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104. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20 Marquis IV

Reflections and Directions for Leadership Research

Nearly 70 years of leadership research has produced a considerable knowledge base. This retrospective will feature four panelists with distinguished careers in this field who will share their views on historical highlights and recommended directions for future research.

Patrick M. McCarthy, Indiana University Southeast, Chair

George B. Graen, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Panelist

Robert J. House, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Panelist

James G. Hunt, Texas Tech University, Panelist

Gary A. Yukl, University at Albany, SUNY, Panelist

105. Symposium: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20 Consulate

New Perspectives on Higher Level Phenomena in
Industrial-Organizational Psychology

Although the last 20 years has witnessed an increasing emphasis on developing multilevel theories, a number of important questions remain unaddressed. This symposium presents three complementary perspectives that seek to provide the theoretical foundations needed to facilitate the development of an integrated multilevel science of organizations.

Frederick P. Morgeson, Texas A&M University, Co-Chair

David A. Hofmann, Texas A&M University, Co-Chair

Frederick P. Morgeson, Texas A&M University, David A. Hofmann, Texas A&M University, The Structure and Function of Collective Constructs

Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University, A Typology of Emergence: Theoretical Mechanisms Undergirding Bottom-Up Phenomena in Organizations

Kenneth G. Brown, University of Iowa, Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University, Toward an Expanded Conceptualization of Emergent Organizational Phenomena: Dispersion Theory

Katherine J. Klein, University of Maryland, Discussant

106. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20 Sydney

Improving the Effectiveness of Customer Service Organizations
Through I-O Psychology

I-O Psychology’s major content areas of personnel assessment and selection, training and development, and organizational development are shown to affect the productivity of customer sales and service workers. Presentations blend research and personal experience in demonstrating how to implement innovative and professionally competent programs in these organizations.

Carl I. Greenberg, Assessment Solutions, Inc., Chair

Victoria B. Crawshaw, Sears, Roebuck & Company, The Practitioner’s Dilemma: Balancing the Wants of the Internal Consumer with Our Need for Scientific Rigor

Deborah Ladd, BellSouth Corporation, Ongoing Evaluation and Development of Customer Service Representatives

Miriam T. Nelson, Assessment Solutions, Inc., "This Call Was Monitored": An Unexplored Measure of Customer Service Quality

Carl I. Greenberg, Assessment Solutions, Inc., Improving Customer Sales and Service Effectiveness Through Personal and Organizational Change

107. Symposium: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20 Intl Salon B

Organizational Citizenship: Assessment and Relation to Job Performance

This symposium focuses on contextual job performance and organizational citizenship behavior. The development of a teamwork skills assessment, the prediction of OCBs, and the relation of OCB to overall job performance are summarized. The discussant will comment on the papers and discuss the relation of OCB and politics in organizations.

Fritz Drasgow, University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign, Chair

Liberty J. Munson, University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign, Mindy E. Bergman, University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign, Fritz Drasgow, University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign, Teamwork Skills: Development of a New Measure

Scott A. Goodman, Saville & Holdsworth Ltd., Steven T. Hunt, Saville & Holdsworth Ltd., Predicting Organizational Citizenship Behavior Using a Computerized Process that Integrates Candidate Assessment with Realistic Job Previews

Steven T. Hunt, Saville & Holdsworth Ltd., On the Virtues of Staying "Inside the Box": Does Organizational Citizenship Behavior Detract from Performance of Some Jobs?

Gerald R. Ferris, University of Illinois, Discussant

108. Symposium: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20 Intl Salon C

Teams at a Distance: Lessons Learned and Future Prospects

Team members increasingly work apart from each other in space and/or time, communicating through technologies such as E-mail or videoconferencing. This symposium addresses the challenges and opportunities for I-O psychology inherent in the rapid proliferation of dispersed teams: what we know, are learning, and need to find out.

Lynn R. Offermann, George Washington University, Chair

Lynn R. Offermann, George Washington University, Stephanie Eller, George Washington University, Teams On-Line: Performance and Preferences in Face-to-Face and Electronically Mediated Teams

Sonya Prestridge, Center for Creative Leadership, Michael Kossler, Center for Creative Leadership, Valerie Sessa, Center for Creative Leadership, Advantages and Disadvantages of Being a Geographically Dispersed Team Member

Paul S. Goodman, Carnegie Mellon University, Jeanne Wilson, Carnegie Mellon University, Exocentric Teams: A New Form of Work Group

Elizabeth Blickensderfer, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Paul Radtke, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Eduardo Salas, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Janis A. Cannon-Bowers, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Competencies and Suggested Training for Distributed Teams

Richard A. Guzzo, William M. Mercer, Inc., Discussant

109. Symposium: Saturday, 12:00 - 1:20 Intl Salon F

Perspectives on the Future of Personnel Research

Research in I-O psychology is critically examined from the perspectives of the members, as obtained from a survey, of a practitioner, and, of an academician. Recommended future directions and methods of achieving them are outlined and discussed.

Nita R. French, French & Associates, Chair

Mary L. Tenopyr, AT&T, Members’ Views on the Future of Personnel Research

Nancy T. Tippins, GTE, The Future of Personnel Research in Private Industry

William K. Balzer, Bowling Green State University, The Future of Personnel Research from an Academic Perspective

Sheldon Zedeck, University of California–Berkeley, Discussant

110. Symposium: Saturday, 12:30 - 1:20 Intl Salon E

Using Personality in Police Selection

This session presents three studies that use personality to improve outcome measures such as stress, injuries, and training performance. In addition, each paper will discuss solutions to practical problems that occur in hiring and maintaining law enforcement officers. Both pre- and post-offer assessments will be discussed.

Mary L. Kelly, Institute for Personality & Ability Testing, Co-Chair

Alan D. Mead, Institute for Personality & Ability Testing, Co-Chair

William Taylor, Great Falls Police Department, Kathryn Adcox, Great Falls Police Department, Alan D. Mead, Institute for Personality & Ability Testing, Leveraging Personality Assessment to Reduce Law Enforcement Officers’ Accidents.

Gary Kaufmann, Michigan Department of State Police, Michael Johnson, Johnson, Roberts, & Associates, Predicting Police Training Performance from Pre-Employment Psychological Tests and Personal History Data

Neil D. Christiansen, Central Michigan University, Doug Haaland, Central Michigan University, Gary Kaufmann, Michigan Department of State Police, Applicant Distortion of Personality Measures in Police Selection: Reasons for Optimism and Caution

111. Symposium: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50 Imperial A

New Empirical Research on Social Desirability in Personality Measurement

Social desirability continues to emerge as a central concern surrounding the use of personality measures. This symposium will present new empirical research focused on unraveling the role of social desirability in selection. The expectation will be to provide an assessment of the current knowledge state, while offering future research directions.

Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota, Chair

Jill E. Ellingson, University of Minnesota, Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota, Investigating the Influence of Social Desirability on Personality Factor Structure

Lynn A. McFarland, Michigan State University, Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Individual Differences in the Ability to Fake Across Non-Cognitive Measures

Andrea F. Snell, University of Akron, Eric J. Sydell, University of Akron, Do Impression Management Scores Adequately Measure Intentional Response Distortion?

Joseph G. Ross, University of Colorado, Robert A. Levin, Center for Human Function & Work, Margaret D. Nowicki, University of Colorado, Assessing the Impact of Faking on Job Performance and Counter-Productive Job Behaviors

Kevin R. Murphy, Colorado State University, Discussant

Robert M. Guion, Bowling Green State University, Discussant

112. Symposium: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50 Marquis III

Skill Standards and Workforce Development: Preparing for the 21st Century

This symposium focuses on government and industry initiatives designed to ensure that American workers acquire and continuously develop skills that will allow them to thrive in the global economy of the 21st century. Special attention will be paid to the pivotal roles that I-O psychologists could play (or, in many cases, are playing) in these initiatives.

Gary W. Carter, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Chair

James B. Hogan, National Skill Standards Board, Mission, Challenges, and Accomplishments of the National Skill Standards Board

Joan E. Knapp, Knapp & Associates International, Inc., A Look at Skill Standards Development from the Inside of a Voluntary Partnership

Rodney A. McCloy, HumRRO, Michelle R. Delarosa, HumRRO, Developing a Common Skills Language for the National Skill Standards Board

Russell T. Kile, National Partnership for Reinventing Government, New Government Initiatives for Worker Skill Development

Vicki L. Flaherty, IBM, IBM’s Skills Management System

Kenneth Pearlman, Lucent Technologies, Discussant

113. Symposium: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50 Copenhagen

New Directions in the Measurement and Assessment of
Extra-Role Behavior Constructs

This symposium focuses on new directions in measurement and assessment of a general class of discretionary employee behaviors including organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBS) and related constructs. We consider alternative conceptualizations, methodologies, rating sources and situational factors affecting assessment of these behaviors.

Jennifer Kaufman, Tulane University, Co-Chair

Paul Tesluk, Tulane University, Co-Chair

Jennifer Kaufman, Tulane University, Paul Tesluk, Tulane University, Examination of Organizational Citizenship Behaviors from a Multidimensional Perspective

Jeffery A. LePine, University of Florida, Linn Van Dyne, Michigan State University, Voice in Work Groups: A Comparison of Behavior and Observer Ratings of Behavior

Daren E. Buck, Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Walter C. Borman, University of South Florida/Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Computerized Adaptive Rating Scales (CARS): A Format Comparison Study

Dawn Riddle, University of South Florida, Walter C. Borman, University of South Florida/Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Louis A. Penner, University of South Florida, The Development of a Simulation-Based Assessment of Contextual Performance

James Van Scotter, University of Memphis, Impact of Autonomy on Task Performance, Interpersonal Facilitation, Job Dedication and their Relationships with Overall Performance

Stephan J. Motowidlo, University of Florida, Discussant

114. Symposium: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50 Intl Salon A

IRT-Based Evaluation of 360 Feedback Assessments: The Benchmarks Story

Item response theory was used to assess (a) the measurement equivalence of ratings from the boss, peer, direct report, and self, (b) the differential functioning of ratings across African-American and Caucasians managers, and (c) the fidelity of translations into French and UK English of the Benchmarks Survey.

Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chair

Dana McDonald-Mann, Center for Creative Leadership, A Brief History of the Benchmarks Survey

Silvia Swigert, Center for Creative Leadership, Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, Jennifer Zieleskiewicz, Illinois Institute of Technology, Allan Fromen, Illinois Institute of Technology, Measurement Equivalence of the Benchmarks Ratings Across Four Rating Sources

Jean Leslie, Center for Creative Leadership, Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, Michael A. Barr, Illinois Institute of Technology, Jennifer Zieleskiewicz, Illinois Institute of Technology, The Fidelity of the Translation of the Benchmarks Survey into French and UK English

Dana McDonald-Mann, Center for Creative Leadership, Nambury S. Raju, Illinois Institute of Technology, Allan Fromen, Illinois Institute of Technology, Ming-Hong Shih, Illinois Institute of Technology, Differential Functioning of the Benchmarks Ratings Across African-American and Caucasian Managers

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, Discussant

John C. Scott, Applied Psychological Techniques, Discussant

115. Symposium: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50 Intl Salon D

Big and Little Brothers: Recent Findings on
Electronic Performance Monitoring

Electronic performance monitoring (EPM) is no longer a new phenomenon. Researchers have compiled a significant body of work on this practice. This symposium presents findings detailing the effects of (EPM) on employees. Research presentations will cover EPM’s effects on quality of work life, stress, task performance, and organizational citizenship behaviors.

Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University, Co-Chair

Lorne Sulsky, University of Calgary, Co-Chair

Shreya T. M. Sarkar-Barney, Bowling Green State University, Eric M. Greve, Bowling Green State University, Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University, A Detailed Analysis of Task Performance with and without Computer Monitoring

Amanda L. Julian, Bowling Green State University, Jeffrey M. Stanton, Bowling Green State University, The Impact of Social Cues about EPM on Performance Quality and Quantity

Wayne E. Ormond, University of Calgary, Lorne Sulsky, University of Calgary, Electronic Performance Monitoring and Organizational Citizenship Behavior: A Procedural Justice Perspective

Joey F. George, Louisiana State University, Pamela E. Carter, Florida State University, Computer Monitoring and Quality of Work Life Perceptions

John R. Aiello, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, Performance and Stress Under Computer-Based Work Monitoring

Wayne F. Cascio, University of Colorado–Denver, Discussant

116. Roundtable: Saturday, 1:00 - 1:50 Intl Salon H

Building Organizational Trust: Steps Along the Path

Research and practice suggest that the role of trust in organizational life is increasing in importance. Discussion in this session will focus on working definitions of trust, critical components of trust in the work environment, and on practical steps useful in building trust levels in work relationships.

Susan B. Wilkes, Virginia Commonwealth University, Co-Host

Valerie C. Nellen, Virginia Commonwealth University, Co-Host

117. Poster Session: Saturday, 1:00 - 2:50 Intl Hall South Foyer

Motivation, Attitudes, and Stress



Broken Promises: Consequences of Psychological
Contract Breach and Organizational Injustices

Jill R. Kickul, DePaul University

George A. Neuman, Northern Illinois University

Chris P. Parker, Northern Illinois University

This study investigated the role of psychological contract breach, procedural injustice, and interactional injustice in influencing employees’ negative attitudes and behaviors. Results revealed a three-way interaction between contract breach, procedural injustice, and interactional injustice on negative affect, job dissatisfaction, negative in-role job performance, anti-citizenship behavior, and intentions to leave.



Impact of Pre-Employment NA and Strains on Job Stressors and Strains

Paul Spector, University of South Florida

Peter Y. Chen, Ohio University

Brian J. O’Connell, American Institutes for Research

A measure of pre-employment NA and strains were assessed in college and were related to job stressors and job strains approximately one year after graduation. The findings supported the drift hypothesis, the stressor creation hypothesis, and the spillover hypothesis. In addition, the NA measure was likely subject to occasion factors.



Test-Taking Motivation for Written and Video-Based Selection Devices

Rudolph J. Sanchez, Portland State University

Donald M. Truxillo, Portland State University

Talya N. Bauer, Portland State University

Police officer applicants reported levels of motivation before and after written and video-based tests. Pre-test levels of motivation for the written test were higher than for the video test. Perceived test performance accounted for a significant amount of variance in post-test motivation after partialing out pre-test motivation.



Dispositional Affectivity and Work Adjustment Among Clerical Workers

Robert R. Hirschfeld, Georgia Southern University

Leigh P. Schmitt, Vital Applied Psychology

This study investigated the role of positive affectivity, negative affectivity, and perceptions of job characteristics among Civil Service clerical workers in a municipal government organization. Positive affectivity had a greater influence on perceptions of job characteristics that, in turn, influenced various aspects of work adjustment.



Wedded to the Job: Moderating Effects of Job Importance
on the Consequences of Job Insecurity

Tahira M. Probst, Washington State University

283 public-sector employees experiencing a workplace reorganization completed surveys assessing the relationships between job importance and job insecurity on psychological, behavioral, and physical outcomes. Results indicate employees who are highly invested in their jobs are most adversely affected by job insecurity. Findings are interpreted using Hulin’s job adaptation theory (1991).



Construct Validity of Measures of Becker’s Side Bet Theory

Lynn M. Shore, Georgia State University

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston

Ted H. Shore, Kennesaw State University

Kevin Barksdale, The Hutton Group

Items to tap Becker’s theory were developed. 327 employees and 99 managers completed surveys. Results showed five side bet scales, though only three of them clearly represented Becker’s side bet categories. Results supported reliability of four of the scales, and their distinctiveness. The scales accounted for little variance in outcomes.



Psychological Contracts and Temporary Workers:
the Assumption of the Transactional Contract

Deanna D. Craig, University of Houston

Lois E. Tetrick, University of Houston

Temporary workers are frequently cited as exemplars of workers that have transactional contracts with organizations. This study surveyed 216 temporary workers currently on assignment. Results suggest that all temporary workers do not hold transactional contracts, and that psychological contracts may be conceptualized best as a two dimensional construct.



Learning and Performance Goal Orientation
Interactions With Dynamic Task Complexity

Paul Hoover, Wright State University

Debra Steele-Johnson, Wright State University

Russell S. Beauregard, Wright State University

Aaron Schmidt, Michigan State University

A laboratory study examined the effects of learning and performance goal orientations and dynamic task complexity on motivation and performance. Learning orientation, performance orientation, and task complexity interacted in their effects on self-efficacy and self-set goals. Learning and performance orientations also interacted in their effects on performance. Implications are discussed.



Does Pay Matter? The Effects of Work on Subjective Well-Being

Catherine Maraist, Tulane University

Heather K. Davison, Tulane University

Arthur P. Brief, Tulane University

Maura-Ann Dietz, Christian-Albrechts University

Daniel P. O’Shea, University of Connecticut

Results of a test of an integrated model of subjective well-being (SWB) indicate both work and personality (i.e., negative affectivity) influence SWB. While most previous research into the effects of work on SWB have focused on the intrinsic features of jobs, the current study spotlights the importance of pay.



The Impact of Emotional Labor Dissonance on
Job Attitudes and Outcomes: A Field Study

Kevin B. Lowe, Florida International University

Ross Mecham, Center for Creative Leadership

K. Galen Kroeck, Florida International University

In a sample of 373 flight attendants, emotional dissonance in the form of increasing levels of "pleasant acting" and negative emotion suppression were associated with and predictive of lower job satisfaction, lower continuance/values commitment, lower job involvement, greater work conflict, greater role overload, and greater emotional exhaustion and depersonalization.



Want Favorable Replies? Just Call!
Telephone Versus Self-Administered Surveys

Allen I. Kraut, Kraut Associates

A large-sample study compares questionnaire and telephone survey data. Telephone responses were significantly more favorable. For 20 items, percent favorable rose an average of 12 points among executives, 16 points among salaried, and 28 points for hourly workers. Clearly, direct comparisons of data from the two survey methods is inappropriate.



Contextual, Dispositional, and Cognitive Influences on Goal Revision

John J. Donovan, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Kevin J. Williams, University at Albany, SUNY

The present study examined the influence of causal attributions, performance goal orientation, and time deadlines on the goal revision process. The results of this study revealed that goal revision was significantly related to an individual’s goal-performance discrepancy, and that this relationship was significantly moderated by all three factors under examination.



Predictors of Personal Goal Revision on a Complex Task

Vincent J. Fortunato, University of Southern Mississippi

Kevin J. Williams, University at Albany, SUNY

This research examined the contribution of assigned goals, performance, and goal discrepancies on individuals’ personal goal revisions. Findings suggest that assigned goals have strong anchoring effects on self-regulation processes: Individuals assigned difficult goals created more positive goal discrepancies and were more sensitive to goal-performance feedback than those assigned easy goals.



