and perceived alignment of the facilitator can negatively impact participants’ fairness perceptions, attitudes, information sharing, and ultimately group decision quality.



Are You Attracted? Would You Pursue? A Recruiting Policy-Capturing Study

Lynda Aiman-Smith, North Carolina State University

Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University

Factors determining recruits’ attraction to an organization may differ from those prompting job pursuit intentions. Using policy-capturing we studied the relationships of pay, promotional opportunity, lay-off policy, and ecological rating to organizational attractiveness or pursuit intentions. Ecological rating most strongly predicted attractiveness; pay most strongly predicted job pursuit intentions.



Diversity at a Distance: Comfort With a New Management-Team Member

Marcus M. Stewart, University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill

Benson Rosen, University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill

Evaluation of a new management team member was examined in the context of a decision-making simulation. White executives evaluated a minority new team member significantly higher than an identically situated white team member. Findings are discussed in terms of opportunities for minorities to break into higher-level management teams.



Impact of Diversity on Group Attitudes, Processes, and Performance

James B. Shaw, Bond University

Elain Barrett-Power, Bond University

Greg Southey, Queensland University of Technology

This study investigated the impact of diversity on group attitudes, processes and performance, as well as the moderating effect of "diversity management skills." Results show that diversity has a complex impact on work group performance. Both positive and negative effects of diversity were found on attitudinal, process, and performance measures.



Fit and Misfit: The "Bright Side" of Bad P-E Fit

Amy Buhl Conn, University of Maryland

Person-environment fit research has primarily focused on only the positive and negative consequences of good fit. This paper addresses the importance of the "bright side" of bad fit given the rapid changes taking place in the workplace and the influx of diverse workers. Theory and research is presented.



"Auslaender Raus!": Explaining Employment Discrimination in Germany

Joerg Dietz, Tulane University

Lars-Eric Petersen, Martin-Luther University, Halle/Saale, Germany

In a German study of employment discrimination, participants advised to maintain a homogenous (i.e., German) workforce selected fewer foreign applicants than did participants not advised to do so. A hypothesized interaction qualified this main effect: Only subtly prejudiced participants selected fewer foreign applicants, when advised to maintain a homogenous workforce.



Discriminatory Workplace Behaviors Against Blacks:
A Multidimensional Scaling Study

Joerg Dietz, Tulane University

Elizabeth Deitch, Tulane University

Erika L. Hayes, Emory University

Brian J. O’Leary, Tulane University

We studied the construct of discriminatory workplace behaviors against Blacks. Multidimensional scaling analyses indicated a two-dimensional typology of these behaviors. On the basis of regression analyses, the two dimensions were labeled work-relatedness and seriousness. The paper concludes with a discussion of the study’s implications and limitations.



Diversity Enhancement Plans, Fairness Perceptions, and Job Pursuit Intentions

Jerel E. Slaughter, Bowling Green State University

Evan F. Sinar, Bowling Green State University

Peter D. Bachiochi, Eastern Connecticut State University

This research examined reactions to various diversity enhancement plans (DEPs). African-American engineering students reacted to an excerpt from a recruitment brochure presenting one of six different plans. The effects of plans on job pursuit intentions were mediated by perceptions of fairness. Implications for minority recruitment and DEPs are discussed.



Acknowledging One’s Stigma in the Interview Setting: Strategy or Liability?

Michelle Hebl, Rice University

Robert E. Kleck, Dartmouth College

This study examined the impressions interviewers formed of applicants who did or did not acknowledge their stigmas in a job interview setting. Results revealed applicants possessing stigmas perceived as uncontrollable (e.g., physical disabilities) benefit somewhat from acknowledging whereas those possessing stigmas perceived as controllable (e.g., obesity) suffer dramatically from acknowledging.



Latinas and Affirmative Action: Self-Interest, Fairness,
Past Discrimination, and Acculturation

Isabel Vargas-Machuca, California State University–San Bernardino

Janet L. Kottke, California State University

Personal self-interest, perceived fairness of an affirmative action strategy, experience and knowledge of previous discrimination, and acculturation were used to predict attitude toward affirmative action (AAA) among Latinas. Consistent with previous research, self-interest and fairness correlated positively with AAA. Ethnic identity correlated with AAA, but previous discrimination did not.



Reactions to Directive and Participative Styles of Female Leaders

Kathie L. Pelletier, California State University–San Bernardino

Janet L. Kottke, California State University

Leadership style and sex-role deviation of leaders on participant perceptions of leader effectiveness, leader satisfaction, and task satisfaction were tested using video vignettes depicting scenarios of a female leader. Participants of both genders preferred the leader displaying the participative leadership style and in-role sex role behavior.



Reasonable Employment Accommodations: A Policy-Capturing Approach

Heather A. Honig, ACT, Inc.

Timothy Buckley, Louisiana State University

This study used policy capturing to examine the effects of characteristics of the person with a disability, characteristics of the accommodation, and characteristics of the observer on judgments of reasonable accommodation. Students and employed persons rated the profiles. Cost, previous performance level, and employment status influenced perceptions of reasonable accommodation.



Diversity of Life Experiences: The Development and Validation of a
Biographical Measure of Receptiveness to Dissimilar Others

Shane Douthitt, University of Georgia

Lillian T. Eby, University of Georgia

Shana Simon, University of Georgia

Christy McLendon, Tulane University

In light of changing demographics, one of the biggest future challenges for selection and promotion will be identifying individuals who are able to effectively work with dissimilar individuals and are receptive to differences in others. A reliable and valid biodata-based measure of receptiveness to dissimilar others was developed using traditional scale development techniques.



Ethnic Differences in Support for a "Typical" Affirmative Action Plan

Stephen L. Klineberg, Rice University

David A. Kravitz, American Institutes for Research

Support for a "typical" AAP was stronger among Blacks, than Hispanics, than Whites. Effects of some predictors (fairness ratings, frequency of preferential treatment) were similar across groups; effects of other predictors varied. The groups’ perceptions of the world (e.g., frequency of discrimination) were quite different, and attitudes differed accordingly.



Predicting Whites’ Attitudes Toward Two Affirmative Action Plans (AAPS)

David A. Kravitz, American Institutes for Research

Stephen L. Klineberg, Rice University

White adults preferred a "tiebreak" AAP that applied to situations of equal qualifications and Black underrepresentation to a "typical" AAP. This preference was due to respondents who: were not Democrats; rejected government responsibility for ensuring equal opportunity; believed affirmative action is unfair; believed discrimination against Blacks is neither ubiquitous nor rare.



Gender Differences in Management Styles

Justin Menkes, Claremont Graduate University

This study examines gender differences in the management styles of senior executives. Results suggest high level female managers are not more democratic than their male peers. Nor are they less comfortable wielding power over others. Results did suggest that female executives possess significantly better communication skills than their male counterparts.



Comparing the Standards Used in Determining
Hostile Environment Sexual Harassment

Allison E. Maue, Western Kentucky University

Elizabeth L. Shoenfelt, Western Kentucky University

A within-subjects comparison of hostile environment sexual harassment judgments made under the "reasonable person" and "reasonable woman" standards indicated while males change perceptions of harassment more often than females, the change was not dependent upon the particular standard used. Females more often found evidence of sexual harassment than did males.



