Bowling Green State University
Nancy Yanchus and Marcus Butts
University of Georgia
Boy, do we love the summer time! We love it so much we considered writing a whole column on how to do absolutely nothing over your summer vacation and feel good about it. We were thinking it would be an autobiography. But seriously, its hard to believe another academic year came to a close just a month or so ago and now summer is half over. Hopefully, during your summer break youve had the opportunity to take some time to recharge your energy level for the upcoming year and to find a little meaningfulness in your life, just as we suggested in our previous column. Now that your workload may be a little lighter, we hope you will have the opportunity to set aside some time to read though this edition of TIP-TOPics.
Were not sure if the sun has gotten to us or were just a little overzealous, but for this edition we have decided to give you some insight from all four of our featured segments. In Psychology et al. we provide some perceptive information regarding I-O psychologys link to the military. Career Corner offers a precareer perspective on academic life and preparation for future faculty. Path to PhD Glory discusses the importance of networking at conferences. Finally, Scientists AND Practitioners provides a brief redirection and addition to the scientists perspective of the publication process from our previous column. A few people contacted us with their insights regarding the publication procedure, and we felt they were worthy of inclusion. We do appreciate your comments and hope to hear from you in the future. Thanks, and enjoy the column (and the rest of your summer)!
Psychology et al.
This section is devoted to investigating areas in which I-O psychology intersects with other disciplines or areas. In this issue we focus on I-O psychology and the military. We chose this area because it is a field in which our research makes a significant difference in human performance: The results from applied military research have a direct and immediate impact on how critical problems are solved, on the safety and well-being of military personnel, and on the security of the United States.
We present you with information on the following categories: (a) current research, (b) funding, (c) getting started, (d) job availability, (e) hiring organizations, and (f) recommended educational background. We interviewed several academics as well as military researchers for this article, and they provided information about the above topics as well as letting us know what they enjoy about military research. Before going any further, we would like to thank the following contributors for the excellent insight they provided about I-O psychology and the military: Michael D. Coovert, Daniel J. Dwyer, John R. Hollenbeck, Kim A. Smith-Jentsch, Robert P. Mahan, and John E. Mathieu.
Current I-OMilitary Research
Current research involving I-O psychology and the military includes work with teams, training, multiple teams training, and leadership. Other projects have involved building quantitative models of job experience and using structural equation modeling linking them to performance. Some research with the Navy investigates tactical decision making under stress
(TADMUS). In this project, researchers were interested in building models of operator actions in a combat information center aboard Aegis warships. Work is also being done on training simulators and intelligent agents, which are computer-based helpers that advise people how to act under certain situations.
A brief overview of some specific research by Dan Ilgen and John Hollenbeck highlights how I-O theory and method dovetails nicely with the needs of the military. They currently are part of the Adaptive Architectures for Command and Control (A2C2) program that is funded by the Cognitive and Neural Sciences Division of the Office of Naval Research. This is a joint program of research involving mathematical modeling experts from Carnegie Mellon and the University of Connecticut, as well as Navy personnel at the Naval Postgraduate School and the Naval War College. The programs goal is to develop and test basic theory related to how various group and organizational structures impact processes and outcomes in teams. They also study basic psychological issues related to how effectively people can adapt from working in one type of structure to another. In addition, they interact with the researchers at the Naval Postgraduate School, who conduct qualitative studies with smaller samples of military officers, as well as personnel at the Naval War College who do even more realistic case studies involving real military unitsall aimed at seeing how people react to different types of structural changes. They also work with the mathematical modelers who build simulations of how individuals and groups process information and make decisions under different structures. Bill Vaughn and Gerry Malecki have been very supportive of their research.
Obtaining military contracts is very competitive. In order to get research money you need to compete against other academics, as well as private companies. Some tips for improving your chances of getting funding are to get to know the problems the military is facing and the researchers who are trying to solve them and networking (see Path To PhD Glory below). Several contributors made their first contacts with the military in graduate school via internships with the Navy or Air Force. It is also possible to be brought into a project based on your reputation as a researcher and the type of research you perform as it relates to military issues. Once youve established a relationship with the military it is not as hard (yet not too easy) to continue receiving funding. The key is to work hard to understand and meet the needs of those who are supporting your work.
