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SIOP Distinguished Professional Contributions Award (2023): “Stories of Discovery in the Pursuit of Practice”

Michael A. Campion, Purdue University (and Campion Services, Inc.)

The purpose of this article is to summarize my presentation for the 2023 Society of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP) Distinguished Professional Contributions Award.1 I begin with a few introductory remarks on my background and the award, followed by suggestions for making discoveries in applied work. I also provide examples of how I identified improvements to practice through my own applied work. Finally, I end with a few recommendations.

The science–practice model is not science versus practice, and it certainly is not academic versus applied. Rather, those in academic settings should try to consult, and those in applied settings should try to conduct research and publish. There are many benefits to practice, teaching, and science; each contributes to the others, and all three are necessary to be a stable platform.

Although I am a professor in a business school, and I write a lot of articles, I am not a pure “academic.” I started my career with 8 years in industry, 4 years each at Weyerhaeuser Company and IBM (1978–1986). I have been at Purdue since 1986 but actively consulting since 1987. I have conducted about 1,500 projects in 200 organizations, consulting and writing articles on a wide range of I-O topics, including but not limited to selection, validation, job analysis, career development and training, and recently artificial intelligence.

The Professional Contributions Award, as I understand it, is for contributing to the improvement of practice, regardless of your main employment setting. Although I am primarily located in an academic setting on a daily basis, I understand that I got the award for how my research influenced practice. I learned those improvements in practice through my applied work in consulting.

I exemplify a new personality trait: Need for sharing knowledge. When I began practicing, I was in awe of how much we did not know (or, instead, how much was not documented in the literature). I had this intrinsic need to want to tell other people what I learned. I tried to publish and present papers, and had some modest success. I soon became obsessed with looking for insights in each applied project and sharing them with others in the profession. Most of my publications and presentations have been things I discovered or created in practice. This has become my modus operandi.

Some Secrets to Publishing From Applied Projects

First, organizations are willing to use stronger research methods if the project is important to them and the researcher explains the value of research rigor. Research quality should be more important in applied work anyway, given it will affect peoples’ lives. Second, put together teams of researchers to publish the data. This award and presentation is a salute to my teams of coauthors. I really owe it to them.

Third, asking for permission to use the data for publication is usually unnecessary and often backfires. Organizations that benefit from the science have an obligation to give back. Fourth, be inspired by solving the problem as opposed to pursuing a narrow theoretical interest. Be agnostic as to topic, finding, or theory. Fifth, do not worry about what is trendy; publish what you are working on. The importance of the topic is justified by the fact that an organization is sponsoring the project. Sixth, be willing to look into other literature and new areas; take on projects outside your domain (within reason of course). We have generalizable research skills. Being new to an area will often lead to key insights because you are not encumbered by the received doctrine (i.e., currently accepted interpretation of a phenomenon within a field).

The remainder of this commentary is devoted to examples of how I tried to improve practice through discovery in applied projects. I divide the examples into three broad topic areas below.

Structured Interviewing

I have conducted about 150 projects, and I shared the findings in about 25 articles (and an equal number of SIOP presentations). Here are some examples of the applied question or observation, followed by the citations of the primary publications.

1. How can we change the hiring practices to treat all candidates equally after a race discrimination lawsuit? Let’s ask everybody the same questions and evaluate the answers in a more objective way. See Campion et al. (1988).

2. Are situational and past behavior interview questions equally valid? Let’s include both and compare them in the next consulting project to see. See Campion et al. (1994).

3. Structuring the interview is clearly the way to go. Somebody needs to summarize all the ways to do so to improve practice. See Campion et al. (1997).

4. If structured interviews are presumed to be fairer and more defensible, let’s see if judges even notice. Bring in a couple of attorneys who are I-Os as coauthors to ensure we interpret the court cases correctly. See Gollub-Williamson et al. (1997).

5. If structured interviews are presumed to be fairer, do they show any demographic similarity effects? See McCarthy et al. (2010).

6. We know candidates fake in interviews, but how and how much? This was a dissertation inspired by practice. Aside from helping understand how faking occurs, another implication is that the accepted practice of probing makes it worse, especially for situational questions. See Levashina and Campion (2007).