Graduate Student Stress: Testing and Validation of a New Scale

Phanikiran Radhakrishnan, University of Texas–El Paso

Liberty J. Munson, University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign

Researchers demonstrate that stress leads to worse job-related and health-related outcomes. Approximately 900 graduate students completed a new, job-specific stress measure. Students who report high levels of stress also report low advisor and peer satisfaction, low self-esteem, and increased intentions to withdraw even after controlling for negative disposition.



Gender and Cross-Cultural Self-Efficacy Differences:
Comparisons With Overconfidence

Jegatheva Jegathesan, INTAS (J) Co. Ltd., Japan

Catherine D. Lees, University of Western Australia

An East-West difference in self-efficacy was predicted based on the established overconfidence difference for judgment. Gender and culture interacted. Australian females showed the lowest self-efficacy and least overconfidence, although their performance was the same as Australian males, who showed the highest self-efficacy and the second highest overconfidence, after Asian males.



Adaptive Performance: Mastery vs. Performance
Goals and Feedback Consistency

Morell E. Mullins, Michigan State University

Steve W. J. Kozlowski, Michigan State University

Rebecca J. Toney, Michigan State University

Kenneth G. Brown, University of Iowa

Daniel A. Weissbein, Michigan State University

Bradford S. Bell, Michigan State University

The present study was conducted to determine the interaction of goals and feedback in the acquisition of adaptable skills. Participants were provided with veridical descriptive feedback that matched their goals, failed to match their goals, or provided excess information beyond their goals. Results indicate increased importance should be accorded feedback.



The Impact of Short Overseas Business Trips on Job Stress and Burnout

Mina Westman, Tel Aviv University

Dalia Etzion, Tel Aviv University

We examined the job stress and burnout of 57 employees of high-tech companies before going overseas on business trips, during their stay abroad and 1 week after their return. Although participants worked hard during their trip, the results indicate a decline in their job stress and burnout after returning home.



Fairness Perceptions of Employee Promotion Systems:
A Two-Study Investigation

David M. Kaplan, Institute of Labor and Industrial Relations

Gerald R. Ferris, University of Illinois

A two-study design is utilized to investigate the role of promotion system characteristics as mediating the relationship between organizational, environmental, and job factors and perceptions of organizational justice and advancement opportunity. This tested the model developed by Ferris, Buckley, and Allen (1992) for promotion systems. Results support the model.



Upward Feedback: Effects of Managerial Level Over Seven Years

Alan G. Walker, First Tennessee Bank

A 7-year, longitudinal investigation of the effects of managerial (i.e. ratee) level on upward feedback program scores was conducted at a major Southeast financial institution. Results revealed significant within-year (but not between-year) differences in scores. Overall, managers improved their scores across the 7 years.



Exploring the Moderating Effect of Negative Affectivity in
Procedural Justice/Job Satisfaction Relations

Greg Irving, University of New Brunswick

Daniel F. Coleman, University of New Brunswick

We examined the potential moderating effect of negative affectivity on the relations between perceptions of procedural justice and job satisfaction in an organization that was undergoing significant change. We surveyed 232 individuals working for a public-sector organization that was being partially privatized. The relations between procedural justice and job satisfaction was stronger for those who were low in negative affectivity than for those who were high in negative affectivity.



Relationships Among Commitment Foci: Consequences for
Organizational Behavior and Attitudes

Steven R. Burnkrant, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

How are commitment foci related to each other and to organizational outcomes? Structural equation modeling with data from two prior studies showed that the best fit was obtained when commitment foci were allowed to have direct effects on each other and both direct and indirect effects on outcome variables.



The Role of Stress and Self-Efficacy in Technology Acceptance

Robert Koumal, University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

Steve M. Jex, University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

Paul D. Bliese, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research

Relations between workplace stressors, self-efficacy, and acceptance of new technology were examined among 2,273 Army personnel. As expected, high levels of stressors and low self-efficacy were associated with low levels of technology acceptance. Self-efficacy also moderated relations between two stressors and technology acceptance.



Assessing Personal Motives for Engaging in
Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: A Field Study

Sheila M. Rioux, University of South Florida

Louis A. Penner, University of South Florida

The Organizational Citizenship Behavior Motives Scale (OCBMS) measures three motives for engaging in organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB): Prosocial Values, Organizational Commitment, Impression Management. In a field study, the Prosocial Values motive was positively related to OCBs directed at individuals across self, peer, and supervisor ratings. The Organizational Commitment motive was positively related to OCBs directed at the organization across the three rating sources. These two motives also accounted for unique variance in measures of OCB beyond organizational and personality variables.



Employee Attitude Surveys: Studying Noncompliant Individuals

Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University

Alexandra Luong, Bowling Green State University

Matthew Sederburg, Bowling Green State University

Dean Cristol, Bowling Green State University

A cross-section of 194 employees participated in a study aimed at identifying characteristics of individuals who refuse to respond to an employee survey (noncompliants). Noncompliants, in comparison to anticipated survey respondents, possessed greater intentions to quit, less organizational commitment, and less satisfaction toward management, their jobs, and past survey practices.



Factor Analyzing Lodahl & Kejner’s (1965) Job Involvement Scale

Charlie L. Reeve, Bowling Green State University

Carlla S. Smith, Bowling Green State University

The most commonly used measure of Job Involvement (Lodahl & Kejner, 1965) is known to be multidimensional. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on four separate samples to define the nature of the factors. Results indicate a two-factor model is most appropriate; however, only one factor is directly relevant to the job involvement construct. A revised scale is recommended.



Relating Interests and Intra-Individual Knowledge Differentiation

Charlie L. Reeve, Bowling Green State University

Milton D. Hakel, Bowling Green State University

Changes in theorizing about intelligence have highlighted the importance of interests. In response to Murphy’s (1998) call for increased attention toward interests, this study examines the relationship between intra-individual differences in interest and knowledge profiles. Based on Project TALENT data, results indicate a significant positive average intra-individual correlation which increases as individuals age. The observed correlations are stronger for males than females.



Affective, Continuance and Normative Commitment:
Meta-Analyses of Interrelations and Outcomes

David J. Stanley, University of Western Ontario

John P. Meyer, University of Western Ontario

Laryssa Topolnytsky, University of Western Ontario

Lynne Herscovitch, University of Western Ontario

We conducted meta-analyses to examine relations among Allen and Meyer’s (1990) affective, continuance, and normative commitment scales, and between these scales and various "outcome" measures (e.g., turnover, performance, organizational citizenship behavior). Correlations were generally consistent with expectations but varied slightly with scale form, geographic region, and outcome measurement source.



Cross-Cultural Generalizability of the Three-Component
Model of Organizational Commitment

Kibeom Lee, University of Western Ontario

Natalie J. Allen, University of Western Ontario

John P. Meyer, University of Western Ontario

Kyung-Young Rhee, Industrial Health Research Institute, Inchon

Psychometric problems were identified in the Korean version of the Continuance and Normative Commitment Scales. These problems, however, could be overcome by re-selecting items based on Koreans’ responses on items written in North America. The findings suggest these constructs are generalizable to Korea, but their operationalizations need to be emically driven.



A Meta-Analytic Review of Occupational Commitment

Kibeom Lee, University of Western Ontario

Julie J. Carswell, University of Western Ontario

Natalie J. Allen, University of Western Ontario

In this meta-analytic review, relations between occupational commitment (OC) and numerous work-related and person variables are assessed. These relations are examined with reference to three substantive issues: the nature of the OC construct, the link between OC and organizational commitment, and the role of OC in the turnover process.



Interpersonal Conflict at Work: Matching Source and Psychological Outcomes

Michael R. Frone, Research Institute on Addictions

To extend past research that examined overall interpersonal conflict at work, this study examined the relations of interpersonal conflict with supervisors and coworkers to psychological outcomes. Consistent with social relations theories, conflict with supervisors was related to poor organizational outcomes, whereas conflict with coworkers was related to poor personal outcomes.



Testing Gordon and Ladd’s (1990) Framework of Dual Commitment

James E. Martin, Wayne State University

Dawn M. Borovsky, Wayne State University

John M. Magenau, Pennsylvania State University

Data from separate samples of stewards and rank-and-file union members supported a model of dual commitment based on the theoretical work of Gordon and Ladd (1990). Steward versus rank-and-file status moderated the results. We conclude that dual commitment is a unique construct with incremental predictive utility.



Organizational Justice and Work Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

Simon Bartle, Old Dominion University

Bryan C. Hayes, Old Dominion University

A meta-analysis examining the effects of procedural and distributive justice on attitudes and behavior is reported. Results show that justice is moderately to strongly related to all outcome variables and moderator analysis demonstrates that it is important to distinguish between the justice constructs, including interactional justice.



The Effects of Job Involvement on Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

James M. Diefendorff, University of Akron

Douglas J. Brown, University of Akron

Allen Kamin, Applied Psychological Techniques

Robert G. Lord, University of Akron

A recent meta-analysis (Brown, 1996) found no relationship between job involvement and job performance. We suggest that this finding may stem from the choice of criteria and the measurement of job involvement. Using a recently published measure, we found job involvement predicts organizational citizenship behavior and job performance.



Possible Mediators of the Effects of Goal-Orientation on Performance

Scott Tonidandel, Rice University

Robert L. Dipboye, Rice University

Task-involvement and ego-involvement were manipulated to determine the effects of goal-orientation. Those who were task-involved had higher performance and were more accepting of the feedback. Also, the high performers in the task-involved conditions were more likely to participate in group discussions of the task.



Psychological Reactions to Adaptive Testing

Scott Tonidandel, Rice University

Miguel A. Quiones, Rice University

The present study examined how various aspects of adaptive testing affect test-takers’ perceptions of fairness, attitudes toward the test and expectations about performance. The data show that various features of adaptive tests can have an adverse impact on reactions to adaptive testing.



