Ideals of Science: Persons Behind the SIOP Awards
Laura L. Koppes
The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), Inc.,
APA-Division 14, currently administers seven awards named in honor of specific individuals
who made significant contributions to the discipline of Industrial and Organizational
(I-O) Psychology. The awards (as listed in the SIOP Administrative Manual) include:
Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career
William A. Owens Scholarly Achievement Award
M. Scott Myers Award for Applied Research in the Workplace
Edwin E. Ghiselli Award for Research Design
S. Rains Wallace Dissertation Research Award
John C. Flanagan Award for Best Student Contribution at the SIOP
Robert J. Wherry Award for Best Paper at the IO-OB Graduate
With the passage of time and the evolution of new generations of I-O
psychologists, the memories of these men may become extinct. The purpose of this article
is to renew our memory of these seven scholars of I-O psychology by providing brief
backgrounds and highlighting a few contributions so that we may continue to recognize
their accomplishments and to appreciate the efforts of past and current award recipients.
I first contacted SIOP past-president and I-O history advocate, Paul Thayer, to
begin data collection on these individuals. I think you will agree with Thayer's comments:
As I review these names I am struck by the fact that all these men were
very special people. Every one of them had a very strong impact on people and were
lovedliterallyby those around them. They were/are men of integrity who were on
the leading edges of the field at one time or another, and who fought for high standards
and fair treatment. First class people!
(P. W. Thayer, personal communication, October 12, 1998).
Ernest J. McCormick Award for
Distinguished Early Career Contributions
The Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career
Contributions was established "to recognize an individual who had made the most
distinguished contributions to the science and/or practice of industrial and
organizational psychology within 7 years of receiving the Ph.D. degree" (SIOP
Ernest J. McCormick (1911_1990) was born in Indiana and grew up in Ohio
where he received a B.A. from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1933. After working for 2 years
with the Cotton Garment Code Authority in New York City, McCormick went to Washington, DC
as Chief of the Planning Unit, Job Analysis and Information Section, U.S. Employment
Service. A primary responsibility was to develop a nationwide job analysis program and
create a job classification and coding system for federal agencies. This system evolved
into the first edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. In 1939, McCormick
went to the Bureau of the Census and then to the Occupational Statistics Section of the
Selective Service System in 1941. He was commissioned by the Navy in 1943 and was assigned
as Chief of the Classification Analysis Unit, Enlisted Classification Section, Bureau of
Naval Personnel. McCormick was stricken with polio in August, 1945, and subsequently, was
given convalescent leave in 1946 (Naylor, 1991). He then pursued graduate work in
industrial psychology at Purdue University. He received an M.S. degree in 1947. When he
completed his Ph.D. in 1948, McCormick was offered a position at Purdue as an assistant
professor where he pursued a distinguished academic career until his retirement in 1977.
McCormick also cofounded and served as President of PAQ Services, Inc. (Jeanneret, 1990).
McCormick wrote more than 200 major articles and book chapters on the
topics of job analysis, evaluation, and classification. Two major books included Industrial
Psychology and Job Analysis: Methods and Applications. A notable contribution
was the codevelopment and copublication of the Position Analysis Questionnaire in
1969. According to Neal Schmitt and Frank Landy (1993), "the PAQ has
proved to be applicable to a wide variety of different jobs, and the availability of the
PAQ database has proved to be a rich source of data about the world of work" (p.
290). McCormick also pursued an interest in human factors. He taught Purdue's first
engineering psychology course, which led to the publication of Human Engineering in
1957. The sixth edition of this book is currently entitled Human Factors in Engineering
and Design and is available in three additional languages (Naylor, 1991). McCormick
received numerous accolades for his achievements such as the 1986 Distinguished Scientific
Contributions Award from SIOP.
McCormick was respected as a mentor and teacher. He advised over 119
graduate students. Some advisees include Angelo DeNisi, Robert Dipboye, John
Hinrichs, and Richard Jeanneret. According to Jeanneret, "[McCormick] gave
both his time and ideas to his students so they would experience enjoyment and success in
the field of I-O psychology. He was an extremely dedicated and thorough researcher, and
his insights regarding the conduct of job analysis from a behavioral perspective will
continue to have a major impact on how we study the world of work well into the next
millenium" (P. R. Jeanneret, personal communication, December 1, 1998).
The William A. Owens Scholarly Achievement Award
The William A. Owens Scholarly Achievement Award was established
"in recognition of the best publication (appearing in a refereed journal) in the
field of I-O Psychology during the past full year" (SIOP Administrative Manual).