Reactions to Accommodation: Effects of Disability, Reward, and Outcome

Adrienne J. Colella, Texas A&M University

Srikanth Goparaju, Texas A&M University

This experiment examined the effects of disability (dyslexia/sprain), reward (competitive/non-competitive), outcome, and accommodation (granted or not) on participants’ reactions to accommodating a disabled person in a contest scenario. Results show that these factors influenced reactions, and that an accommodation need not be granted, just requested, to elicit negative reactions.



Organizational Demographic Diversity, Competitive
Pay Scales, and Organizational Attractiveness

James M. LeBreton, University of Tennessee–Knoxville

Scott Bedwell, Illinois State University

Robert B. Kaiser, Kaplan DeVries, Inc.

An interactionist methodology was used to investigate how individual difference variables (e.g., openness to experience) moderated the effects of organizational demographic stratification (e.g., race and gender stratification) and organizational pay level on perceived organizational attractiveness. Support for some hypotheses was found, replicating and extending previous findings.



Identity Management Strategies: A Quantitative Investigation

Scott B. Button, Defense Manpower Data Center

The study examined the strategies used by lesbian and gay employees to manage a stigmatized sexual identity in organizational settings. The results revealed that sexual minorities may counterfeit a false heterosexual identity, avoid the issue of sexuality altogether, or integrate a gay or lesbian identity into the work context.



Cross-Race and Same-Gender Interactions: Bias in Sexual Harassment Cases?

Julie Holliday-Wayne, University of Georgia

Kecia M. Thomas, University of Georgia

Christine M. Riordan, University of Georgia

Psychological research has focused on males’ sexual harassment of females. Recent court decisions (Oncale v. Sundowner, 1998) have elucidated the need to study less common forms of sexual harassment. This study included females harassing males, same-gender, and cross-race harassment. Results indicated biases against males harassing females and same-gender harassers.



What Are Stereotypes of Older Workers and Who Knows This?

Jennifer Hurd Gray, University of Akron/Saville & Holdsworth Ltd.

A considerable amount of research has examined the relations between applicant age and selection decisions. This research, however, is limited by measurement and research design factors. The present study addressed the first limitation by examining the content and construct validity of older worker bias.



The Development of Measures of Age and Generation Identity

Lisa Finkelstein, Northern Illinois University

Melvin E. Gonnerman, Northern Illinois University

Brian A. Johnson, Northern Illinois University

Within the framework of Social Identity Theory, multidimensional age and generation identity measures were developed. Using a three-phase approach, we found initial evidence for the reliability and factor structure of these scales. Age and generation identity appear to be separate constructs that may have differential usefulness in predicting work-related behavior.



Organizational Practices for Increasing Retention:
A Look Across Organizations

James D. Westaby, New York University

This study examined how industrial/organizational psychology practices across organizations impact retention variables. Organizational size and revenue were used as controls. Results indicated that selection and training initiatives had an impact on retention, which also impacted perceived retention success. Increased exit interviewing had a negative impact on retention success, as predicted.



Self-Efficacy as a Critical Variable in Occupational Burnout:
A Cross Cultural Examination

Pamela L. Perrew, Florida State University

David A. Ralston, University of Connecticut

Wayne A. Hochwarter, University of Alabama

Mina Westman, Tel Aviv University

Ana Maria Rossi, Clinica de Stress e Biofeedback

Alan Wallace, International University of Japan

Guenther Vollmer, Fachochschule Ludwigsburg

Maureen Tang, Lingnan College

Paulina Wan, Lingnan College

This study empirically examines self-efficacy as a mediating/explanatory variable in the occupational role stressor-burnout relationship across seven cultures. Findings suggest that self-efficacy consistently has a negative relationship with burnout and may help to explain why occupational role stressors have a positive association with burnout.



Predictors of Skill Development and Utilization
Across Four Geographic Regions

Gabriela Guerrero, IBM

Sara P. Weiner, IBM

A world wide organizational survey administered across 50 countries and 14 languages showed that personal accomplishment, management coaching, and a link between job and company’s objectives are among the best predictors of skill utilization and development. Striking similarities were seen across four geographic regions and individual countries.



The Role of Retirement Expectations and Social
Support in Post-Retirement Satisfaction

Mary Anne Taylor, Clemson University

Caren Goldberg, George Washington University

Lynn M. Shore, Georgia State University

This study is an investigation of changes in retirement adjustment over time. Life, social, and retirement satisfaction were measured three months after retirement and ten months after retirement. Predictors were retirement expectations and social support. As expected, expectations and information from others had the strongest impact early in retirement.



Accountability in Performance Appraisal: Higher Accuracy and Reduced Errors

Jerry K. Palmer, Southeastern Louisiana University

Jack M. Feldman, Georgia Institute of Technology

Todd J. Maurer, Georgia Institute of Technology

We investigated the effect of holding raters accountable to an accuracy criterion and individual differences in need for cognition on rating accuracy, contrast, and halo. Accountable subjects produced ratings with less positive halo and context-induced contrast, and higher accuracy. Need for cognition moderated the effect of accountability on halo.



Using Criterion Decomposition to Enhance Decision Making Team Performance

Jeffery A. LePine, University of Florida

John R. Hollenbeck, Michigan State University

Daniel R. Ilgen, Michigan State University

Jason A. Colquitt, Michigan State University

Aleks Ellis, Michigan State University

Criterion decomposition is used to identify variables that are predictive of the component of decision accuracy least well predicted by the Multilevel Theory of team decision making. A study of 80 teams demonstrated that aggressiveness and mean bias feedback improved prediction over and above that explained by the original constructs.



Big Five Validity and Adverse Impact for Customer Service Managers

Carl E. Eidson, BI-LO, Inc.

Philip L. Roth, Clemson University

Thomas L. Killen, Clemson University

Brenda K. Przybyla, BI-LO, Inc.

Jana D. Fallon, University of Southern Mississippi

The Big Five personality dimensions showed both validity and adverse impact in a concurrent validation project for the job of Customer Service Manager. Conscientiousness and agreeableness both predicted performance ratings. However, conscientiousness was also associated with lower scores for African Americans (d = .68) and adverse impact.

77. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50 Imperial A

Techniques for Reducing Faking: Some Old Dogs and New Tricks

Those using noncognitive selection measures frequently search for techniques which will prevent intentional response distortion or identify the fakers in the applicant pool. Two empirical studies evaluate the effectiveness of traditional methods (e.g., warnings and lie scales) and two papers introduce innovative techniques for reducing applicant faking.

Andrea F. Snell, University of Akron, Chair

Stephen A. Dwight, Aon Consulting, Do Warnings Not to Fake Actually Reduce Applicant Faking?