Effects of Perceived Danger and Safety on Injuries and Attitudes

Barbara A. Caska, Stratton Veterans Affairs Medical Center

Perceptions of danger and safety in the work environment were examined as predictors of minor on-the-job injuries, likelihood of future work injuries, perceived organizational support and job satisfaction, among nurse staff. A path analysis revealed that perceptions of safety and danger significantly explained different outcome variables.



An Investigation of the Relation of Community Type to Facet Satisfaction

Jennifer L. Irwin, Procter & Gamble Company

William K. Balzer, Bowling Green State University

The current study examines community characteristics in relation to job satisfaction. Of the total job satisfaction variance explained, approximately 11% to 14% was uniquely associated with characteristics of the community. Specifically, Cultural, Economic, and Ecological community types each explained significant portions of variance in all measures of job satisfaction.



Behavioral and Health Correlates of Type A Subcomponents

Jeffrey M. Conte, San Diego State University

Heather A. Honig, ACT, Inc.

Angela F. Dew, Conexant Systems

Donna M. Romano, Louisiana State University

Previous studies have examined relationships between overt behaviors and global Type A behavior pattern (TABP) measures that lack construct validity. The present study revealed that four TABP subcomponents—achievement strivings, impatience/irritability, general hurry, and deadline control—demonstrated stronger relationships with behavioral and health criteria than did the global TABP.



Perceptions of KSAO Improvability: Factor Structure and Differences
Across and Within Person Characteristics

Stuart A. Tross, Towers Perrin/Georgia Institute of Technology

William C. Collins, Towers Perrin

Todd J. Maurer, Georgia Institute of Technology

A sample of 616 employees of a large, international organization provided improvability ratings for 24 KSAOs. A factor analysis resulted in the creation of two factors: Motivation & Cognition (composed of more trait-oriented KSAOs) and Management & Knowledge (composed of more learning-oriented KSAOs). As hypothesized, education, job level, and race predicted KSAO improvability ratings on the Motivation & Cognition factor. Individuals who were more highly educated, higher in the organization’s structure, and/or Caucasian provided significantly lower ratings of improvability on this factor.



The Nature of Customer Contact as an Antecedent of Job Burnout

Richard G. Best, Kansas State University

Ronald G. Downey, Kansas State University

David S. Gill, Kansas State University

Researchers have traditionally assumed that the frequency of customer contact is the major factor in job burnout. We need to enhance our understanding of the nature of customer contact. This research confirmed the multidimensional nature of customer contact and found the dimensions were differentially associated with the various aspects of job burnout.



This Job Is Too Much: Emotional Labor on the Job

Lawrence A. Witt, Tulane University

Data collected from 283 customer service and 333 clerical workers from two organizations revealed that emotional labor (Ashforth & Humphrey, 1993) contributed unique variance to the prediction of organizational commitment over-and-above the contributions of GMA, personality, and demographics. Emotional labor was related to supervisor-rated job performance only among the customer service workers.



Understanding Retention Risks: Individual and Situational Influences

Lawrence A. Witt, Tulane University

Data collected from 319 employees of two organizations confirmed the hypothesis that individual exchange ideology would moderate the relationships between two self-reported job attitudes—organizational politics and organizational justice—and boss-rated retention probability. The job attitudes were only related to retention probability ratings among employees dispositionally dependent on organizational reinforcement.



Dispositional Sources of Job Satisfaction: A Moderated Regression Analysis

Philip J. Moberg, Wayne State University

Dispositional sources of work attitudes have consistently been linked to the FFM personality dimensions, Neuroticism and Extraversion. Dispositional relations with components of satisfaction are less clear, however. The present study identified a dimensional interaction pattern in which Extraversion moderates the impact of Neuroticism on both global and component satisfaction.



Stress and Job Satisfaction: Does Personality Really Make a Difference?

Cheryl Franz, Wayne State University

Philip J. Moberg, Wayne State University

The impact of personality on the relationship between stress and job satisfaction was examined for 249 managers completing the Stress-In-General scale, Revised NEO Personality Inventory, Job-in-General scale, and Job Descriptive Index. Whereas Extroversion and Conscientiousness buffered the stress effect, Neuroticism was found to exacerbate the effects of stress on satisfaction.



Seeking Feedback About Task and Contextual Performance

James L. Farr, Pennsylvania State University

Erika Ringseis, Pennsylvania State University

Amy L. Unckless, Towers Perrin

Maximum likelihood factor analysis with oblique rotation was used to develop scales to measure feedback seeking about task performance and contextual performance. Preliminary construct validity evidence for the scales was obtained in two employee samples through their correlations with demographic, individual, and situational variables.



A Five-Year Study the Relationship Between Well-Being and Performance

Russell S. Cropanzano, Colorado State University

Thomas A. Wright, University of Nevada–Reno

Research suggests that organizations might improve performance by selecting workers with high well-being. This approach is limited if validity deteriorates as the measurement interval increases. When well-being was measured a year before performance, the two were associated. When well-being was measured 5 years earlier, the relationship was nonsignficant.

118. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50 Madrid/Trinidad

Global Perspectives on Assessment and Development

In an increasingly global workforce, I-O Psychologists face the challenge of maintaining the usefulness of our selection and development strategies when applied to multicultural audiences. This forum addresses how consultants and organizations face this challenge. We present our experiences and lessons learned in transferring domestic solutions to the global marketplace.

Bettye Sue G. Thompson, Bigby Havis & Associates, Inc., Chair

JoAnn Johnson McMillan, Bigby Havis & Associates, Inc., Carolyn Jenkins, University of Southern Mississippi, Developing Culturally Appropriate Selection Systems

David Bartram, Saville & Holdsworth Ltd., Managerial Assessment in the Global Marketplace—Approaches, Challenges and Lessons Learned

Bettye Sue G. Thompson, Bigby Havis & Associates, Inc., 360 Degree Feedback in a Multinational Corporation

David M. Hunt, University of Southern Mississippi, Implementing Effective Mentoring Programs in a Global Marketplace

119. Symposium: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50 Consulate

Liars of the Dark Side: Can Personality Interfere
With Personality Measurement?

Some researchers on the motivation and ability of applicants to fake responses on personality-based employment tests assume that candidates have relatively normal personalities, and their intentions to lie and effectiveness in lying is due to the perceived instrumentality of the situation and skill at deciphering the test. But what about candidates who exhibit "dark side" traits characteristic of the personality disorders, in particular those whose very personality includes the ability to manipulate and lie? This symposium will introduce some new thoughts by researchers in this field.

Paul Babiak, Ciba Specialty Chemicals, Chair

Robert T. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, Brent Holland, Hogan Assessment Systems, Ryan A. Ross, Hogan Assessment Systems, What Kinds of People Cheat in the Employment Process

Sigrid B. Gustafson, American Institutes for Research, Out of Their Own Mouths

Paul Babiak, Ciba Specialty Chemicals, David J. Cooke, Caledonian University, Robert D. Hare, Darkstone Research Group, Help Wanted: Psychopaths Please Apply

Robert D. Hare, Darkstone Research Group, I Can’t Believe He Sucked Me In

120. Symposium: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50 Sydney

Climate Analysis as a Tool for Diagnosis and Employee Development

Organizational climate can play a significant role in employee development and performance. This session describes the use of climate analysis to (a) define training needs, (b) assess receptivity to training, (c) parse the effects of personality and workgroup support on transfer, and (d) identify National differences in continuous learning activities.

Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Chair

Donna Chrobot-Mason, University of Colorado–Denver, Kurt Kraiger, University of Colorado–Denver, Organizational Climate, Needs Assessment, and Workplace Harassment Training

Kurt Kraiger, University of Colorado–Denver, Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, J. Robin Harrison, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Validation of a Technique for Defining Collective Climates: A Tool to Support Team Training Needs Analysis

Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Eduardo Salas, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Individual and Situational Determinants of Team Transfer Climate

Erik R. Eddy, Executive Consulting Group, Inc., Scott I. Tannenbaum, Executive Consulting Group/University at Albany, SUNY, Dave Flynn, Hofstra University, The Impact of National Culture on the Continuous Learning Environment: Findings from Multiple Countries

Paul W. Thayer, North Carolina State University, Discussant

121. Symposium: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50 Intl Salon B

Compensation Research Frontiers: What We Know and Need to Investigate

Several authors who are contributors to a new volume on compensation in SIOP’s Frontiers Series present their major conclusions and point to important areas for future compensation research. Incentives, compensation attitudes, the shifting nature of work and the need to consider context receive particular attention.

Barry Gerhart, Vanderbilt University, Co-Chair

Kathryn M. Bartol, University of Maryland, Co-Chair

Kathryn M. Bartol, University of Maryland, Edwin A. Locke, University of Maryland, Incentives and Motivation: Principles and Issues for Future Research

Herbert G. Heneman, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Timothy A. Judge, University of Iowa, Compensation Attitudes: New Directions for Research and Relevance

Robert L. Heneman, The Ohio State University, Gerald E. Ledford, University of Southern California, Maria T. Gresham, The Ohio State University, Changes in the Nature of Work and Effects on Compensation

Peter D. Sherer, University of Oregon, Bringing Context into Psychological Research on Compensation

122. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50 Intl Salon C

Careers in I-O Psychology: How Do You Prepare for the "Real World"?

This panel discussion, intended primarily for graduate students, brings together a diverse group of I-O psychologists from academia, industry, consulting, and research. This highly interactive session will cover topics such as the value of internships, teaching experience, and publications, as well as other skills and experiences necessary to successfully prepare for a chosen career.