7. How can we reduce rating errors among interviewers (leniency, severity, and central tendency)? What if we give them feedback on their past ratings? See Hartwell et al. (2016).

8. Good literature reviews are very helpful to practice by summarizing what is currently known. See Levashina et al. (2014) and Posthuma et al. (2002).

Job Analysis and Work Design

I have conducted about 200 projects, and I shared the findings in about 25 articles (and an equal number of SIOP presentations).

1. How can I do a dissertation that combines my PhD training program in I-O, human factors, and industrial engineering? Many if not most problems in organization are interdisciplinary, and this can lead to key insights. See Campion and Thayer (1985) and Campion (1988).

2. Who actually knew that the practice of job redesign requires meaningful trade-offs, and they can be clearly predicted in advance and maybe even reduced with an interdisciplinary perspective? This started as a SIOP poster paper that was read by some I-Os in a company that led to years of consulting and discoveries. See Campion and McClelland (1991) and Campion and McClelland (1993).

3. This “teams” trend is cranking up. We need to get out ahead of it. How can we design teams so they are more likely to be effective? A progressive client might be willing to do decent studies to find out. See Campion et al. (1993) and Campion et al. (1996).

4. Can I use opportunities to redesign jobs and teams to further our understanding to improve practice? I found field quasi-experiments are often possible if you look for them. See Morgeson and Campion (2002) and Morgeson et al. (2006).

5. How can we combine everything we know to replace the Dictionary of Occupational Titles? The answer was the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). I was asked to join three of the eight research groups that were responding to the request for proposals put out by the U.S. Department of Labor to conduct the initial research. However, I had befriended many people in the DOL earlier in my career due to my applied work, and they asked if I would rather be on the team to pick the winner (and ultimately help supervise the development of O*NET). So, it was a question of “bird in hand versus bird in bush.” See Peterson et al. (2001).

6. Doesn’t anyone else realize that job analysis is susceptible to all the judgment errors known in psychology? Is that an elephant in the room? This started as a presentation at a DOL conference, which launched years of inquiry, mostly based on embedding research in applied job analysis data collections. See Morgeson and Campion (1997), Morgeson and Campion (2000), Morgeson et al. (2004), and Morgeson et al. (2016).

7. How can you convert the sometimes boring due-diligence process called job analysis into an organization-changing development effort? Call it competency modeling. As a coauthor put it, this is the “Trojan horse” of job analysis. It is a way to sneak job analysis into discussions in the executive suite. Let’s get together a group of practitioners to share what they know with the profession. See Campion et al. (2011). In a related project, I used a change initiative at a government client to learn how competency models can drive strategy. See Campion et al. (2020).

8. Did you know that incumbents may tailor (craft) their jobs to meet their needs? This was not a discovery from practice, but it has implications for practice. I now include a job-crafting measure in every job analysis survey. See Bruning and Campion (2018) and Bruning and Campion (2022).

Personnel Selection

I have conducted about 700 projects, and I shared the findings in over 40 articles (and an equal number of SIOP presentations).

1. How can we reduce racial subgroup differences in test scores? This is one of the most important social issues in I-O. Let’s try some things with various clients. See Campion et al. (2001), Schleicher et al. (2010), Van Iddekinge et al. (2011), and Campion et al. (2019).

2. Candidate perceptions really matter. How can we improve them? Let’s try some manipulations, correlates, and improved measurement. All these projects used dataset from applied selection projects. See Bauer et al. (1998), Bauer et al. (2001), Truxillo et al. (2002), Schleicher et al. (2006), McCarthy et al. (2013), and McCarthy et al. (2017).

3. As teams become more common, we should figure out how to staff them. See Stevens and Campion (1994), Stevens and Campion (1999), Morgeson et al. (2005), and Mumford et al. (2008).

4. Personality testing is becoming a major trend, and everyone is forgetting they have very low validity. How could we objectively evaluate the evidence? Let’s ask a panel of former journal editors with experience judging research and no obvious ownership of that literature. See Morgeson et al. (2007a), and Morgeson et al. (2007b).

5. Situational judgment tests should be revitalized because they can measure some personality traits in a less fakable way and some mental abilities with smaller subgroup differences. There were also some bad ideas developing in the literature that needed to be avoided, such as reinventing them as written situational interviews or equating them with common sense. They have actually been around since the 1940s and can measure a range of attributes. See McDaniel et al. (2001).