While interning with the military in graduate school is the most frequently cited way our contributors began working with the military, one researcher and his colleague made their initial contact by responding to a Broad Band Agency Announcement that was issued in the wake of the USS Stark and USS Vincennes incidents. In both incidents, there were decision-making errors made by teams. This merged nicely with their research interests in hierarchical team decision making.
Jobs that are available for I-O psychologists who are interested in working with the military break down (by percentage) as follows: research psychologists for military organizations (program management, scientist, and internal consultant), 25%; government contractors (research, development of training systems, or both), 50%; academics (research, consulting on development projects), 25%. In general, I-O graduates (both PhD and masters) working in military settings work in jobs related to training and simulation, human performance solutions, human factors, and selection. Within these areas, jobs exist in both applied and R&D settings for all branches of the military.
Hiring Companies and Institutions
Some of the companies and consulting firms that work with the military are
Aptima, 21st Century Systems, American Institutes for Research, CHI Systems, Group for Organizational Effectiveness, Human Resources Research Organization
(HumRRO), Jardon & Howard Technologies, Klein Associates, L3Com, Micro Analysis and Design, and Veridian Engineering. A few of the military organizations that employ I-O psychologists are Naval Air Warfare CenterTraining Systems Division, Navy Personnel Research Science and Technology Office, U.S. Army Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, Army Research Laboratory, and Air Force Research Laboratory.
If you are interested in working with the military, quantitative skills are especially important. Other qualifications include experience in field settings, excellent writing ability, good presentation (briefing) skills, internships with practical, real-world experience, and strong consultant/interpersonal skills. It is also necessary to have a solid research background and the ability to break large projects into manageable pieces and coordinate them. Another plus for this type of job is enjoying tackling really difficult problems!
Benefits of Military Research
Our contributors provided a variety of reasons for what they enjoy the most about their involvement with the military. For some it is being able to take an idea and investigate it as basic research but also in the applied setting, such as the study of command and control decision making. Others enjoy the professional atmosphere. The military, once it sees the value of the research, will break down barriers to get projects into place and to line up resources. There is also the appeal of never doing the same thing twice. Research is appreciated, and it is understood that quick and dirty studies will not always be the way to learn the right answers to complex questions. The military cares a great deal about their personnel and is very intent on avoiding decision-making errors because so much is often at stake.
Up to this point, Career Corner has explored the avenues and possibilities beyond graduate school from either an academic or practitioner perspective, or both. For this issue, we want to take a slightly different perspective and enlighten you about a possible program for current students looking towards academia. We would like to tell you about a program called Preparing Future Faculty
(PFF). It is designed to develop your academic career options while in graduate school and increase preparation for your future as a faculty member. This section begins with a brief history of
PFF, followed by a description of the program and how PFF can make a difference for students pursuing academic careers. We then conclude with information about how to get your school involved in the program. Before going any further, we would like to thank Kecia Thomas and the national PFF office for their contributions to this section.
History of the PFF Program
In the spring of 1993, seventeen doctoral degreegranting institutions received grants to create model Preparing Future Faculty programs that would introduce graduate students to faculty life in a variety of campus environments. Each institution developed its own university-wide program based on their individual interests, needs, and opportunities. Institutions were given broad guidelines and were urged to plan their programs in accordance with their students stage of development, to include mentoring in teaching, and to provide personal experience in various institutional settings. In 1998, PFF began collaborating with disciplinary associations in the hard sciences and mathematics to develop departmentally based programs that would build on the initial pilot programs. With support from the National Science Foundation, PFF developed collaborations with the American Chemical Society, the Mathematical Association of America, and the Special Interest Group on Computer Science Education. In 1999, PFF expanded to include departmental programs in the humanities and social sciences. Thats where the American Psychological Association
(APA) got involved. APA conducted a competition to select doctoral departments to participate in this new category of
PFF. Four schools were selected and received support from the APA to implement a PFF program. The four schools were Miami University, University of Georgia, University of ColoradoBoulder, and University of New Hampshire. To date, the following disciplines have established departmental PFF programs:
Biological & Life Sciences
Besides departmental programs or campus-wide versions of PFF programs, many institutions today have developed programs that are comprised of various elements of a PFF program (e.g., mentoring programs, professional development courses). In addition, a number of professional associations support workshops at a variety of schools to prepare graduate students for faculty life issues.
What Exactly is a PFF Program?