Eric Sydell, University of Akron, Andrea F. Snell, University of Akron, Understanding Validity Scales Used in Personnel Selection

Jennifer R. D. Burgess, University of Tennessee, Debrah Z. Migetz, University of Tennessee–Knoxville, Lawrence R. James, University of Tennessee–Knoxville, Robert T. Ladd, University of Tennessee–Knoxville, Addressing Self-Enhancement Bias with Conditional Reasoning Technology

David S. Bernal, University of Akron, Andrea F. Snell, University of Akron, Daniel J. Svyantek, University of Akron, Chera L. Haworth, University of Akron, Faking Out the Fakers: A New Technique of Scale Construction

Joseph G. Ross, University of Colorado, Discussant

78. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50 Marquis IV

Partnerships in Strategic Organizational Change and Culture Transformation

This forum presents two examples of successful large-scale organizational change efforts implemented through partnerships between corporations and I-O psychology consultants. Papers will be co-presented and share a focus

on issues such as business strategy design and implementation, and organizational change and effectiveness. The discussant will encourage and lead audience participation.

Kevin J. Nilan, 3M, Chair

Robert F. Silzer, HR Assessment & Development, Inc., Colleen Clark, Eastern Mountain Sports, Partnership in Organizational Change and Leadership Development

Robert C. Barnett, MDA Consulting Group, Inc., James L. Scott, Premier, Inc., Partnership in Organizational Culture Transformation

P. Richard Jeanneret, Jeanneret & Associates, Discussant

79. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50 Madrid/Trinidad

Organizational Application of 360-Feedback: Practical Issues and Implications

360-degree feedback continues to be a popular organizational tool. This practitioner forum will take a very applied approach to the use of 360-degree feedback. Presenters will illustrate different issues, implications, and solutions of using a 360 tool within their organization. Different organizations and industries are represented. Audience participation is encouraged.

Mariangela Battista, The Pepsi Bottling Group, Chair

Eryn A. O’Brien, Bank of America, Using 360 to Facilitate Culture Change

Albert L. Brockwell, Young & Rubicam, Inc., International Concerns in 360 Assessment and Feedback

Peter M. Leddy, PepsiCo, Vera Vitels, PepsiCo, Continuous Improvement of the 360-Degree Instrument to Support Major Organizational Change

80. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50 Intl Salon A

How Top Management Groups Influence Innovation and Effectiveness

We explore the unique role of top management groups in influencing the innovation and effectiveness of their organizations. We discuss how group composition, leadership, the organization’s environment and group processes interact and lead to organizational outcomes, by examining existing theory and two empirical studies of top management groups in organizations.

Richard A. Guzzo, William M. Mercer, Inc., Chair

Kevin D. Clark, University of Maryland, Chris Collins, University of Maryland, Ken G. Smith, University of Maryland, Cynthia Kay Stevens, University of Maryland, A Relational Approach to Top Management Groups: Social Capital, Information Processing, Co-Optation, and Efficiency

Patrick Flood, University of Limerick, Eithne Hannan, University of Sheffield, Ken G. Smith, University of Maryland, Michael West, University of Sheffield, Chief Executive Leadership and the Top Management Team: The Impact on Group Processes, Team Effectiveness and Economic Performance

Michael West, University of Sheffield, Malcolm Patterson, University of Sheffield, The Effectiveness of Top Management Groups in Manufacturing Organizations

Robert D. Pritchard, Texas A&M University, Discussant

81. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50 Intl Salon C

Team Development Interventions: What’s Appropriate and When?

The continual development of teams in the workplace depends partly upon the implementation of effective interventions. Unfortunately, team training, team building, and other developmental activities are often conducted without careful consideration of team and task properties. This symposium will address the ramifications of team characteristics on intervention selection, design, and implementation.

Stephen J. Zaccaro, George Mason University, Chair

Kenneth N. Wexley, Human Resource Decisions, Inc., A Practitioner’s Guide to Team Interventions

Susan Mohammed, Pennsylvania State University, John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University, Bart Barlett, Pennsylvania State University, Greg E. Loviscky, Pennsylvania State University, Adam S. Rosenberg, Pennsylvania State University, Tamara L. Williams, Pennsylvania State University, Johnathan Probber, Pennsylvania State University, The Effect of Team Characteristics on Training Outcomes: What are the Lessons Learned?

K. Lee Kiechel, George Mason University, Deanna Banks, George Mason University, Not All Teams are Created Equal: A Meta-Analysis of Team Building Interventions

Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch, Naval Air Warfare Center Training System Division, Eduardo Salas, Naval Air Warfare Center Training System Division, Janis Cannon-Bowers, Naval Air Warfare Center Training System Division, Steven Hall, Naval Air Warfare Center Training System Division, Stability of Team Membership as a Factor in Team Training Design

Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Discussant

82. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50 Intl Salon E

Work/Family Spillover in Dual Earner Couples: An Interactive Symposium

The increase in dual-earner couples presents conceptual as well as methodological challenges in building and testing theory on how work/family practices influence effective role performance and well-being. Investigators illustrate new research approaches and engage the audience in a unique set of roundtable discussions on these topics.

Robert D. Caplan, George Washington University, Chair

Robert D. Caplan, George Washington University, How Can Dual-Earner Families Cope with Employment/Family Demands? Elements of a Multi-Level Theory

Tanya Brubaker, George Washington University, Naomi Harris, George Washington University, David P. Costanza, George Washington University, Darnell Cloud, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Ruth Kashian, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Issues in Dual Earner Research Design: Studying One Partner’s Job as a Context for the Other’s

Robert Drago, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Tammy Riggs, University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee, Robert D. Caplan, George Washington University, Studying Time as the Mediator Between Work/Family Practices and Outcomes

David P. Costanza, George Washington University, Robert D. Caplan, George Washington University, The Challenges of Analyzing Dual Earner Work-Family Data: Issues and Examples

83. Symposium: Saturday, 8:30 - 9:50 Intl Salon G

Global Employee Surveys: Challenges and Solutions

This session will provide empirical studies and practical perspectives on issues related to the implementation and interpretation of global employee surveying. Specifically, we will discuss potential purposes of global surveying, using web-based technology, using cross-cultural research to refine instruments, and interpreting data aggregated to the country level.

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Chair

Sarah R. Johnson, Eastman Kodak Co., Global Employee Surveys: So What’s the Point?

Michael Horvath, Michigan State University, Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Robert E. Ployhart, Michigan State University, L. Allen Slade, Ford Motor Company, Hypothesizing Differential Item Functioning in Global Employee Opinion Surveys

Robert E. Ployhart, Michigan State University, Michael Horvath, Michigan State University, Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, L. Allen Slade, Ford Motor Company, Using Estimates of Within-Group Agreement to Assess the Appropriateness of Aggregate Level Survey Reports in a Multicultural Survey

L. Allen Slade, Ford Motor Company, Nicholas E. Mills, MORPACE International, Global Surveying Via the Web: Better, Faster, Cheaper, and More Chaotic

84. Special Event: Saturday, 9:00 - 9:50 Intl Salon B

1998 Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions

Controversial No More: Personality in Personnel Selection

This presentation focuses on the latest primary and meta-analytic evidence for (a) usefulness of personality constructs and their measurement for personnel selection (including issues of potential response distortion), (b) dimensionality of personality for prediction in light of the bandwidth-fidelity debate and conceptualization of criteria to be predicted. Incremental validity will also be discussed.