6. How do recruiters interpret application and resume information? This has practical value to both candidates and organizations but is virtually never examined in the research. See Brown and Campion (1994).

7. Can we create more qualified candidates by recruiting them earlier in life rather than having to compete for them when they are on the job market? This was a surprising discovery when analyzing recruiting source data for a client. See Campion et al. (2017).

8. Why fire perfectly adequate employees? Borrowing options theory from finance may help explain this practice in professional service firms. See Malos and Campion (1995), and Malos and Campion (2000).

9. Artificial intelligence may be the biggest influence on personnel selection since tests were developed. I was an early adopter, starting with work in 2012 and implementing a computer model for selection in 2014. I recognized the confluence of Big Data, advanced analytics, and opportunity (need) at a key client. This led to the first published article on the topic in a top I-O journal in 2016 and many studies since. See Campion et al. (2016), Campion and Campion (2020), Campion and Campion (in press), Campion and Campion (under review), and Campion et al. (under review).

10. Promotion and career development are neglected in I-O. Large companies think this is important, and their archival data can answer many questions. See Campion et al. (1994), Campion et al. (2021), and Campion et al. (in press).

11. Turnover management is very important to organizations but very difficult to manage because the reasons for turnover are so heterogeneous. What do I tell my clients? The literature focuses almost totally on the predictors, ignoring the criterion and process. See Campion (1991), Maertz et al. (2003), and Maertz and Campion (2004).

12. Unusual findings in staffing should be documented. They are not known and may be useful to others. See Campion et al. (1981), Campion and Mitchell (1986), Campion and Campion (1987), Posthuma et al. (2005), Maertz et al. (2010), Levashina et al. (2012), and Arnold et al. (2021).

13. Best practices papers are useful. Expert testimony requires doing something “scientific,” so best practice reviews can come out of it. Helping settle lawsuits should pay back to the profession. See Morgeson et al. (2008), Posthuma and Campion (2008), Levashina and Campion (2009), Posthuma and Campion (2009), Campion et al. (2011), Jimenez-Arevalo et al. (2013), Campion et al. (2018), Posthuma et al. (2018), and Campion et al. (2019).

Some Concluding Recommendations

Help organizations and employees solve problems and be more effective using the SIOP fundamentals, and then share the insights with the profession. Realize the more you give, the more you get back. SIOP is mostly about methods and philosophies that require capable people and organizations to implement, not secret formulas. Sharing can improve both parties; it is not zero sum. Embrace the science–practice model; that is our “secret sauce.” Appreciate the journey. This is science, not just technology. Focus on the enjoyment of problem solving and relish the discovery.


[1] The invited presentation could not be delivered at the recent SIOP conference in Boston due to a fire alarm.


Structured Interviewing

Campion, M. A., Campion, J. E., & Hudson, J. P. (1994). Structured interviewing: A note on incremental validity and alternative question types. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 998–1002.

Campion, M. A., Palmer, D. K., & Campion, J. E. (1997). A review of structure in the selection interview. Personnel Psychology, 50, 655–702.

Campion, M. A., Pursell, E. D., & Brown, B. K. (1988). Structured interviewing: Raising the psychometric properties of the employment interview. Personnel Psychology, 41, 25–42.

Gollub–Williamson, L. G., Campion, J. E., Malos, S. B., Roehling, M. V., & Campion, M. A. (1997). Employment interview on trial: Linking interview structure with litigation outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 900–912.

Hartwell, C. J., & Campion, M. A. (2016). Getting on the same page: The effect of normative feedback interventions on structured interview ratings. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101, 757–778.

Levashina, J., & Campion, M. A. (2007). Measuring faking in the employment interview: Development and validation of an interview faking behavior scale. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1638–1656.

Levashina, J., Hartwell, C. J., Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2014). The structured employment interview: Narrative and quantitative review of the research literature. Personnel Psychology, 67, 241–293.

McCarthy, J., Van Iddekinge, C. H., & Campion, M. A. (2010). Are highly structured job interviews resistant to demographic similarity effects? Personnel Psychology, 63, 325–369.