A PFF program focuses on the full range of faculty roles and responsibilities subsumed by teaching, research, and service. The nationally recognized PFF programs have three core components: (a) collaboration between the doctoral degreegranting institution and partner institutions, (b) exposure to the duties and experiences of faculty members, and (c) multiple mentors and feedback on research, teaching, and service. PFF programs provide students with opportunities to observe and experience faculty responsibilities at a variety of academic institutions with varying missions, diverse student bodies, and different faculty expectations. The programs sponsored by APA structure their psychology PFF as a 2-year program. During those 2 years, students are exposed to the following:
Partner institutions. Doctoral students learn about a multitude of expectations through exposure to a full range of professional responsibilities at various academic institutions. Through experience at smaller schools, students get a broader picture of the faculty service that is emphasized such as student advising and committee work. This exposure to a variety of institutions enables future faculty to find their fit between their interests and the needs of institutions.
Mentoring. PFF programs include a formalized system of mentoring in all aspects of professional development. Most students benefit from multiple mentors and may have mentors at different institutions in order to provide diverse perspectives on teaching, research, and service.
Diversity among students. PFF experiences try to prepare future faculty for the diversity among students who will be in most of their classrooms. Exposure to a variety of environments allows future faculty to become more competent in understanding and addressing issues presented by the diversity of learning styles and backgrounds.
Integration into sequence of degree requirements. Students in PFF programs are given progressively more complex assignments, more responsibility, and recognition associated with increased professional capabilities. These progressive assignments allow future faculty to build skills and gain confidence in their knowledge and professional growth.
Why is a PFF important?
For those going into an academic career, or thinking of going into an academic career, experience in a PFF provides exposure to what life as a faculty member is all about, not only at their current institution but also at a variety of institutional environments. The program strengthens students understanding of faculty roles and responsibilities and also enhances their understanding of the job search process as well as their ability to compete in the job market. Because of the current emphasis on expanding faculty roles to encompass facets of service, research, and teaching, it is critical for future faculty to be adequately prepared beyond just course work. Furthermore, as teaching techniques become more interactive and technology evolves, it is important that future faculty stay informed in order to be well prepared to teach the students of tomorrow.
What is the next step?
As previously mentioned, only four universities offer a departmental PFF program in psychology, and to our knowledge, only one of those schools has an I-O program. Thus, there is a need and an opportunity for more I-O programs, in association with psychology departments, to get involved in implementation of PFF programs. APA awards initial PFF funding to psychology departments with strong dedication to faculty preparation agendas that include smaller partner schools. Students whose departments lack a PFF program can urge their faculty to get involved. Furthermore, steps can be taken to gradually implement components of a PFF program. We encourage students and faculty to research how they may prepare students for the wide variety of experiences that they will encounter in academia. More specifically, it is important to ensure that future faculty members are prepared for the extra-role responsibilities and diverse opportunities that are available as they begin their academic careers. If you are interested in learning more about PFF programs, some helpful Internet sites are listed below:
National PFF Information
I-O PFF Programs
Articles in the APA Monitor on the PFF
Path to PhD Glory
As promised, Path to PhD Glory is here for your consumption! Recently, both IOOB and SIOP took place. For this issue, we thought it apropos to discuss these two relevant conferences (as well as a few others) related to opportunities to network and potential networking strategies.
IOOB and SIOP
As you may have read in the last issue, IOOB is officially the Industrial and Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior Graduate Student Conference. This year, the University of South Florida hosted the conference in Tampa and was it ever a blast! IOOB was a great combination of academics and leisure. There was a student-focused day and a professionally focused day. Students had the opportunity to present posters and oral presentations as well attend a variety of different sessions. Topics ranged from virtual teams and job attitudes to selection and motivation. The atmosphere was very laid-back and constructive. Some who presented admitted to being a little nervous, but everyone we spoke with was glad to have presented and said that it was a great opportunity to practice presenting. Angelo DeNisi, Wally Borman, and Denise Rousseau delivered the morning, noon, and afternoon keynote addresses, respectively. Tammy Allen, Walter Nord, and Tim Judge, among others, also presented some of their research, along with fellow TIP columnists Lori Foster Thompson and Dawn Riddle. Being able to meet well-known figures in our field was a great opportunity provided to graduate students by IOOB. (Next year, IOOB will be held at the University of Akronkeep your eyes peeled for more info.)
In case youve been hibernating, the annual SIOP Conference took place in Toronto this year, and many more networking opportunities occurred. About 3,000 people attended SIOP this year. Attendees included undergraduate students, graduate students (masters and PhD), faculty members, and consultants. Some of the most- and least-famous I-O psychologists were located in the same city (and even the same hotel), presenting new findings simultaneously over multiple days!