Frank L. Schmidt, University of Iowa, Chair

Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, Presenter

85. Symposium: Saturday, 9:00 - 9:50 Intl Salon F

Aggression in the Workplace: The Forgotten Problem

Although coworker violence is highly publicized, it is a special case of more generic forms of workplace aggression. This symposium brings together empirical research and commentary from applied and theoretical perspectives to address four questions relating to workplace aggression and stimulate research into this often neglected area of workplace behavior.

Robert T. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Co-Chair

Dana K. Shelton, Hogan Assessment Systems, Co-Chair

Ann M. Quigley, U.S. Postal Service, Organizational Consequences of Workplace Aggression

Suzy Fox, University of South Florida, Paul Spector, University of South Florida, An Affect- and Perception-Based Model of Counterproductive Work Behavior

Robert T. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, A Socioanalytic View of Aggression

Brent Holland, Hogan Assessment Systems, Dana K. Shelton, Hogan Assessment Systems, Shining a Light in the Dark: Exposing Workplace Aggression

Coffee Break: Saturday, 10:00 - 10:30 South Hall/North Foyer

86. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20 Imperial A

Innovations in Management Assessment

Changes in the demands placed on managers, new assessment technologies, and renewed interest in individual assessment have occurred. Five psychologists engaged in management assessment in different corporations describe how they approach assessment, what innovative methods they are using, and what research questions are most pressing.

Joseph L. Moses, Applied Research Corporation, Chair

Michelle M. Crosby, HRStrategies/Aon Consulting, Panelist

Kirk L. Rogg, Aon Consulting, Panelist

P. Richard Jeanneret, Jeanneret & Associates, Panelist

Ellen Van Velsor, Center for Creative Leadership, Panelist

Matt Pease, Development Dimensions International, Panelist

Jamie L. Winter, Development Dimensions International, Panelist

87. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20 Marquis III

Changing World—Changing I-O Practices: Some Examples and Likely Future

I-O concepts and practices are changing in response to a changing world of work. An "I" example: job analysis shifts towards "work analysis"; an "O" example: surveys focus on organizational goals rather than employee satisfaction. This symposium explores such changes, their causes, and asks "Is the sky really falling?"

Allen I. Kraut, Kraut Associates, Chair

Allen I. Kraut, Kraut Associates, Abraham K. Korman, Baruch College, The "DELTA Forces" Causing Change.

Juan I. Sanchez, Florida International University, Edward L. Levine, University of South Florida, Is Traditional Job Analysis Dead, Misunderstood, or Both? New Forms of Work Analysis and Design

Lise M. Saari, IBM, Allen I. Kraut, Kraut Associates, The New Role of Organizational Surveys

Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland, Is the Sky Falling?

Ann Howard, President, Leadership Research Institute, Discussant

88. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50 Marquis IV

The Current State of Meta-Analysis in I-O Psychology: Promises Fulfilled?

Panelists will follow up on the well-known "Forty Questions" (1985) article/debate by presenting critical meta-analysis and validity generalization issues that have been adequately addressed, that are still at large, and that have surfaced since the article was published. The practical and conceptual importance of these issues for I-O psychology will be emphasized.

Frederick L. Oswald, Purdue University, Chair

Frank L. Schmidt, University of Iowa, Panelist

Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota, Panelist

Jerard F. Kehoe, AT&T, Panelist

Rodney A. McCloy, HumRRO, Panelist

89. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20 Copenhagen

360-Degree Feedback Assessments: Psychometric and Substantive Issues

Research continues to lag behind the widespread use of 360-degree feedback assessments in industry. This symposium attempts to bridge this gap by bringing together a group of academics and practitioners who are studying substantive issues related to these assessments but are also rigorously evaluating the methods which we use to investigate these issues.

Bruce Fisher, Illinois Institute of Technology, Co-Chair

Chet Robie, University of Houston, Co-Chair

Veronica Schmidt Harvey, Aon Consulting, Sandra M. Cartagena, Aon Consulting, A Longitudinal Study of the Effects of Multi-Rater Feedback

Mark C. Frame, Illinois Institute of Technology, Roya Ayman, Illinois Institute of Technology, Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, Maynard Goff, Personnel Decisions International, Executive Level Multirater Performance Appraisal: Measurement Equivalence Across Source and Gender

Chet Robie, University of Houston, Gary J. Greguras, Louisiana State University, Maynard Goff, Personnel Decisions International, 360-Degree Measurement Equivalence: Effects of Management Experience

Cynthia A. Searcy, American Institute for Research, Gary J. Lautenschlager, University of Georgia, A Monte Carlo Investigation of DIF Assessment for Polytomously Scored Items

Barbara B. Ellis, University of Houston, Discussant

Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, Discussant

90. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20 Madrid/Trinidad

Exploring White Racial Identity & "De-Centering Whiteness":
New Directions for Diversity Research

The symposium’s goal, like that of the "White Studies" movement, is to explore White Racial Identity in order to: (a) better understand the diversity of the White experience and thus de-center it in research and practice, (b) comprehend inclinations toward valuing and resisting diversity; and (c) subsequently facilitate interracial relationships.

Kecia M. Thomas, University of Georgia, Chair

David V. Day, Pennsylvania State University, Christina A. Douglas, Center for Creative Leadership, Exploring Whiteness in the Lessons of a Diverse Workforce

Donna Chrobot-Mason, University of Colorado–Denver, Measuring White Ethnic Identity: Exploring Differences between Minority and Majority Members in the Conceptualization of Ethnic Identity

Jodi Barnes Nelson, North Carolina State University, Values and Ethnic Identity Among Whites in the Workplace

Dan A. Mack, University of Georgia, C. Douglas Johnson, University of Georgia, Troy Dwayne Green, University of Georgia, Anthony G. Parisi, IBM, Kecia M. Thomas, University of Georgia, Relationship of White Ethnic and Racial Identity to Affirmative Action and Motivation to Control Prejudice

Bernardo M. Ferdman, California School of Professional Psychology, Discussant

91. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50 Consulate

Getting the Most Out of Training: Training Design and Evaluation

Developments in training design and evaluation strategies are reviewed. Two presentations focus on research that explores motivational and contextual factors affecting training outcomes. The two remaining presentations focus on expanding the current set of evaluation strategies used in organizations, and increasing the use of evaluation data for improving training effectiveness.

Miguel A. Quiones, Rice University, Chair

Wendy L. Richman, RAND, Post-Training Interventions to Enhance Transfer: The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy and Work Environments

Dana McDonald-Mann, Center for Creative Leadership, Irwin L. Goldstein, University of Maryland, Individual Perceptions of Organizational Practices, Reactions to These Practices and Training Performance

Kenneth G. Brown, University of Iowa, Megan M. Werner, University of Iowa, Lynn A. Johnson, University of Iowa, James T. Dunne, University of Iowa, Formative Evaluation in Industrial-Organizational Psychology: Further Efforts to Broaden Training Evaluation

J. Bruce Tracey, Cornell University, Scott I. Tannenbaum, Executive Consulting Group/University at Albany, SUNY, Key Considerations for Evaluating Team Training

Raymond A. Noe, Michigan State University, Discussant

92. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:20 Sydney

Creative Validation: Issues in Practice

Practitioners encounter many challenges in the development and implementation of selection systems in organizations. These papers will explore some of the issues faced in practice (e.g., criterion development, educating non-I-O personnel, the nature of I-O training, organizational culture, statistical issues) and offer some pragmatic solutions from internal and external consultants.