Posthuma, R. A., Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2002). Beyond employment interview validity: A comprehensive narrative review of recent research and trends over time. Personnel Psychology, 55, 1–81.

Job Analysis and Work Design

Bruning, P., & Campion, M. A. (2018). A role-resource approach-avoidance model of job crafting: A multi-method integration and extension of job crafting theory. Academy of Management Journal, 61, 499–522.

Bruning, P., & Campion, M. A. (2022). Assessing job crafting competencies to predict tradeoffs between competing outcomes. Human Resource Management, 61(1), 91–116.

Campion, M. A. (1988). Interdisciplinary approaches to job design: A constructive replication with extensions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, 467–481.

Campion, M. A., Fink, A. A., Ruggeberg, B. J., Carr, L., Phillips, G. M., & Odman, R. B. (2011). Doing competencies well: Best practices in competency modeling. Personnel Psychology, 64, 225–262.

Campion, M. A., & McClelland, C. L. (1991). Interdisciplinary examination of the costs and benefits of enlarged jobs: A job design quasi-experiment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 186–198.

Campion, M. A., & McClelland, C. M. (1993). Follow-up and extension of the interdisciplinary costs and benefits of enlarged jobs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 339–351.

Campion, M. A., Medsker, G. J., & Higgs, C. (1993). Relations between work group characteristics and effectiveness: Implications for designing effective work groups. Personnel Psychology, 46, 823–850.

Campion, M. A., Papper, E. M., & Medsker, E. J. (1996). Relations between work team characteristics and effectiveness: A replication and extension. Personnel Psychology, 49, 429–452.

Campion, M. A., & Thayer, P. W. (1985). Development and field evaluation of an interdisciplinary measure of job design. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 29–43.

Campion, M. C., Schepker, D., Campion, M. A., & Sanchez, J. I. (2020). Competency modeling: A theoretical and empirical examination of the strategy dissemination process. Human Resource Management, 59, 291–306.

Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (1997). Social and cognitive sources of potential inaccuracy in job analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 627–655.

 Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2000). Accuracy in job analysis: Toward an inference-based model. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 819–827.

Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2002). Minimizing tradeoffs when redesigning work: Evidence from a longitudinal quasi-experiment. Personnel Psychology, 55, 589–612.

Morgeson, F. P., Delaney-Klinger, K. A., Mayfield, M. S., Ferrara, P., & Campion, M. A. (2004). Self-presentation processes in job analysis: A field experiment investigating inflation in abilities, tasks, and competencies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 674–686.

Morgeson, F. P., Johnson, M. D., Campion, M. A., Medsker, G. J., & Mumford, T. V. (2006). Understanding reactions to job redesign: A quasi-experimental investigation of the moderating effects of organizational context on perceptions of performance behavior. Personnel Psychology, 59, 333–363.

Morgeson, F. P., Spitzmuller, M., Garza, A. S., & Campion, M. A. (2016). Pay attention! The liabilities of respondent experience and carelessness when making job analysis judgments. Journal of Management, 42, 1904–1933.

Peterson, N. G., Mumford, M. D., Borman, W. C., Jeanneret, P. R., Fleishman, E. A., Levin, K. Y., Campion, M. A., Mayfield, M. S., Morgeson, F. P., Pearlman, K., Gowing, M. K., Lancaster, A., & Dye, D. (2001). Understanding work using the occupational information network (O*NET): Implications for practice and research. Personnel Psychology, 54, 451–492.

Personnel Selection

Arnold, J., Van Iddekinge, C., Campion, M. C., Bauer, T., & Campion, M. A. (2021). Welcome back? Job performance and turnover of boomerang employees compared to internal and external hires. Journal of Management, 2198–2225.

Bauer, T. N., Maertz, C. P., Dolen, M. R., & Campion, M. A. (1998). Longitudinal assessment of applicant reactions to employment testing and test outcome feedback. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 892–903.

Bauer, T. N., Truxillo, D. M., Sanchez, R. J., Craig, J. M., Ferrara, P., & Campion, M. A. (2001). Applicant reactions to selection: Development of the Selection Procedural Justice Scale (SPJS). Personnel Psychology, 54, 387–419.

Brown, B. K., & Campion, M. A. (1994). Biodata phenomenology: Recruiters’ perceptions and use of biographical information in resume screening. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 897–908.