Monica A. Hemingway, The Chauncey Group International, Chair

Tammy D. Allen, University of South Florida, Panelist

Paula M. Caligiuri, Rutgers University, Panelist

Eric D. Heggestad, U.S. Air Force, Panelist

William A. Schoel, Procter & Gamble Company, Panelist

Laura J. Shankster-Cawley, SHL Landy Jacobs, Inc., Panelist

123. Conversation Hour: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50 Intl Salon E

Web-Based Testing

As access to the Web becomes more universal, issues such as how and where tests can be distributed, how an examinee can take a Web test, and how tests can be scored and reported will be subjects of interest to I-O psychologists seeking more efficient and more accurate assessment tools.

Betty A. Bergstrom, Computer Adaptive Technologies, Host

124. Symposium: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50 Intl Salon F

What Can I-O Psychology Learn from the Study of Driving Behavior?

Research on driving behavior has implications for training and assessment of many complex and dynamic tasks. Presenters will describe the effect of guided and active error training and exposure to easy and difficult training conditions on performance, motivation and self-assessment, and illustrate ways of calibrating the effect of fatigue.

Beryl L. Hesketh, Macquarie University, Chair

Beryl L. Hesketh, Macquarie University, Karolina Ivancic, Macquarie University, Learning From Errors in a Driving Simulator Task: Examples Versus Active Learning

Jim Bright, University of New South Wales, Ben Searle, University of New South Wales, Easy and Demanding Driver Simulation Training: Gender, Skill and Self Assessment

Anne Williamson, University of New South Wales, Anne-Marie Feyer, University of Otago, When is Fatigue a Problem? Developing Standards for Evaluating Effects on Performance

125. Symposium: Saturday, 1:30 - 2:50 Intl Salon G

Legal Studies in I-O Psychology: Multiple Linkages Between Law and Science

This cross-disciplinary symposium brings together I-O scientists and scientist-lawyers to address legal issues in the field of I-O psychology. In addition to providing information regarding legal requirements in selected areas, the papers illustrate multiple ways in which useful linkages can be made between the fields of law and I-O psychology.

Mark V. Roehling, Cornell University, Co-Chair

Benjamin B. Dunford, Cornell University, Co-Chair

Mark V. Roehling, Cornell University, Weight Discrimination in Employment: Psychological and Legal Aspects

Rhonda Kidwell, University of Houston, James E. Campion, University of Houston, An Empirical Analysis of Litigation Outcomes and Critical Elements of the Content Validity Defense

Richard Posthuma, Purdue University, Procedural Due Process: Multiple Dimensions for the Procedural Justice of Human Resource Management Practices

Jon Werner, University of Wisconsin–Whitewater, Louis Imbrogno, University Health-Link, Some Legal and Psychological Implications of Electronic Employee Monitoring

126. Special Event: Saturday, 2:00 - 2:50 Marquis IV

1998 Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award Winner

Organizational Attachment: Understanding
Why People Stay and Why They Leave

New research on the Unfolding Model of Voluntary Turnover will be presented as a way to understand the psychological processes involved in leaving a job. In addition, a new construct of embeddedness, including on and off the job factors will be presented as an explanation of what keeps people attached to their organization.

Fred E. Fiedler, University of Washington, Chair

Terence R. Mitchell, University of Washington, Presenter

127. Roundtable: Saturday, 2:00 - 2:50 Intl Salon H

New Instructor’s Guide to I-O: Feedback on Publicizing and Distribution

The Education and Training Committee of SIOP has developed an instructor’s guide to be used by Introductory Psychology instructors to help them introduce I-O to Intro students. With development of the guide complete, the committee would like suggestions on the most effective ways of publicizing and distributing the guide.

Peter D. Bachiochi, Eastern Connecticut State University, Co-Host

Debra A. Major, Old Dominion University, Co-Host

Coffee Break: Saturday, 3:00 - 3:30 South Hall/North Foyer

128. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20 Imperial A

Competency Modeling, Pros and Cons: Views from SIOP’s Task Force

Public- and private sector organizations enthusiastically embrace competency modeling to focus their organizations on competencies needed in the next millennium. The SIOP Task Force receives daily inquires about its effort. The diverse panel’s themes summarize criticisms of modeling, contrast modeling with traditional job analysis, examine current private- and public-sector and international models, and summarize some finding from SIOP’s expert interviews.

Jeffery S. Schippmann, Personnel Decisions International, Chair

Kenneth Pearlman, Lucent Techologies, Critique of Competency Modeling

Ronald A. Ash, University of Kansas, Job Analysis and Competency Modeling

Lorraine D. Eyde, U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Competency Modeling in the Federal Government

Linda S. Carr, Allstate Insurance Company, Competencies in the Private Sector: The Reality in the Controversy

Beryl L. Hesketh, Macquarie University, International Perspectives on Competency Models

129. Special Event: Saturday, 3:30 - 4:50 Marquis III

Use of Conditional Reasoning to Measure Employee Reliability

People often impute rationality to reasoning whose true purpose is to enhance the logical appeal of their behavioral choices. Unrecognized proclivities to justify behaviors can be measured indirectly via a new type of problem solving referred to as "conditional reasoning." Conditional reasoning problems are described, and results of tests of their ability to identify dispositional tendencies to achieve and to aggress are summarized.

Terence R. Mitchell, University of Washington, Chair

Lawrence R. James, University of Tennessee–Knoxville, Presenter

130. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20 Marquis IV

Global Perspectives on Service Quality

This panel will focus on theoretical and practical issues in the management of service organizations across cultures. We will first discuss new developments in the study of culture, and then discuss the impact of culture on three components of service organizations: the customer tier, the boundary tier, and the management coordination tier.

Michele J. Gelfand, University of Maryland, Co-Chair

Alexandria Dominguez, University of Maryland, Co-Chair

David E. Bowen, Thunderbird, American Graduate School of Management, Panelist

Joe Colihan, IBM, Panelist

Harry Hui, University of Hong Kong, Panelist

Lise M. Saari, IBM, Panelist

Benjamin Schneider, University of Maryland, Panelist

131. Special Event: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20 Copenhagen

Master Creative Technician:
Research Mentor, Monitor, and Motivator, Marv

Marv Dunnette wrote about two kinds of researchers: Creative technicians and technicians. They differ in that the former have the fire in their bellies to risk discovery and the training to recognize scientific contributions when they fall over them. Such training can only come from a Master Research Mentor, Monitor and Motivator such as Marv Dunnette. 13 of Marv’s protgs and admirers will talk for about four minutes each about critical incidents involving their development in which Marv’s influence and spirit made the difference. We intend to honor the great man and learn a few of his secrets.

George B. Graen, University of Southwestern Louisiana, Co-Chair

Lowell W. Hellervik, Personnel Decisions International, Presenter

Walter C. Borman, University of South Florida/Personnel Decisions Research Institutes, Presenter

David P. Campbell, Center for Creative Leadership, Presenter

John P. Campbell, University of Minnesota, Presenter

Abraham K. Korman, Baruch College, Presenter

Robert D. Pritchard, Texas A&M University, Presenter

Cristina G. Banks, Terranova Consulting Group, Presenter

Frank L. Schmidt, University of Iowa, Presenter

Dianne Nilsen, Center for Creative Leadership, Presenter

Richard D. Arvey, University of Minnesota, Presenter

Leaetta M. Hough, The Dunnette Group, Ltd., Presenter

Milton D. Hakel, Bowling Green State University, Co-Chair

132. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20 Madrid/Trinidad

Technological Advances in Survey Research:
New Methods and Their Consequences

Bringing technology to bear on the survey research process changes how organizations design and administer surveys, analyze data, and report results. The Internet, text mining, and groupware are technologies that promise to improve survey research capabilities. Benefits and challenges for I-O psychologists in applying these technologies are discussed.

Allen I. Kraut, Kraut Associates, Chair

Todd C. Harris, IBM, Groupware: Exploiting an Emerging Technology to Improve the Organizational Survey Function

George R. Marshall, Clear Picture Corporation, Terry J. Norman, Clear Picture Corporation, Surveying on the Net: A Whole New Look and Feel

Angela Lynch, IBM Global Employee Research, Doreen M. Cicchetti, IBM Global Employee Research, Using Text Mining Software for Content Coding of Open-Ended Survey Responses

Carol W. Timmreck, Shell Oil Company, Facilitator

133. Symposium: Saturday, 3:30 - 4:50 Sydney

Diversity in Organizations: Some Substantive and Methodological Issues

The diversity of the workforce is increasing rapidly. Consequently, it is critical that we understand the factors that govern individuals’ reactions to diversity. Thus, this symposium focuses on reactions to different-race co-workers, validity issues in relational demography research methods, modern sexism, and customers’ reactions to organizations with diverse workers.