Elaine M. Engle, FBI, Chair

Beverly A. Dugan, HumRRO, The Testing Professional as Change Agent

Julia McElreath, Wayne State University, Elaine M. Engle, FBI, Challenges in Implementation: Why it Never Turns Out Exactly as Planned

Leslie Eckert, Consulting Psychologists, Inc., Kristofer J. Fenlason, Consulting Psychologists, Inc., Vernon A. Peterson, University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Competency-Based Criterion Development and Validation

Wanda J. Campbell, Edison Electric Institute, Meeting Professional Standards in the Field

Kerrie Q. Baker, FBI, Discussant

93. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20 Intl Salon A

Getting a Job: Words of Wisdom from Those Who Know

This panel discussion addresses both academic and applied job search issues. Panelists will offer tips and pointers on how to develop effective job hunting survival skills. In addition, the session provides a unique opportunity for the audience to learn about "behind the scenes" occurrences that directly influence employers’ selection decisions.

Lori L. Foster, University of South Florida, Co-Chair

Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, Co-Chair

Dawn Riddle, University of South Florida, Co-Chair

Steven D. Ashworth, Microsoft Corporation, Panelist

Walter C. Borman, University of South Florida/Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Panelist

Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Panelist

David W. Dorsey, American Institutes for Research, Panelist

Cynthia Kay Stevens, University of Maryland, Panelist

94. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50 Intl Salon B

Diversity as a Strategic HR Initiative: Obstacles to
Changing Workforce Composition

Despite changing workforce demographics, many organizations still face difficulties in attracting and retaining a diverse workforce. This symposium focuses specifically on difficulties encountered despite organizations’ strategic commitments to enhancing diversity.

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Chair

Joshua M. Sacco, Michigan State University, Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Lynn A. McFarland, Michigan State University, S. David Kriska, City of Columbus, Ohio, Minority Self-Selection as an Obstacle to Diversity Enhancement: Correlates and Concerns

S. David Kriska, City of Columbus, Ohio, Making Strategic Recruitment Decisions: Using Geographic Test Score and Survey-Based Diversity Information

Danielle A. Jennings, Michigan State University, Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, The Portrayal of Diversity in Recruitment Materials and Minority Attraction

Richard L. Smith, Ford Motor Company, Ford Motor Company’s Use of Workforce Planning to Support its Diversity Strategy

James A. Breaugh, University of Missouri–St Louis, Discussant

95. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50 Intl Salon C

Current Issues in the Use of Structural Equations Modeling

Presenters in this symposium will discuss several issues related to the use of structural equation modeling (SEM) including the formation of composites, modeling longitudinal data, and testing for interactions. Papers emphasize evaluation of current practice as well as suggest newer applications of SEM techniques.

Paul Tesluk, Tulane University, Chair

Ronald S. Landis, Tulane University, Daniel J. Beal, Tulane University, Paul Tesluk, Tulane University, A Comparison of Approaches to Forming Composites in Structural Equation Modeling

David Chan, National University of Singapore, Applying Mean and Covariance Structure Analysis in Longitudinal Studies

Richard P. DeShon, Michigan State University, Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, An Evaluation of Methods for Modeling Interactions in Structural Equation Models

Jos M. Cortina, George Mason University, Gilad Chen, George Mason University, William P. Dunlap, Tulane University, An Idiot’s Guide to Multiplicative Effects in Structural Equation Models

Jeffrey R. Edwards, University of North Carolina, Discussant

96. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:20 Intl Salon D

Practical Solutions to Selection Pitfalls in Personality Testing

This practitioner forum features three experienced organizational psychologists who will explore issues of concern with the use of personality measures in organizations. Particular emphasis will be placed on how personality tests are actually used by psychologists, the problems of giving feedback to clients, and strategies for testing in small-N settings.

Andrew J. Passen, O’Brien, Passen & Associates, Inc., Chair

Alan D. Mead, Institute for Personality & Ability Testing, Presenter

Gary A. Kustis, O’Brien, Passen & Associates, Inc., Presenter

Paschal B. Baute, Institute for Human Responsiveness, Inc., Presenter

97. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50 Intl Salon E

Using Personality for Workplace Applications: More Is Not Always Better

Traditionally, research has focused on the positive characteristics associated with high scores on measures of personality-leading to a "more is always better" philosophy. Papers in this symposium examine bidirectional and nonlinear relationships between personality measures and performance criteria and explores the impact they have on selection and development processes.

Suzan McDaniel, Hogan Assessment Systems, Co-Chair

Kimberly R. Brinkmeyer, CDR Assessment Group, Co-Chair

Robert P. Tett, Wright State University, Douglas N. Jackson, University of Western Ontario, Mitchell Rothstein, University of Western Ontario, Bidirectionality in Personality-Job Performance Relations

Suzan McDaniel, Hogan Assessment Systems, The Dark Side of the Big Five: New Perspectives for Personnel Selection

Robert R. Sinclair, University of Tulsa, Cynthia Banas, University of Tulsa, Rachel Lyne, University of Tulsa, Non-Linear Personality Performance Relations: Theory, Assessment Methods, and Empirical Evidence

Kimberly R. Brinkmeyer, CDR Assessment Group, An Investigation of the Relationship Between Personality and Receptivity to Feedback

Robert M. Guion, Bowling Green State University, Discussant

98. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:50 Intl Salon F

Partnerships, Politics, and Psychopathology: Industrial
Psychology in the Early 20th Century

This symposium focuses on early 20th century influences on the development of industrial psychology as a discipline. The presenters will challenge some commonly held beliefs about the development of our field, and reveal some new insights that textbook accounts of our history fail to provide.

Scott Highhouse, Bowling Green State University, Co-Chair

Laura L. Koppes, Tri-State University, Co-Chair

Mark A. Griffin, University of Queensland, The Impact of the Australian Context on the Work of Elton Mayo

Frank J. Landy, SHL Landy Jacobs, Inc., Elton Mayo and Reverie

Scott Highhouse, Bowling Green State University, Frazier in the Factory: The Brief History of Personnel Counseling in I-O

Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University, On the Late Adoption of Statistical Techniques in Industrial Psychology

Kathy W. Keith, University of North Texas, Cheryl Harris, University of North Texas, Koy Roberts, University of North Texas, Dave Baker, University of North Texas, Carnegie Tech: A Story in the History of American Applied Psychology

99. Symposium: Saturday, 10:30 - 11:20 Intl Salon G

The Theory of Reasoned Action: Explorations,
Expansions, and Business Applications

The theory of reasoned action is one of the predominant theories explaining the relationship between attitudes and behaviors. However, it does not address how the relationship among attitudes, behaviors, and intentions changes over time. This symposium presents research that examines this relationship cross-sectionally, longitudinally, and with computational modeling.

