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Data Analysis “Back in the Day”: The Early Career Experiences of Nine I-O Psychologists The availability of the personal computer (PC), statistical soft- ware, and the Internet has had undeniable effects on I-O psy- chology. Without such technological advances, for instance, there’d be no virtual teams, no computer-adapted testing, and no cyberloafing. To better appreciate the impact of technolo- gy on the current state of our discipline, it’s helpful to reflect on the technology used in the recent past. In preparing this installment of the History Corner, we interviewed nine sea- soned I-O psychologists: Terry Beehr, Ilene Gast, Lawrence Hanser, Milton Hakel, Norman Peterson, Susan Reilly, Neal Schmitt, Paul Thayer, and Lauress Wise. We asked them each to describe the technology they used during their early ca- reers to conduct data analysis, and we asked them to reflect on how technological changes have affected the way in which I-O psychologists conduct research. In the following sections we discuss how calculators, early computers, and PCs were used “back in the day” to conduct data analysis. We then dis- cuss how I-O psychologists wrote their research reports prior to the advent of PCs and word processing programs. Jeffrey M. Cucina U.S. Customs and Border Protection Nathan Bowling Wright State University Note. The views expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of U.S. Customs and Border Protection or the U.S. federal government. Conducting Statistical Analyses Using Calculators Many of the interviewees told us that they conducted statisti- cal analyses using calculators, especially for small datasets and for class assignments. Thayer told us that he conducted his doctoral work in the early 1950s in Dr. Herbert Toops’ lab at Ohio State University. Toops had a mechanical hand-crank cal- culator in the lab that looked like a typewriter and had a crank that the user would move forward for addition and multiplica- tion and backward for subtraction and division. The psychol- ogy department had a calculator lab, with about 20 machines that graduate students could use for their research. Statistics classes would often have lab sessions in the calculator lab, and Thayer remembers his fellow students having races to see who could do their calculations the fastest. According to Thayer, the calculators at Ohio State University were of the Marchant brand (another common brand was Friden). A pic- The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist 101