Lynn M. Shore, Georgia State University, Chair

Megumi Hosoda, Pace University, Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University of Central Florida, Dianna L. Stone, Creighton University, The Effects of Co-Worker Race and Cognitive Demand of a Task on White Americans’ Reactions to African-American Co-Workers and Several Task-Related Outcomes: The Mediating Influence of Integral Affect

Christine M. Riordan, University of Georgia, Elizabeth Weatherly, University of Georgia, Julie Holliday Wayne, Wake Forest University, Measurement Issues in the Study of Relational Demography: A Levels-of-Analysis Approach

Barbara A. Fritzsche, University of Central Florida, Jessica Meyer, University of Central Florida, Sarah Owings, University of Central Florida, Individual Differences in Modern Sexism: Implications for Hiring Judgments and Affirmative Action Training

Dianna L. Stone, University of Central Florida, Kimberly Lukaszewski, University at Albany, SUNY, Eugene F. Stone-Romero, University of Central Florida, The Relationship Between Workforce Diversity and Customer Satisfaction Levels

Lynn M. Shore, Georgia State University, Discussant

134. Symposium: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20 Intl Salon A

Must We Change Our Minds About Team Mental Models?
A Guide for Applied Settings

Evidence supports the existence of shared team cognitions and their impact on team processes and outcomes. This symposium extends past research by focusing on recent efforts showing how team cognition research might be applied to work teams. A series of decisions required for application is examined in one conceptual and three empirical papers.

Joan R. Rentsch, Wright State University, Chair

Richard J. Klimoski, George Mason University, Discussion Facilitator

Patricia A. Keenan, HumRRO, Beverly A. Dugan, HumRRO, The Team Leader as Interpreter

Stephen J. Zaccaro, George Mason University, C. Shawn Burke, George Mason University, Michelle A. Marks, Florida International University, John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University, Leadership Effects on Team Mental Models: Facilitating Team Adaptation

John E. Mathieu, Pennsylvania State University, Eduardo Salas, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Janis A. Cannon-Bowers, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division, Gerald F. Goodwin, Pennsylvania State University, Scaling the Quality of Teammates’ Mental Models: Equifinality and Expert Comparisons

Joan R. Rentsch, Wright State University, Maureen L. Rainey, Wright State University, Understanding Fairness Perceptions of Peer Evaluations: Do Your Team Members Think Alike?

Kurt Kraiger, University of Colorado–Denver, Discussant

135. Symposium: Saturday, 3:30 - 4:20 Intl Salon B

Making Sense of Corporate Downsizing: Are We Opening Pandora’s Box?

Facing ever-increasing global competition, corporate America spent the last decade trying to boost profits through downsizing, restructuring, outsourcing and merging. Behind the scenes, researchers work to understand the effects and outcomes of these efforts and improve their accuracy, quality and acceptability. What have we found? Do we want to know?

Wayne F. Cascio, University of Colorado–Denver, Chair

Clifford E. Young, University of Colorado–Denver, Wayne F. Cascio, University of Colorado–Denver, James R. Morris, University of Colorado–Denver, Effects of Employment-Asset Change Decisions on Financial Performance: An Analysis of Covariance Approach

Lisa M. Holden, Sempra Energy Solutions, Calvin C. Hoffman, Southern California Gas Company, Information Managers Actually Use: Policy Capturing Downsizing Decisions

John R. Leonard, Jeanneret & Associates, Erika Lynn D’Egidio, Jeanneret & Associates, Mark H. Strong, Jenneret & Associates, Reduction-in-Force: Methods and Analyses for Downsizing Efforts

S. Morton McPhail, Jeanneret & Associates, Discussant

136. Symposium: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20 Intl Salon C

Issues in Team Selection: Individual Differences and Composition

While organizations are increasingly moving to team-based work environments, research on selecting for such environments remains sparse. The studies presented provide theoretical and/or empirical findings designed to further our understanding of how we can best staff teams, emphasizing those characteristics of individuals that will lead to optimized team performance.

Ann Marie Ryan, Michigan State University, Co-Chair

Morell E. Mullins, Michigan State University, Co-Chair

Michael J. Stevens, Psychological Associates, Inc., Robert G. Jones, Southwest Missouri State University, Donald L. Fischer, Southwest Missouri State University, Thomas D. Kane, Southwest Missouri State University, Team Performance and Individual Effectiveness: Personality and Team Context

Amy E. Mills, Aon Consulting, Carla K. Shull, Aon Consulting, Kirk L. Rogg, Aon Consulting, The Relationships Among Team Member General Mental Ability and Personality and Objective Organizational Outcomes

Robert T. Hogan, Hogan Assessment Systems, How to Staff a Management Team

Morell E. Mullins, Michigan State University, Lori Sheppard, Michigan State University, A Conceptual Exploration of Individual Personality Antecedents of Team Performance

Michael A. Campion, Purdue University, Discussant

Tom Ruddy, Xerox Corp, Discussant

137. Conversation Hour: Saturday, 3:30 - 4:20 Intl Salon D

Where We’re Headed in Leadership: A Conversation With Bob House

In this session, Robert J. House discusses the current and future state of leadership theory. The "neo-charismatic leadership paradigm" and cross-cultural issues in leadership theory, including recent findings from GLOBE (a 60-nation study of leadership and culture), will also be discussed.

Marcus W. Dickson, Wayne State University, Host

Robert J. House, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania, Presenter

138. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20 Intl Salon E

Theory, or Lack Thereof, in Work-Family Research

Participants will discuss theoretical approaches they have used in their study of work and family issues. Critical gaps in the literature will be identified and suggestions for advancing theoretical thinking in the area will be discussed. Audience participation will be encouraged.

Leslie B. Hammer, Portland State University, Chair

Rosalind C. Barnett, Brandeis University, Panelist

Alicia A. Grandey, Colorado State University, Panelist

Ellen E. Kossek, Michigan State University, Panelist

Teresa J. Rothausen, University of St. Thomas, Panelist

Kevin J. Williams, University at Albany, SUNY, Panelist

Sheldon Zedeck, University of California–Berkeley, Panelist

139. Conversation Hour: Saturday, 3:30 - 4:20 Intl Salon G

I-O Psychologists as Internal Consultants: Challenges and Rewards

This conversation hour proposes to discuss issues, challenges, and rewards facing I-O psychologists in the role of an internal consultant to organizations. Both conversationalists have extensive experience as internal consultants within Fortune 500 organizations. The conversationalists will share insights and provide a realistic view of life as an I-O psychologist in an organization.

Karin S. Fulton, Humana, Inc., Co-Host

Jill L. Geehr, CSX Transportation, Co-Host

140. Poster Session: Saturday, 3:30 - 5:20 Intl Hall South Foyer

Job Analysis, Job Performance, Absenteeism, and Training



So Much Turnover, So Little Time: Influence of Satisfaction on Turnover Over Time

Sunhee Lee, The Ohio State University

Mary A. Roznowski, The Ohio State University

The effects of time-dependent job satisfaction on the turnover process are explored using event history analysis. The strength of the job satisfaction-turnover relationship appears to be the same for early and late leavers. The importance of reassessing job satisfaction over the course of employment is stressed. Further, a significant effect of cognitive ability on turnover appears to be related to the different mean ability requirements of occupations.



Evaluation of Multisource Feedback: MTMR Analysis
and Correlates With Performance

Terry A. Beehr, Central Michigan University

Svetlana V. Ivanitskaya, Central Michigan University

Dmitry A. Erofeev, Central Michigan University

Curtiss P. Hansen, Lincoln National Life Insurance

David M. Gudanowski, Lincoln National Corporation

In a 360-degree feedback program, rating sources explained more variance in multi-source feedback ratings than trait factors did. Self-ratings correlated weakly with manager and peer ratings and had negative correlations with selection data. Manager and peer ratings were positively correlated with each other and with performance appraisals.



Understanding the Latent Structure of Job Performance Ratings

Steven E. Scullen, North Carolina State University

Michael K. Mount, University of Iowa

Maynard Goff, Personnel Decisions International

Three broad categories of factors that influence performance ratings were investigated. The largest amount of variance in the ratings was accounted for by rater biases (58%), followed by the actual performance of the ratee (25%), and measurement error (17%). Results were generally true for the four rating perspectives and the three performance dimensions.



Moderation of Personality Test Validity: An Extension
and Replication of Barrick and Mount (1993)

Chris Woolard, Western Kentucky University

Reagan D. Brown, Western Kentucky University

This research attempts to determine whether performance feedback interacts with dimensions of the Five-Factor Model of personality to improve the predictive ability of personality tests. In addition, this study replicates the findings of Barrick and Mount (1993) using a manufacturing (as opposed to managerial) sample of employees.



Examining Differences in Job Analysis Responses

Frederick P. Morgeson, Texas A&M University

Melinda S. Mayfield, Purdue University

Philip Ferrara, New York State Unified Court System

Michael A. Campion, Purdue University

Although job analysis is perhaps the most widely used organizational data collection technique, there has been comparatively little research investigating the underlying causes of differences in job analysis responses. This study examines three potential differences in job analysis responding by investigating bogus items, order effects, and different question types.



Retention of Employees: Country-Specific Analyses
in a Multinational Organization

Anthony G. Parisi, IBM

Sara P. Weiner, IBM

Comparing data from several countries, analyses were conducted to determine the generalizability of predictors of retention (intention to leave) beyond job satisfaction. In addition to some country-specific considerations, the results demonstrate that multinational organizations also can rely on some universal strategies to address retention. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.



Organizational Justice and Organizational Citizenship
Behavior: Accounting for Fairness Source

Jorge A. Gonzalez, Texas A&M University

This paper explores the role of organizational justice on organizational citizenship behavior according to source of fairness, namely the immediate supervisor, peer employees, and the organization as a whole. It is argued that intensity, direction, and form of organizational citizenship behavior varies according to interactions with each source.



Predicting Bridge Employment: A Test of Feldman’s (1994) Hypotheses

Rox-Anne Heindel, University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

Gary A. Adams, University of Wisconsin–Oshkosh

Lawrence Lepisto, Central Michigan University

In a sample of 223 workers, age 50 and over, it was found that retirement income satisfaction, work opportunities, job involvement, organizational commitment, and career commitment predicted plans for bridge employment in one’s current field while retirement income satisfaction predicted plans for bridge employment in some other field.