William A. Owens (1914_ ) was born and raised in Minnesota. He
completed a B.A. degree with a major in mathematics and a minor in biological sciences
from Winona State University. He earned a M.S.-equivalent degree in experimental
psychology from the University of Chicago in 1936, and a Ph.D. in psychology from the
University of Minnesota in 1940. Owens began a long and successful academic career at Iowa
State University in 1940 where he became Head of the Department of Psychology in 1946.
(From 1942_1946, he served in the United States Naval Reserves). He moved to Purdue
University in 1959 as a professor in the psychology department. In 1968, he joined the
University of Georgia as the Director of the Psychometrics Laboratory, and became the
Director of the Institute for Behavioral Research at Georgia in 1970. He retired in 1984.
Owens published over 88 articles, book chapters, and books. An early
unknown accomplishment was the completion of the first longitudinal study on intelligence
(M. D. Mumford, personal communication, December 3, 1998). Owens conducted the basic
research on background data, which he examined from a development perspective. He also
completed initial work on typological models and explored life history patterns. As a
result of this research, Owens coauthored with Michael Mumford and Garnett
Stokes a major book, Patterns of Life Adaptation: The Ecology of Human
Individuality. He served as a coeditor for the Biodata Handbook: Theory, Research
and Use of Biographical Information in Selection and Performance Prediction (1994) and
coauthored with Mary Tenopyr the second edition of the Principles for the
Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures in 1980. Owens also developed and
published several tests or inventories such as the "Personal Inventory" and the
"Veterinary Aptitude Test." Owens' I-O colleagues acknowledged his
accomplishments by awarding him the APA-Division 14 (now known as SIOP) Distinguished
Scientific Contributions Award in 1983.
"Owens was terribly gifted in the development and teaching of
research scientists" (M. D. Mumford, personal communication, December 3, 1998).
According to Mumford, "Doc" effectively communicated why research should be
conducted and the value of becoming a research scientist. Owens could convince his
students to pursue the career of a research scientist while simultaneously describing the
realities and difficulties of the profession. Stokes commented "
Doc was [also]
gifted in the application of psychology
.He mentored many graduate students in their
first organizational consulting experiences. He was an exemplar of the
scientist-practitioner" (G. S. Stokes, personal communication, February 5, 1999).
Some of his students include Richard Klimoski, Paul Muchinsky, Michael
Mumford, Garnett Stokes, and Lyle Schoenfeldt. The University of Georgia Applied
Psychology Program named its program library in honor of William A. Owens for his
contribution to the program and to the psychology department. Owens was the 25th
president of APA_Division 14 (1969_1970).
M. Scott Myers Award for Applied Research in the Workplace
The M. Scott Myers Award for Applied Research in the Workplace was
established "in recognition of a project or product representing an outstanding
example of the practice of Industrial and Organizational Psychology in the workplace"
(SIOP Administrative Manual).
M. Scott Myers (1922_1996) was born and raised on Orcas Island, a
remote island in the state of Washington's Puget Sound. He received a B.S. degree in
psychology from Purdue University in 1948. He continued at Purdue to complete a M.S.
degree in industrial psychology in 1949 and a Ph.D. in industrial psychology in 1951.
Myers held many diverse positions throughout his successful career. He began his
profession as supervisor of personnel planning for Hughes Aircraft in Culver City,
California, and taught courses in personnel management at Los Angeles State College. He
accepted a 3 year assignment from the University of Southern California to work in Iran as
a visiting professor at the University of Tehran, where he taught classes and directed the
Personnel Management and Research Center (PMRC). He extended his stay in Iran as a
training advisor for the Government Affairs Institute in Washington, DC. Myers then
obtained a position as a management research consultant for Texas Instruments, Inc. He
also held the position of visiting professor of organizational psychology and management
at MIT's Sloan School of Management from 1969_1971. In 1973, along with his wife, Susan,
Myers established an international consulting practice.
Primarily a practitioner, Myers was probably better known by managers
and executives than by I-O psychologists. According to Lance Seberhagen (1996),
"Myers pioneered major advances in cross-cultural testing, organization development,
job enrichment, employee empowerment, self-directed work teams, job posting, attitude
surveys, total quality management, the human side of just-in-time manufacturing, employee
profit-sharing, collaborative union-management relations, and many other areas" (p.