Paul Erdahl, Medtronic, Inc., Chair

Paul Erdahl, Medtronic, Inc., Expanding on the Theory of Reasoned Action: A Longitudinal Analysis

Mindy E. Bergman, University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign, Paul Erdahl, Medtronic, Inc., Longitudinal Explorations of Attitude-Behavior Linkages

Liberty J. Munson, University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign, Computational Modeling and the Theory of Reasoned Action

Theresa M. Glomb, University of Minnesota, Discussant

100. Roundtable: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20 Intl Salon H

Making the Leap: Transitioning from Graduate School to Consulting Careers

This roundtable will focus on issues and concerns facing advanced graduate students and early career consulting professionals. Participants will have an opportunity to ask questions about the realities of external consulting, and the resulting discussion will highlight ways in which graduate school does and does not prepare students for consulting careers.

Laurie B. Buchanan, Personnel Decisions International, Host

Bernard G. Bedon, Towers Perrin, Panelist

Lorry A. Olson, University of South Florida, Panelist

Jeffrey A. Smith, Personnel Decisions International, Panelist

Paige Porter Wolf, Aon Consulting, Panelist

101. Poster Session: Saturday, 10:30 - 12:20 Intl Hall South Foyer




Selection Interviews of Overweight Job Applicants:
Can Structure Reduce the Bias?

Eugene J. Kutcher, Montclair State University

Jennifer DeNicolis Bragger, Montclair State University

While much research has supported the structured selection interview’s advantages in terms of inter-rater consistency and predictive validity, none have investigated its ability to mitigate the effects of nonverbal cues and subjective biases. In the present study, structured interviews were found to reduce the discriminatory bias against overweight job applicants.



Validation of the Buss-Perry Aggression Scale With Law Enforcement Cadets

Matt L. Riggs, California State University–San Bernardino

Byron E. Greenberg, Loma Linda University

A shortened version of the Buss-Perry Aggression Scale was piloted on a sample of law enforcement academy cadets. Results of a confirmatory factor analysis supported the proposed four-factor solution. Other results indicate areas for scale improvement. Potential applications are discussed.



Faking Strategies: Effects on a Situational Judgment Test

Aaron C. Haas, University of Akron

Kathryn C. Smith, University of Akron

Michael A. McDaniel, Virginia Commonwealth University

Four faking strategies emerged from a factor analysis of faking strategies on a SJT. The Blatant Faking and Item/Position Relevant Faking factors were related to improvement in test scores. The Smart Fakers factor showed little relationship to faking scores. The Honest Responders factor was related to good job performance.



Can Individual Differences in Need for Cognition Moderate
Message Processing in Recruitment Practices?

Richard Buda, Hofstra University

The moderating effect of individual differences in need for cognition (NFC) on the processing of framed messages and source credibility during realistic job previews was studied (N = 200). Results indicate peripheral route processing was used by low NFC subjects while high NFC subjects preferred central route processing.



Examining Relationships Between Behavior Checklist
and Judgmental Assessment Center Ratings

James M. LeBreton, University of Tennessee–Knoxville

Laura Gniatcyzk, University of Tennessee–Knoxville

Debrah Z. Migetz, University of Tennessee–Knoxville

Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (N = 659), were used to identify the underlying factor structure of 45 behavior checklist ratings. The resulting 2-factor model was cross-validated (N = 658; N = 533) and then analyzed with judgmental ratings. Results suggested the predictive validity of behavior checklist ratings was mediated through the judgmental ratings.



The Importance of Judgment Calls and Accurate Processes
in Meta-Analytic Selection Matrices

Philip Bobko, Gettysburg College

Philip L. Roth, Clemson University

Denise Potosky, Pennsylvania State University

Meta-analytic matrices must be carefully constructed. Schmitt et al. (1997) use such a matrix and conclude that non-cognitive selection measures result in "near zero" adverse impact. Our re-analysis changes results meaningfully (race effect size of d = .36). The criticality of judgments and decisions in meta-analysis is emphasized.



Traditional Tests and Telephone Simulations:
Minority and Majority Performance

Amy E. Mills, Aon Consulting

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University

This study compared traditional paper-and-pencil tests with a job simulation. Results showed that the simulation had smaller subgroup differences than the traditional tests, yet measured similar constructs across Caucasians and African-Americans. The use of such simulations may help employers select skilled employees and ethnically diversify their workplace.



Candidate Orientation Programs: Effects on Test Scores and Adverse Impact

Jeffrey A. Ryer, Aon Consulting

David B. Schmidt, Aon Consulting

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University

This study evaluates the effects of an orientation program for entry-level manufacturing job candidates, designed to inform candidates about the selection system content and process. Compared to a control group, orientation participation was associated with higher basic abilities test scores, higher pass rates and less adverse impact.



Temp-To-Work Employees: A Longitudinal Study of On-The-Job Success

Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University

It was predicted that temporary worker personality and accommodation would predict which temporary employees were offered full-time employment. Longitudinal data collection resulted in data on 136 "temp-to-work" employees’ data being analyzed. Results support examining temporary worker personality (tolerance for ambiguity) and accommodation to understand temporary worker success.



Drug Use, Drug Test Consequences, and Drug Testing Fairness

Donald M. Truxillo, Portland State University

James L. Normandy, Portland State University

Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University

A statewide telephone survey indicated that drug use and drug test consequences (termination versus rehabilitation) had main and interaction effects on the perceived fairness of organizational drug testing. Results are interpreted in terms of organizational justice theory, and implications for implementing drug testing programs are discussed.



Multidimensionality of Fairness in Written and Video-Based Tests

Donald M. Truxillo, Portland State University

Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University

Reactions of 246 police applicants to written and video-based tests were compared in terms of five dimensions of selection system fairness. Each test proved superior on certain dimensions. Fairness perceptions at the time of testing predicted overall selection system fairness measured after candidates received their test results.



Impression Management and Faking in Biodata Scores Among Chinese Job-Seekers

Kenneth S. Law, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

William H. Mobley, PDI Global Research Consortia

Chi-Sum Wong, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

Xiao-Ping Chen, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology

Repeated measures of university seniors on a biodata instrument showed that those who scored low on the biodata scale had a much higher magnitude of faking behaviors. Scores on an integrity scale were found to be predictive of the magnitude of faking.



A Case of the Conjunction Fallacy: Physical Attractiveness and Selection

Natale K. Polinko, Ohio University

The representativeness heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman, 1972) was proposed and tested, with the conjunction rule, as a theory of organizational physical attractiveness bias. Hypothesized to reduce this bias was a systematic (versus heuristic) mode of processing (Chaiken & Maheswaran, 1996). All hypotheses were supported and implications of the results are discussed.



Broadening the Scope of Applicant Reactions Research

Robert E. Ployhart, Michigan State University

Douglas C. Maynard, Bowling Green State University

We investigated whether applicant fairness perceptions are moderated by job desirability and competition. Using a policy-capturing design, we found that job-relatedness, job desirability, and competition influenced fairness perceptions, organizational attitudes, and job choice. Future research needs to consider these factors to gain an adequate understanding of applicant perceptions and behaviors.