Is Tacit Knowledge Distinct from g, Personality, and Social Knowledge?

Russell E. Lobsenz, FBI

Scott B. Morris, Illinois Institute of Technology

A concurrent validation study examined the construct and criterion-related validity of tacit knowledge using a sample of 100 entry-level managers. Tacit knowledge, as measured by the Situational Judgment Inventory, was related to general mental ability and social knowledge, but not personality traits. Tacit knowledge did not predict job performance ratings.



Procedural and Distributive Justice Effects on Turnover

William H. Hendrix, Clemson University

Tina Robbins, Clemson University

Janice Miller, Clemson University

Timothy P. Summers, Clemson University

The purpose of this research was to develop and test a model linking justice perceptions to variables predictive of turnover. Results indicated procedural and distributive justice perceptions were directly related to intrinsic and extrinsic job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. Procedural justice perceptions were also directly related to performance, and turnover intentions directly related to actual turnover.



Investigating Behavioral Feedback Strategies to Optimize Industrial Safety

Joshua H. Williams, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

E. Scott Geller, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

The relative impact of global and specific behavior-based (BB) feedback on safety performance was studied with targeted and non-targeted (i.e., response generalization) behaviors. Global feedback was more effective than specific feedback, depending on the order of presentation. Evidence for response generalization was found for 1 of 3 non-targeted behaviors.



The Role of Attitudes and Intentions in Knowledge Acquisition

James A. Tan, University of Akron

Rosalie J. Hall, University of Akron

Carol A. Boyce, Aon Consulting

Reactions to training programs tend to be poor predictors of training success. Based on Ajzen’s (1985) theory and Alliger and colleagues’ (1989; 1995; 1997) works, we proposed that distinguishing between affective and cognitive reactions might improve the prediction of learning. Results indicated that negative affective reactions best predicted employee learning.



Manifest Needs Scale Assessment

Angela Young, California State University–Los Angeles

K. Michele Kacmar, Florida State University

The Manifest Needs Questionnaire assesses four dimensions of needs: achievement, autonomy, affiliation, and dominance. Low reliability estimates for some of the dimensions have surfaced in existing research. This study identifies and analyzes problems associated with the MNQ and offers suggestions for revising and improving the scale.



OCBs, Organizational Spontaneity, Prosocial Behavior, Contextual
Performance: Cleaning Up the Conceptual Morass

Jonathan E. Turner, Old Dominion University

Bryan C. Hayes, Old Dominion University

Simon Bartle, Old Dominion University

Arlene Pace, Old Dominion University

An empirical study linking the constructs of organizational citizenship behavior, organizational spontaneity, prosocial behavior, and contextual performance is presented. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses support the distinction between task and non-task job performance. Further, the analyses support four dimensions of non-task performance: Helping/Persisting, Sportsmanship, Compliance, and Social Activities.



Labor Market Returns to Skill: A Job Level Evaluation

Maria Rotundo, University of Minnesota

Paul R. Sackett, University of Minnesota

While it has been asserted that jobs in the U.S. economy require new skills, is there evidence that the labor market rewards these skills? Analyses using a data set that paired skill requirements of jobs and wage suggest that the complexity level of a job is rewarded rather than differentiated skills.



A Level-Three Evaluation of Cultural Diversity Training:
One Size May Not Fit All

Nohora Gutierrez, Florida International University

Juan I. Sanchez, Florida International University

A quasi-experimental design with a control group was utilized to evaluate a diversity training program where reaction and behavioral criteria were gathered on 125 participants holding supervisory and professional jobs. The mixed results should alert organizations to the perils of adopting brief, off-the-shelf diversity training programs.



Using Social Exchange Theory to Distinguish
Procedural And Interactional Justice

Russell S. Cropanzano, Colorado State University

Cynthia A. Prehar, Colorado State University

Based on previous research, we used a social exchange framework to distinguish procedural from interactional justice. As expected, procedural justice was more closely associated with reactions toward upper management and organizational policies, while interactional justice was more closely associated with reactions toward one’s supervisor and job performance.



A Model of Virtual Organization Effectiveness

Kristina B. Buckley, Science Applications International Corporation

David P. Costanza, George Washington University

Virtual Organizations (VOs) are a new strategy for surviving in complex environments. Because little is known about VOs, this study identified variables that might contribute to VO effectiveness. Data from 178 VO members found that culture, processes, and structural characteristics influenced effectiveness. Implications for members, managers, and researchers are discussed.



Performance = F(KSAOCs): Revisited

Kevin D. Carlson, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

What really influences performance? Constructs affecting performance directly are distinguished from those affecting performance through intermediate mechanisms. The result is a model of the immediate antecedents of performance incorporating only four broad factors—task strategy, skill, effort, and task environment. Implications and new directions for performance research are discussed.



Pre-Training Factors That Can Make or Break Motivation to Learn

Dana M. Milanovich, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division

Kimberly A. Smith-Jentsch, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division

J. Robin Harrison, Naval Air Warfare Center Training Systems Division

Motivation to learn has been linked to training outcomes. Thus, training effectiveness may be improved by pre-training factors which signal that newly trained skills will be instrumental in gaining organizational rewards. Data reported in this paper caution organizations to determine when various pre-training factors facilitate or inhibit motivation to learn.



Skills-Based Job Analysis: Developing Task Sampling
Domains Using O*Net Descriptors

Wayne A. Baughman, American Institutes for Research

Ashley E. Cooke, American Institutes for Research

David W. Dorsey, American Institutes for Research

K. Victoria Threlfall, American Institutes for Research

O*NET descriptors were used in an organization-wide survey to develop job families to serve as task sampling domains for conducting skills-based job analysis. Correlations between job families’ profiles on these descriptors (from survey ratings) with frequency of tasks generated from descriptors provide evidence for the viability of the sampling domains.



Task Similarities as Indicators of Occupational Skill Requirements

Kevin M. Bradley, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University/American Institutes for Research

David W. Dorsey, American Institutes for Research

Daniel P. Russell, American Institutes for Research/Aon Consulting

Brian J. O’Connell, American Institutes for Research

Describes an effort to identify occupational skills through task similarities. Tasks were linked to Basic and Cross Functional Skills (BCFS), deemed relevant across jobs. Task similarities in terms of the BCFS were factor analyzed, yielding "task factors" that were interpreted as Occupation Specific Skills (OSS). These OSS largely overlapped with OSS generated by SMEs.



The Dimensionality of Work in Diverse Jobs: Multiple Groups Confirmatory
Factor Analysis Using the Common Metric Questionnaire (CMQ)

Kevin M. Bradley, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University/American Institutes for Research

The factor structure of work was examined in different job categories. Ratings of job activities were obtained from incumbents in three occupational categories using the Common Metric Questionnaire. Results suggest a similar structure to work activity across groups, with two higher order factors underlying most work dimensions: People/Data and Things/Work Environment.



The Importance of the Critical Psychological States in the Job Characteristics
Model: A Meta-Analytic and Structural Equations Modeling Analysis

Scott J. Behson, University at Albany, SUNY

Erik R. Eddy, Executive Consulting Group, Inc.

Steven J. Lorenzet, University at Albany, SUNY

Structural Equation Modeling of meta-analytic data (Viswesvaran and Ones, 1995) was used to examine competing versions of the job characteristics model. While most research has excluded the critical psychological states (Renn & Vandenberg, 1995), results suggest that this information is important to better understand employee reactions to job characteristics.



Temporal Relations of g and Conscientiousness With Knowledge Acquisition

Richard Perlow, Clemson University

Lori S. Kopp, University of Alabama

We examined the relations of ability and conscientiousness with knowledge acquisition. Competing perspectives suggest different temporal relations between these two individual differences and performance. Data show that ability predicted learning throughout the course. Conscientiousness predicted acquisition at the end of the course. We found no meaningful temporal increase in the latter relation.



Reluctance to Provide Negative Feedback:
Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior

Michael S. Orth, Colorado State University

The theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985) was utilized to define conditions in which supervisors provide timely and accurate informal feedback to their subordinates. Subjects were 154 supervisors in a governmental agency. The proposed model was supported: Attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy predicted supervisor’s intentions to provide negative feedback.



Assessing Person-Organization Fit Through Profile
Analysis Via Multi-Dimensional Scaling

Bruce W. Davis, Cooperative Personnel Services

Person-organization fit was assessed using profile analysis via multi-dimensional scaling in a two-sample, longitudinal design. Results support the personality-turnover relationship such that profile dimension one contained a positive Emotional Stability and negative Agreeableness elevations for incumbents and exiters; and dimension two differed as incumbents’ Conscientiousness elevation was positive, whereas the exiters’ was negative.



What Predicts Developmental Responses to 360-Degree Feedback?

Marcia J. Simmering, Michigan State University

Jason A. Colquitt, Michigan State University

Christopher O. L. H. Porter, Michigan State University

Raymond A. Noe, Michigan State University

Person-organization fit and personality were examined as predictors of management development in the context of 360-degree feedback. Support was found for the relationship between lack of fit and developmental responses. Specifically, individuals lacking fit were more likely to engage in developmental activities, a relationship moderated by personality.



A Critical Analysis of the Proud Doctrine

Ellyn G. Brecher, Temple University

Richard L. Frei, Temple University

Richard L. Griffith, Florida Institute of Technology

Tom Chmielowski, Florida Institute of Technology

The authors examine psychological evidence for and against the legal precedent set by the Proud Doctrine (Proud v. Stone): the assumption that no employment discrimination occurs if the same person hires and fires an employee of a protected class and the employment was within a relatively short period of time.