98). P. E. Haggerty, then President of Texas Instruments, wrote in his book Management
Philosophies and Practices of Texas Instruments Incorporated (1965):
Written or not, if the attitudes which have made TI are allowed to
deteriorate, TI can quickly regress to the status of just another average company
would be derelict not to comment on Scott Myers' outstanding work to help us improve
motivation and TI climate. I urge every TI manager to collaborate with him to measure,
identify, and apply ways to motivate ourselves as managers and, more importantly, those
with whom we work (p. 37).
During his time at PMRC in Iran, Myers collaborated with a local I-O
psychologist "to train staff in psychometrics, develop psychological tests for the
Persian culture, conduct validation studies, provide employment testing services, and
publish papers on personnel management in the Persian language" (p. 99, Seberhagen,
1996). As a result of this work, Myers was awarded, by the Shah of Iran, the Gold Medal of
Cooperation for developing education in Iran.
"Ahead of his time in believing in the untapped talents of all
members of the workforce and a defier of conventional thinking" (Susan Myers,
personal communication, January 12, 1999), Myers bridged the scientist-practitioner gap by
publishing in various sources that were read by practitioners. For example, he described
innovative applications of psychology implemented at Texas Instruments in his first Harvard
Business Review best seller, "Who are your Motivated Workers." He wrote
numerous articles and books for managers and executives about I-O applications including Every
Employee a Manager, Managing with Unions, and Managing Without Unions.
According to Seberhagen "Scott provides a wonderful role-model for all I-O
psychologists. His work was innovative, scholarly, and practical; his style reflected
great modesty, integrity, and belief in the goodness of humanity." (L. W. Seberhagen,
personal communication, December 15, 1998).
Edwin E. Ghiselli Award for Research Design
The Edwin E. Ghiselli Award for Research Design is given "in
recognition of the research proposal that best shows the use of scientific methods in the
study of a phenomenon that is relevant to the field of industrial and organizational
psychology" (SIOP Administrative Manual). This award was originally established by
APA_Division 14 in 1964 as the James McKeen Cattell Award for Research Design.
Edwin E. Ghiselli (1907_1980) was born and raised in San Francisco. He
earned an A.B. degree with a major in Italian from the University of
California_Berkeley. After working briefly in the banking industry, Ghiselli returned to
Berkeley where he earned his doctorate in psychology in 1936. Ghiselli began a prolific
academic career as a National Research Council Fellow at Harvard University. He then was a
teaching fellow at Cornell University. He moved to the University of Maryland as an
instructor so he could continue to work with applied psychologist Jack Jenkins. Jenkins,
Ghiselli, and Roger Bellows collaborated to develop a comprehensive program in applied
psychology at Maryland (Beach, 1981). In 1939, Ghiselli returned to Berkeley as an
assistant professor to establish a program of teaching and research in applied psychology,
which eventually gained international recognition. His innovative program included both a
quality curriculum and a plan for giving students applied research experience in business
and industry (S. Zedeck, personal communication, December 8, 1998). Ghiselli left in 1942
to serve in the U.S. Air Force and then returned to Berkeley until his retirement in 1973.
Ghiselli was first and foremost a research scientist, authoring 8 books
and over 100 research articles. An early book published in 1948 was a basic text in
personnel psychology coauthored with C. W. Brown. According to Paul Thayer, "[Ed]
wrote a classic industrial psych book with Brown that most of us old-timers cut our teeth
on." (P. W. Thayer, personal communication, October 12, 1998). He published the Theory
of Psychological Measurement (later revised by Campbell and Zedeck) in 1964. Ghiselli
conducted a series of studies on personnel selection and managerial skills. According to
Frank Landy, "He clearly understood the importance of aggregation of single studies.
In collecting and publishing the Validity of Occupational Tests he anticipated
meta-analysis and provided his colleagues with generalizability data that is still being
referenced today" (F. J. Landy, personal communication, November 30, 1998). Ghiselli
also conducted pioneering research on managerial styles or patterns in several different
countries with Mason Haire and Lyman Porter. The resulting publication was Managerial
Thinking: An International Study in 1966.
Ghiselli's research was highly regarded by contemporaries. Sheldon
Zedeck recalled, "
Bob Guion told all of us grad students in the BGSU
program at the time (1965_1969) that there are two people whose works we must read
(everything they published): 1) Ed Ghiselli and 2) Pat Smith" (S. Zedeck,
personal communication, December 7, 1998). Ghiselli was awarded on several occasions for
his scientific achievements including the APA Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award
in 1972. He was also a gifted teacher and a mentor who was respected and admired by his
students. Some of his students include Mike Gordon, Dan Kahneman, and Karlene Roberts.