Effects of Test Preparation Programs on Predictive Validity and Self-Efficacy

Robert E. Ployhart, Michigan State University

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University

Patrick R. Conley, Conley Group

Bradley J. West, Bowling Green State University

The effects of a test preparation program on applicants’ reactions to an assessment center were examined. In addition, potential relations between goal orientation and perceptions of training effectiveness and applicant reactions were explored. Results suggest that both pre-program impressions and goal orientation are important influences on post-program reactions.



Managerial Perceptions of Overqualification in the Selection Process

Douglas C. Maynard, Bowling Green State University

Milton D. Hakel, Bowling Green State University

Overqualification in selection has received practically no attention in our field. Managers were interviewed about their perceptions, predictions, and policies toward overqualified applicants. Definitions of overqualification generally included surplus education or experience. Managers were somewhat willing to consider such applicants, but predicted negative consequences, such as turnover and job dissatisfaction.



Company Web-Sites as a Recruiting Mechanism:
What Influences Applicant Impressions?

Christine Scheu, Michigan State University

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University

Fadyah Nona, Michigan State University

As technology changes, there is a need for research that addresses its implications. This study investigated company web-sites as recruiting mechanisms. Specifically, we found that potential applicants’ perceptions of company web-sites influenced their perceptions of the company and ultimately their intentions to apply to that company.



Explanations, Outcome and Self-Efficacy: Effects on Applicant Reactions

Michael Horvath, Michigan State University

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University

Sandra Stierwalt, Bowling Green State University

This study examined the effects of different explanations for a selection test with relation to outcome favorability and self-efficacy. Undergraduate subjects completed a selection test and reported their perceptions. The type of explanation and outcome favorability interacted with subjects’ self-efficacy in determining perceptions. Implications and research directions are discussed.



Integrating Stakeholder Values and Scientific Judgment
to Evaluate Selection Procedures

Evan F. Sinar, Bowling Green State University

Scott Highhouse, Bowling Green State University

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University

We propose a methodology, adapted from Hammond and Adelman (1976), for integrating stakeholder values and scientific judgment in the evaluation of employee selection procedures. We apply this approach to firefighter selection and discuss its implications for balancing the concerns of multiple constituencies relevant to employee selection scenarios.



Perceived Plausibility of Organizational Value
Statements in Recruitment Brochures

Jody Hoffman, Bowling Green State University

Scott Highhouse, Bowling Green State University

Eric M. Greve, Bowling Green State University

Allison Elder, Bowling Green State University

Third-party sources of recruitment information were perceived as more credible by potential job applicants and produced stronger application intentions than direct (i.e., company brochure) sources. Anecdotal company information presented in a brochure produced the most negative reactions, while anecdotal information presented in a newspaper article produced the most positive reactions.



Using Test Scores and Response Latencies to Predict Training Performance

Nicholas L. Vasilopoulos, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service

Randolph K. Park, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service

Lisa Malik, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service

Hannah B. Sterns, Washington University

This study found that scores and response latencies obtained from an artificial language test uniquely predicted performance in a Spanish course at the U.S. Border Patrol Academy. It is suggested that test scores reflected the ability to learn grammatical rules, while response latencies reflected the ability to apply these rules.



Demonstrating a Curvilinear Relationship Between
Personality and Performance in Training

Nicholas L. Vasilopoulos, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service

Paul D. Usala, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service

Julia A. Leaman, U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service

This study found a curvilinear relationship between training performance and measures of conscientiousness, initiative, emotional maturity. For each dimension, scores in the low end of the distribution were significantly related to training performance, while scores in the middle and high ends of the distribution were unrelated to training performance.



Invade or Evade? The Trade-Off Between Privacy Invasion and Item Fakability

George M. Alliger, University at Albany, SUNY

Stephen A. Dwight, Aon Consulting

Previous research reported a positive correlation between the perceived invasiveness and perceived fakability of overt integrity test items. The extent that items rated as invasive were actually susceptible to faking was investigated. An inverse relationship was found. Making an overt integrity test less invasive will render it more fakable.



Evaluations of Affirmative Action Beneficiaries
Performing Mental and Physical Tasks

Holly A. Traver, University at Albany, SUNY

George M. Alliger, University at Albany, SUNY

Competence evaluations were assessed after subjects read scenarios of police officers performing mental or physical tasks. Male raters perceived female officers and affirmative action female officers as less competent only for the nonevaluative performance physical task condition. Differences in other evaluations between the two tasks are also discussed.



Modeling Method Effects in Assessment Centers: An Application
of the Correlated Uniqueness Approach

Filip Lievens, University of Ghent, Belgium

Etienne Van Keer, SHL Belgium

Method effects in assessment centers were represented either by method factors or by correlated uniqueness. Contrary to the general confirmatory factor analysis approach, the correlated uniqueness approach yielded admissible estimates and higher proportions of dimension variance. Thus, researchers should use the correlated uniqueness approach for testing assessment center construct validity.



Situational Judgment Versus Cognitive Ability Tests:
Adverse Impact and Validity

Mark H. Strong, Jeanneret & Associates

Michael J. Najar, University of Tulsa

The current study provides evidence that situational judgment tests can have smaller differences between Whites and non-Whites mean test scores than typically found with cognitive ability measures; thus situational judgment tests have potential to reduce adverse impact. Further, situational judgment tests possessed validities comparable to those of the cognitive tests.



A Test of Biodata Theory: Combining Theoretical and Empirical Approaches

Michelle A. Dean, University of Oklahoma

Craig J. Russell, University of Oklahoma

Dana Broach, Civil Aeromedical Institute

This study reports results of tests of latent constructs hypothesized by the ecology model using theoretical and exploratory methods. Constructs consistent with the model emerged when developmental event context was considered. Implications for biodata theory and item development are presented.



Determination of Systematic Bias for an Objectively
Scored In-Basket Assessment

Paul F. Rotenberry, University of Akron

Gerald V. Barrett, University of Akron

Dennis Doverspike, University of Akron

3,399 safety personnel were evaluated for possible promotion using an objectively scored in-basket task. A principal components analysis was conducted to determine the measure’s underlying structure. Multiple analyses demonstrated that the component structure was invariant between races, and mostly invariant across genders.



The Predictive Validity of Three Standardized
Letter of Recommendation Formats

Julie M. McCarthy, University of Western Ontario

Richard D. Goffin, University of Western Ontario

Suggestions that letters of recommendation (LOR) have little practical value may be premature. Although previous studies have found low validity estimates, we found that a LOR using a relative percentile format achieved substantial predictive validity in a sample of military recruits. Implications of these results for personnel selection were discussed.



Applying Job Component Validity: Findings and Recommendations for Practice

Calvin C. Hoffman, Southern California Gas Company

This paper discusses the job component validity (JCV) model incorporated in the PAQ and describes recent research on JCV. Research reported here demonstrates that across six job progressions, JCV predictions for individual predictors were conservative compared to observed validity coefficients based on a unit-weighted battery. Recommendations for practice are discussed.



Scaling Behavioral Anchors on the Occupational Information Network

Melissa Gratias, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Experienced and novice raters made both magnitude estimations and categorical ratings on 153 anchors from the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) job analysis instrument. Results showed that many of the anchors currently on the O*NET are not properly scaled, particularly on the Skills and Generalized Work Activities (GWAs) questionnaires.