Campion, E. D., & Campion. M. A. (2020). Using computer-assisted text analysis (CATA) to inform employment decisions: Approaches, software, and findings. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 38, 287–327.

Campion, E. D., & Campion, M. A. (in press). Machine learning applications to personnel selection: Current illustrations, lessons learned, and future research. Personnel Psychology.

Campion, E. D., & Campion, M. A. Searching for meaning: A review and agenda for using computer-aided text analysis to discover constructs. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Campion, E. D., Campion, M. A., & Campion, M. C. (2021). A human capital‐based framework of career, well‐being, and social information reasons for managerial lateral job assignment preferences. Human Resource Management, 61(4), 423–447.

Campion, E. D., Campion, M. A., Johnson, J., Carretta, T. R., Romay, S., Dirr, B., Deregla, A., & Mouton, A. Using advanced text analysis to increase prediction and reduce subgroup differences in personnel selection decisions. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Campion, E. D., Campion, M. C., & Campion, M. A. (2018). Best practices in incentive compensation bonus administration based on research and professional advice. Compensation & Benefits Review, 49, 123–134.

Campion, E. D., Campion, M. C., & Campion, M. A. (2019). Best practices when using 360 feedback for performance appraisal. In D. W. Bracken, J. W. Fleenor, & D. S. Rose (eds.), The handbook of strategic 360 feedback (pp. 19–59). Oxford.

Campion, M. A. (1991). Meaning and measurement of turnover: Comparison of alternative measures and recommendations for research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 199–212.

Campion, M. A., & Campion, J. E. (1987). Evaluation of an interviewee skills training program in a natural field experiment. Personnel Psychology, 40, 675–691.

Campion, M. A., Cheraskin, L., & Stevens, M. J. (1994). Career-related antecedents and outcomes of job rotation. Academy of Management Journal, 37, 1518–1542.

Campion, M. A., Guerrero, L., & Posthuma, R. A. (2011). Reasonable human resource practices for making employee downsizing decisions. Organizational Dynamics, 40, 174–180.

Campion, M. A., Lord, R. G., & Pursell, E. D. (1981). Individual and organizational correlates of promotion refusal. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 19, 42–49.

Campion, M. A., & Mitchell, M. M. (1986). Management turnover: Experiential differences between former and current managers. Personnel Psychology, 39, 57–69.

Campion, M. A., Outtz, J. L., Zedeck, S., Schmidt, F. L., Kehoe, J. F., Murphy, K. R., & Guion, R. M. (2001). The controversy over score banding in personnel selection: Answers to 10 key questions. Personnel Psychology, 54, 149–185.

Campion, M. C., Campion, E. D., & Campion, M. A. (2019). Using practice employment tests to improve recruitment and personnel selection outcomes for organizations and job seekers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104, 1089–1102.

Campion, M. C., Campion, E. D., Campion, M. A., & Bauer, T. N. (in press). Cultivating a leadership pipeline: Using a real options lens to understand executives’ strategic staffing decisions. Organization Science.

Campion, M. C., Campion, M. A., Campion, E. D., & Reider, M. H. (2016). Initial investigation into computer scoring of candidate essays for personnel selection. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101, 958–975.

Campion, M. C., Ployhart, R. E., & Campion, M. A. (2017). Using recruitment source timing and diagnosticity to enhance applicants’ occupation-specific human capital. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102, 764–781.

Jimenez-Arevalo, F. R., Posthuma, R. A., & Campion, M. A. (2013). Effective incentive compensation for sales employees during tough economic times. Organizational Dynamics, 42, 267–273.

Levashina, J., & Campion, M. A. (2009). Expected practices in background checking: Review of the human resource management literature. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 21, 231–249.

Levashina, J., Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2012). Tell me some more: Exploring how item verifiability and cognitive ability influence responses to biodata questions in a high-stakes selection context. Personnel Psychology, 65, 359–384.

Maertz, C. P., & Campion, M. A. (2004). Profiles in quitting: Integrating process and content turnover theory. Academy of Management Journal, 47, 566–582.

Maertz, C. P., Stevens, M. J., & Campion, M. A. (2003). A turnover model for the Mexican Maquiladoras. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 63, 111–135.