The Effects of Technology on Managers’ Attributions of Unit Performance

Jeannette Johansson, Temple University

David Kipnis, Temple University

Richard L. Frei, Temple University

236 managers completed a survey in which they categorized their departments’ technology and made attributions of successful/unsuccessful unit performance. Managers of skilled technology units were more likely to attribute both successful and unsuccessful performance to their employees’ skill or lack of skill. Automated technology managers were less likely to attribute either good or bad performance to any factors.



Antecedents of Job-Related Self-Directed Learning: Beyond Ability

Cathy L. Z. DuBois, Kent State University

Exponentially increasing knowledge demands present learning challenges for organizations and workers. Organizational facilitation of self-directed learning (SDL) can help workers meet these demands. This study examines potential SDL antecedents. Results found self-efficacy, goal difficulty, industriousness, and action orientation significantly correlated with SDL activity. Implications for research and practice are discussed.



Responses to Job Security Over Time: Moderating Effect of Role-Clarity

Yitzhak Fried, Wayne State University

Zipi Shperling, Tel-Aviv University

Haim A. Ben-David, Wayne State University

Robert B. Tiegs, Wayne State University

Cheryl Franz, Wayne State University

Naftali Avital, Israel Military Industries

Uri P. Yeverechyahu, Israel Military Industries

The results from a sample of blue-collar employees who were members of an organization undergoing major downsizing failed to support our first hypothesis (that job security would be related to increases in job performance and self-esteem over time) but supported the second one (that role clarity would moderate these relationships).



Preliminary Validity Evidence for a Multifaceted
Hierarchical Job Performance Model

Robert R. Sinclair, University of Tulsa

David B. Adrian, DeCotiis Earhard Strategic Consulting Group

This study examines validity evidence for a theoretical job performance model. Confirmatory factor analyses of multi-source ratings supported a hierarchical model in which performance consists of four broad dimensions and each dimension consists of multiple facets. Personality trait correlations differed by rating source and performance dimension. Implications are discussed.



Effect of Lecturer Expressiveness, Organization
and Goals on Training Outcomes

Annette Towler, Rice University

Robert L. Dipboye, Rice University

Participants listened to lectures that differed on organization and expressiveness. Recall in the expressive lecture was higher when it was organized and after a two-day delay. Expressiveness also affected motivation to learn and evaluative reactions. Mastery orientation moderated the effects of organization and expressiveness on problem-solving.



Exploring Customer Responses to Service Failures and Recovery Efforts

Eric P. Braverman, Louisiana State University

Douglas J. Zickafoose, Louisiana State University

Results of two experiments indicate that: (a) service failures occurring at the beginning/end of a service encounter influence service effectiveness perceptions more than failures that occur in the middle of the encounter; and, (b) service effectiveness perceptions were negatively related to the number of failures that occur within a service encounter.



Temporal and Personality Predictors of Absence and Lateness

Jeffrey M. Conte, San Diego State University

Rick R. Jacobs, Pennsylvania State University

This study examined relationships among temporal predictors, personality, and conceptually related criteria in a sample of 190 train operators. When used with personality and cognitive ability measures, temporal dimensions provided incremental validity in predicting absence and lateness. Future research is needed on temporal variables at individual and higher levels of analysis.



Electronic Monitoring and Work Performance: What We Know (So Far)

Susan M. Hilbert, Temple University

Electronic performance monitoring of work performance has gained increased attention in the last decade. Claims of increased productivity, improved feedback, and increased organizational control are being weighed against claims of stress, job dissatisfaction, and loneliness. The findings of several empirical studies are reviewed to determine the nature of the monitoring-performance relationship.



Interaction of Learning Orientation and Goal Orientation Context in Training

Joseph J. Martocchio, University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign

Edward J. Hertenstein, University of Illinois–Urbana-Champaign

This is a quasi-experimental training study. A group of employees were instructed in computer software, tested to determine learning orientation, and randomly assigned to learning or performance context. Results were as expected: those with high learning orientation and in a learning goal context demonstrated better learning outcomes than other participants.



Choosing a Measure of Task Importance: Does It Make a Difference?

Todd Manson, University of South Florida

Measures of task importance were compared and found to identify quite different lists of most important tasks, thus suggesting that the choice of a measure can impact the content and quality of personnel programs. Results also suggest that composites prominently featuring time-spent ratings not be used as measures of task importance.



Modeling Antecedents of Black Professionals’ Turnover Intentions

Jody Hoffman, Bowling Green State University

Evan F. Sinar, Bowling Green State University

Peter D. Bachiochi, Eastern Connecticut State University

Traditionally, models of employees have not examined minority samples. This study investigated antecedents of intentions to quit (ITQ) in a cross-organizational sample of Black engineers. The effects of job, organizational and personal characteristics on ITQ were mediated by job attitudes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and cynicism).



The Use of Discretionary Bonuses to Promote Group Performance

Steven Rogelberg, Bowling Green State University

Jody Hoffman, Bowling Green State University

201 employees were assigned to three-person groups. Discretionary bonus systems facilitated group performance. However, the effects of the discretionary bonus systems on group performance appeared dependent upon the performance criterion in question and group members’ expectations of how rewards, if obtained, would be distributed to group members.



Intra-Organizational Turnover in a Self-Selective Team Environment

Sharon Israel Dolfi, Miami-Dade Fire Rescue Department

Scott L. Fraser, Florida International University

Intra-organizational turnover among firefighters working in teams was investigated. As these employees change assignments but not jobs or organizations, variables not related to personality or interpersonal factors are thus "controlled" when turnover decisions are made. Conflict tolerance, interpersonal orientation, and satisfaction with current bid/assignment were significant predictors of team turnover.


Adaptive Performance in a Multi-Tasking Environment

Kevin Plamondon, Michigan State University

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University

This study examined the effects of process feedback and motivation on multi-tasking, adaptive performance. The study found that process feedback (H1) and motivation (H2) correlated positively with adaptive performance. The data also revealed a marginally significant interaction. The implications of these findings for adaptive performance are discussed.

141. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 4:30 - 5:50 Consulate

Preparing the Master’s Graduate in I-O Psychology: Issues
for Students, Graduates, Trainers, and Employers

Students, graduates, trainers, and employers of graduates of Master’s I-O psychology programs discuss preparation for employment at the master’s level. Participant-hosts include trainers, graduates working in consulting or human resources who are also employers, and a student. Topics include employment opportunities, important KSAs for graduates, education program design, and the SIOP master’s guidelines.

Rosemary H. Lowe, University of West Florida, Chair

Kenneth P. Carson, University of Tennessee–Chattanooga, Panelist

John R. Leonard, Jeanneret & Associates, Panelist

Kim Robertson Cross, Bank of America, Panelist

Neil Barber, Willis Coroon Corporation, Panelist

Jason Luna, Organizational Resources Group, Panelist

Deborah E. Rupp, University of West Florida, Panelist

142. Panel Discussion: Saturday, 4:30 - 5:50 Intl Salon B

A Beginner’s Manual: Keys to Success in Academia

Senior level graduate students and new assistant professors often miss a great deal of informal career management training. Such topics include keys to success, pitfalls to avoid, and so forth. The panel will discuss these issues along with "things I wish people had told me at the beginning of my career" and address audience questions.

Philip L. Roth, Clemson University, Chair

Steffanie L. Wilk, University of Pennsylvania, Panelist

Daniel M. Cable, University of North Carolina, Panelist

Deniz S. Ones, University of Minnesota, Panelist

Neal W. Schmitt, Michigan State University, Panelist

143. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 4:30 - 5:50 Intl Salon D

Interpersonal Skills: Role Implications and Measurement
in Executive Selection and Development Programs

Interpersonal skills are crucial to executive success, even where organizational leaders claim that performance is what counts most. This forum provides empirical evidence, describes selection programs at large organizations where interpersonal skills have been explicitly addressed, and details a newly developed interpersonal acumen scale.

Ram Aditya, Louisiana Tech University, Chair

Valerie Sessa, Center for Creative Leadership, Interpersonal Skills: The Sine Qua Non Factor in the Success of Executives at the Very Top

Richard M. Vosburgh, Vlasic Foods International, Interpersonal Skills and Creating a Company

Rodney L. Lowman, California School of Professional Psychology, Assessing and Improving or Managing Interpersonal Skills and Deficits

Jose L. Garcia, Sports Authority, Bridging Theory and Practice: Assessing Executive Interpersonal Effectiveness in a Large Multinational Retail Organization

Ram Aditya, Louisiana Tech University, Toward Objective Assessment of a Core Social Competency: An Interpersonal Acumen Scale

144. Practitioner Forum: Saturday, 5:00 - 5:50 Marquis III

Building Employee Capability Through Assessment and Feedback

Assessment and feedback methodologies offer significant development opportunity to both organizations and individuals. Technology-based systems developed to assess job knowledge, sales and service skills and work team competencies provide diagnostic or evaluative information, enabling participants to develop their skills and managers to build employee capability.

Steven E. Walker, Chase Manhattan Bank, Chair

Jeanne Carsten, Chase Manhattan Bank, Developing Job Knowledge with Assessment and Feedback

LeAnne E. Bennett, Chase Manhattan Bank, Enabling Managers to Build Employee Skill Through Feedback and Coaching

Ivy Kucine, Chase Manhattan Bank, Employee Assessment Using 360 Feedback

Evening Reception 6:00 – 8:00 Skyline Level

Dessert Reception Saturday 10:00 – Midnight Imperial Ballroom

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