Degradation of Validity Over Time: Test and Extension of Ackerman’s Model

Charles T. Keil, George Mason University

Jos M. Cortina, George Mason University

Study tested Ackerman’s model regarding the degradation of validity over time. Regression results partially support the model regarding the relationships between cognitive ability and task performance but not regarding the relationships between perceptual speed ability and psychomotor ability and consistent and inconsistent task performance. The general finding is a cubic relationship with a negative trend.



Convergence of Self-Report and Archival Data in the
Prediction of Driving Accident Involvement

Winfred E. Arthur, Texas A&M University

Travis C. Tubre, Texas A&M University

Maria L. Sanchez-Ku, Texas A&M University

M. Kathleen Sheehan, Texas A&M University

Eric A. Day, Valparaiso University

Don S. Paul, Texas A&M University

Leigh Paulus, Texas A&M University

Kathryn Archuleta, Texas A&M University

In assessing convergence between archival and self-report measures of driving accident involvement, results indicated low agreement. Predictor/criterion relationships were examined as functions of criterion type. Different predictor/criterion relationships were obtained for the criterion types, with stronger effects for self-report data. Combining the two criteria yielded weaker correlations than self-report criteria alone.



Big Five Personality Measurement in Personnel Selection: Comparing the Usefulness of the NEO-PI-R Domain and Facet Scales for
Predicting Job Performance

Joan Gutkowski, Pepsi-Cola Company

Using a construct-oriented approach in an applied personnel selection context, this study tested the hypothesis that narrow measures (facets) of the Big Five personality constructs will be more predictive of specific job performance criteria than broader conceptualizations (domain measures). Results showed mixed support for this hypothesis, and suggest that from a practical standpoint, use of narrowly defined facet measures (as measured by the NEO-PI-R) may not provide significant value over using the broader Big Five factors.



Stereotype Threat Effects on the IQ Test Scores of African-Americans

Patrick F. McKay, University of Akron

Dennis Doverspike, University of Akron

The present study examined stereotype threat effects on the IQ test scores of African-Americans. Support was found for Hypothesis 1, which stated that African-Americans would report significantly stronger perceptions of stereotype threat than Whites. The race by test description factor interaction proposed in Hypothesis 2 was supported only among subjects for whom the stereotype threat manipulation was successful.



Defining Reasonable Suspicion of Employee Drug Use
Through Content Validation

Paul M. Mastrangelo, University of Baltimore

Beth McDonald, University of Baltimore

The 33-item Symptoms of Drug Impairment Checklist was developed to define "reasonable suspicion" for urinalysis by having certified substance abuse counselors (N = 92) rate and submit observable behaviors. The checklist can be used to clarify drug testing policy, supplement employee training on drug impairment, and document reasonable suspicion for legal purposes.



The Validity of Overt Honesty Measures: Is It Really Validity?

Adelheid Nicol, Royal Military College of Canada

Sampo V. Paunonen, University of Western Ontario

Paper-and-pencil admissions criteria are frequently used for validating overt honesty questionnaires. The results of this study suggest that strong correlations between the overt honesty measures and the admissions criteria may be largely due to overlapping item content.



Customer Service Orientation in Managerial and Non-Managerial Employees

Scott L. Fraser, Florida International University

Leisa A. Martin, Florida International University

The customer service orientation of managerial and non-managerial employees from a large financial services organization were compared using the Customer Service Skills Inventory (CSSI). The results indicated that, in comparison to non-managerial employees, managers scored significantly higher on Pressure Tolerance, Independent Judgment, and Responsiveness, and significantly lower on Realistic Orientation.



Context, Racial/Ethnic Background, and Gender

Aaron U. Bolin, Northern Illinois University

George A. Neuman, Northern Illinois University

Traitedness refers to the degree to which an individual can be characterized by a trait. A cross-situational test of the traitedness construct was conducted on each of the "Big Five" to explore the possibility of traitedness as an explanatory mechanism of context effects, racial/ethnic differences, and gender differences in personality.



Identifying the Criteria for the Role of the Successful
Shiftworker: A Construct Approach

Scott A. Davies, The Ohio State University

Shiftwork factors have generated a great deal of research and appear to contribute significant amounts of stable variance generalizable over occupations, industries and cultures. However, there is a lack of common outcomes across studies. This longitudinal study identified three groups of outcomes that may be useful to future shiftwork research.



Do Structured Interviews Measure Constructs?
Evidence from Two Situational Interviews

Jeffrey D. Facteau, Auburn University

Carolyn L. Facteau, Auburn University–Montgomery

Katherine A. Jackson, Auburn University–Montgomery

J. Bret Becton, Auburn University–Montgomery

Little research has examined whether structured interviews measure the constructs they are intended to measure. We examined the convergent and discriminant validity of situational interview ratings in two organizations. We found little evidence of construct validity among the ratings, and discuss the implications of our findings for research and practice.



Computer-Adaptive Testing With the MBTI

Kevin D. Keller, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Robert J. Harvey, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

A computer-adaptive (CAT) version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was simulated using responses from a sample of 10,775 MBTI profiles. On average, a 90% standard error stopping criteria resulted in the administration 60% of the total item pool. Results are discussed in terms of the potential benefits of CAT.



The Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey:
A Proposal for New Work by an Old Warhorse

George Ziets, University of Maryland

Sandra Kim, University of Maryland

Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland

Numerous studies have linked scores on the Guilford-Zimmerman Temperament Survey (GZTS) to managerial effectiveness. We outline a new application of the GZTS to the prediction of customer service climate. The GZTS is used to measure a service-oriented personality in managers that may encourage and maintain an organization’s climate for service.



An Empirical Analysis of the Critical Elements of a Content
Validity Defense in Employment Discrimination Court Cases

Rhonda Kidwell, University of Houston

James E. Campion, University of Houston

The present study utilized logistic regression in 96 employment discrimination lawsuits to determine the content validity elements that most influence judges’ decisions regarding the job-relatedness of employers’ selection procedures. While higher levels of all nine identified elements were associated with favorable rulings on the procedure’s job-relatedness, the adequacy of the procedure’s test construction and scoring were found to be the most significant predictors.

102. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 11:30 - 12:20 Intl Salon D

Measuring Performance via the Web: Lessons Learned

As more companies move to using the web for measuring employee performance, the pros and cons of this technology are surfacing. This forum focuses on the lessons learned as a large company went from a paper 360 feedback process to a web-based process.

Laura S. Hamill, Microsoft Corporation, Chair

Lyse Wells, Conexant Systems, Implementation of a Web-Based 360 Feedback Process

Keith M. Rettig, multirater.com, Behind the Scenes of a Web-Based Feedback Process

Amy L. Marchant, Marchant Consulting Group, The "Reality" of a Web-Based Survey

103. Special Event: Saturday, 11:30 - 12:20 Intl Salon G

Meet the TIP Board

This session will provide SIOP members with an opportunity to meet, exchange ideas, provide feedback, discuss ways to increase member contributions, and generally get involved in TIP.

Allan H. Church, W. Warner Burke Associates, Inc., Chair

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