Maertz, C. P., Wiley, J. W., LeRouge, C., & Campion, M. A. (2010). Downsizing effects on survivors: Layoffs, offshoring & outsourcing. Industrial Relations, 49, 275–285.

Malos, S. B., & Campion, M. A. (1995). An options-based model of career mobility in professional service firms. Academy of Management Review, 20, 611–644.

Malos, S. B., & Campion, M. A. (2000). Human resource strategy and career mobility in professional service firms: Test of an options-based model. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 749–760.

McCarthy, J., Bauer, T. N., Truxillo, D. M., Campion, M. C., Van Iddekinge, C. H., & Campion, M. A. (2017). Using pre-test explanations to improve test-taker reactions: Testing a set of “wise” interventions. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 141, 43–56.

McCarthy, J. M., Van Iddekinge, C. H., Lievens, F., Kung, M., Sinar, E. F., & Campion, M. A. (2013). Do candidate reactions relate to job performance or affect criterion-related validity? A multi-study investigation of relations among reactions, selection test scores, and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98, 701–719.

McDaniel, M. A., Morgeson, F. P., Finnegan, E. B., Campion, M. A., & Braverman, E. P. (2001). Use of situational judgment tests to predict job performance: A clarification of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 730–740.

Morgeson, F. P., Campion, M. A., Dipboye, R. L., Hollenbeck, J. R., Murphy, K., & Schmitt, N. (2007a). Reconsidering the use of personality tests in personnel selection contexts. Personnel Psychology, 60, 683–729.

Morgeson, F. P., Campion, M. A., Dipboye, R. L., Hollenbeck, J. R., Murphy, K., & Schmitt, N. (2007b). Are we getting fooled again? Coming to terms with limitations in the use of personality tests for personnel selection. Personnel Psychology, 60, 1029–1049.

Morgeson, F. P., Reider, M. H., & Campion, M. A. (2005). Selecting individuals in team settings: The importance of social skills, personality characteristics, and teamwork knowledge. Personnel Psychology, 58, 583–611.

Morgeson, F. P., Reider, M. H., Campion, M. A., & Bull, R. A. (2008). Review of research on age discrimination in the employment interview. Journal of Business and Psychology, 22, 223–232.

Mumford, T. V., Van Iddekinge, C. H., Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2008). The team role test: Development and validation of a team role knowledge situational judgment test. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 250–267.

Posthuma, R. A., & Campion, M. A. (2008). Twenty best practices for just employee performance reviews. Compensation & Benefits Review, 40, 47–55.

Posthuma, R. A., & Campion, M. A. (2009). Age stereotypes: Common stereotypes, moderators, and future research directions. Journal of Management, 35, 158–188.

Posthuma, R. A., Campion, M. A., & Vargas, A. L. (2005). Predicting counterproductive performance among temporary workers: A note. Industrial Relations, 44, 550–554.

Posthuma, R. A., Campion, M. C., & Campion, M. A. (2018). A taxonomic foundation for evidence-based research on employee performance management. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 27, 168–187.

Schleicher, D., Van Iddekinge, C. H., Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2010). If at first you don’t succeed, try, try, again: Understanding race, gender, and age differences in retesting score improvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95, 603–617.

Schleicher, D., Venkataramani, V., Morgeson, F. P., & Campion, M. A. (2006). So you didn’t get the job...now what do you think? Examining opportunity-to-perform fairness perceptions. Personnel Psychology, 59, 559–590.

Stevens, M. J., & Campion, M. A. (1994). The knowledge, skill, and ability requirements for teamwork: Implications for human resource management. Journal of Management, 20, 503–530.

Stevens, M. J., & Campion, M. A. (1999). Staffing work teams: Development and validation of a selection test for teamwork settings. Journal of Management, 25(2), 207–228.

Truxillo, D. M., Bauer, T. N., Campion, M. A., & Paronto, M. E. (2002). Selection fairness information and applicant reactions: A longitudinal field study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 1020–1031.

Van Iddekinge, C. H., Morgeson, F. P., Schleicher, D., & Campion, M. A. (2011). Can I retake it? Exploring subgroup differences and criterion-related validity in promotion retesting. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 941–955.

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