Why network? Most selection courses mention the axiom that over half of all job openings are never officially posted. Knowing someone privy to this sort of informal information could be very beneficial in your future. Another reason to network is that there are many people interested in the same line of research as you. Whether it is for thesis improvements, potential cross-program collaboration on a topic of mutual interest, or a job lead, you have to know the pertinent individuals out there to contact and meet.
The message of this segment is not simply to name-drop. The purpose is to explain how it is possible to meet and get to know these people. The first piece of adviceATTEND! Attending conferences is a great way to meet people in the field, specifically people with the same interests as you. Sometimes it is not financially possible to attend all possible conferences. There are an overwhelming number of conferences related to I-O psychology; such conferences as SIOP, the American Psychological Society (APS), the American Psychological Association (APA), and the Academy of Management (AoM) are just four examples. As a student either paying for grad school or receiving a small stipend, chances are that trips to Orlando, New Orleans, Chicago, and Denver might be a bit too expensive this year. However, you can frequently carpool rather than fly, and you are likely to get funding from somewhere within your institution if you are presenting. Thus, selling your poodle, Fluffy, is probably not worth attending that extra conferencebut think about it.
So how does this networking thing work? It all depends on the person. There are those individuals who can just go up to someone theyve never met before and strike up a conversation. If thats you, youll have no problem networking! However, many people are shy or uncomfortable approaching other individuals one-on-one. To remedy this, take advantage of those you already know! You have an advisor and other faculty acquaintancesask them to introduce you to their former advisors or acquaintances. You also likely know people from your former undergraduate institution. Furthermore, alumni from your graduate school are a great resource for networking. Alumni have established jobs, either at other educational institutions, in the government, or in the private sector. They likely know with whom to speak with for an internship or a job, and they can refer you to the right person or steer you away from a bad decision.
Networking, IOOB, and SIOP
How does all this networking talk tie into IOOB and SIOP? If you are interested in working with someone, or picking his or her brain, e-mail him or her and do lunch. Or ask them to go have a drink. The worst they can do is say no. There are many informal opportunities at conferences that are just as important as formal opportunities, if not more so. For example, many schools have SIOP receptions or parties (some lasting until wee hours in the morning). By simply attending your own schools reception, you can meet numerous people. And if you get invited to other schools receptions, you can meet even more people!
There are a number of possibilities at IOOB and SIOP. However, with the tons of simultaneous symposia and poster sessions, it is impossible to attend everything that seems interesting at these conferences. Instead, you should e-mail researchers and ask for their paper or for their opinion. And if you met them earlier in the conference, mention it in the e-mail. At the next SIOP, youll likely recognize that person, and that person may recognize you. Another way to network and get known at conferences is to actually submit and present your research. Standing at your SIOP poster and answering questions or giving a symposium presentation are great ways to meet people interested in your research. Sending personalized e-mails along with your paper may seem like a waste of time, but it may be a great opportunity to make an impression and to be remembered.
Remember not to overdo your networking. Dont e-mail just for the sake of e-mailingonly do so if you have a purpose. This purpose can be a thank you for an interesting paper or conversation, or a request for a scale. However, remember to remain professional. Yo, Ed. Whattup? Just read an article of yours and it ruled! is probably not the best way to interact with Ed Locke.
Networking opens up many doors. Its not for everyone, but knowledge is power; the benefits usually outweigh the costs. If you have any questions about networking, feel free to e-mail us. We may have some contacts.
Scientists AND Practitioners
The Scientists Perspective Revisited
We received a few e-mails about our previous column describing the life of being a professor. A few interesting points came up as a result. It was suggested that our statement from last issue indicating that professors on average submit 6 to 10 manuscripts for publications a year, should be significantly lower, especially for those schools that emphasize teaching courses more and publishing research less. For example, professors at doctoral programs usually teach one class less a semester than professors at masters programs. Preparing for more classes is bound to reduce research output because not as much time can be devoted to it.
Another point made revolved around the number of revise and resubmits that are received by professors. Most journals will give you an R&R once. If you choose to do so, you will (usually) either be accepted or rejected then and thereif accepted, you will likely have to make a few more small revisions (for a total of 2 revisions). If rejected, the process will start anew with another journal.
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