Ghiselli served as the 10th President of APA_Division 14 (1954_1955).
S. Rains Wallace Dissertation Research Award
The S. Rains Wallace Dissertation Research Award was established to
recognize "the best doctoral dissertation research in the field of industrial and
organizational psychology. The winning dissertation research should demonstrate the use of
research methods that are both rigorous and creative" (SIOP Administrative Manual).
S. Rains Wallace (1913_1973) earned an undergraduate degree with a
major in English from the University of Virginia and later completed his Ph.D. in
psychology there in 1937. After completing his doctorate, Wallace went to Tulane
University until 1942 when he joined the Army Air Force and conducted research on the
selection and training of air crews. He returned to Tulane University in 1946 as chair of
the psychology department. Shortly thereafter, in 1947, Wallace became vice-president of
research at the Life Agency Insurance Management Association (LIAMA) in Hartford,
Connecticut. He left LIAMA on a 2-year leave to serve as chief of the behavioral and
social sciences section, Department of Defense. In 1967, Wallace became president and CEO
of the American Institute of Research. He returned to academia in 1970 by accepting a
position as professor and chair of the psychology department at The Ohio State University
Wallace made innumerable contributions to I-O psychology. When he
worked for LIAMA, Wallace planned and organized studies in selection, evaluation, and
training of life insurance agents and managers. Paul Thayer stated:
[Wallace's] ability to communicate research findings and their
implications to marketing executives in the over-500 member companies created a
relationship with them leading to enhanced cooperative efforts to support and participate
in research. Executives came to understand the need for large samples, control groups,
rigorous data collection procedures, and statistical analyses. He was in constant demand
as a speaker, and usually spoke on research and the importance of it. In addition, he
broadened the research program to include other disciplines and many aspects of
psychology: consumer research, training research, personnel growth and attrition studies,
interview research, management development, and so forth (P. W. Thayer, personal
communication, January 12, 1999).
According to Bill McGehee as quoted in Joe Weitz' article (1974),
"[Wallace's] major contribution to psychology was keeping his colleagues honest in
the science and practice of psychology. Many research reports and books are better because
he asked penetrating questions. Rains as a psychologist was first a scientist. His
tolerance for practice without scientific basis was nil" (p. 395). Thayer commented,
"His `Criteria for What' paper is probably a citation classic, and his Annual Review
chapter with Joe Weitz is also widely cited" (P. W. Thayer, personal communication,
October, 12, 1998). Furthermore, Milt Hakel noted "Rains created excitement
and energy wherever he went. When he returned to OSU in 1970, he provided the right
amounts of structure and consideration for the I-O program to grow. His brief editorship
of Personnel Psychology proved to be the turning point in its development" (M.
D. Hakel, personal communication, November 30, 1998). Wallace served as the 19th president
of APA_Division 14 (1963_1964).
The John C. Flanagan Award for
Best Student Presentation at the SIOP Conference
The John C. Flanagan Award was established to recognize the best
student contribution at the SIOP Conference (Yammarino, 1998). John C. Flanagan
(1906_1996) was born in South Dakota and raised in Washington. After obtaining his B.S. in
physics in 1929 at the University of Washington, Flanagan coached football and taught high
school mathematics for 3 years. In 1932, he received a M.A. degree in education from the
University of Washington. During this period, Flanagan attended a summer seminar at Yale
University where several leaders in education (Truman L. Kelley of Harvard, Edward L.
Thorndike of Columbia Teacher's College, Boyd H. Bode of OSU) made presentations. Soon
after the seminar, Truman Kelly offered Flanagan a fellowship to study at Harvard. In
1934, he was granted a Ph.D. in mental measurement at Harvard University after only 2
years in residence (Clemans, 1997). Flanagan began a flourishing career in 1935 at the
Cooperative Test Service, which was linked to the American Council on Education. In 1941,
he joined the Army Air Corps where he established the Aviation Psychology Program of the
U.S. Army Air Corps. Shortly after leaving the Air Corps in 1946, Flanagan created the
American Institute of Research (AIR, now known as American Institutes for Research) as a
not-for-profit organization to "contribute to the science of human behavior and the
fuller development and utilization of mankind's capacities and potential" (p. 1375,
Clemans, 1997). He retired in 1988.
Flanagan facilitated the development of applied psychology through
several innovative and ambitious programs. For example, the Aviation Psychology Program
has been considered a milestone in the history of psychology because it was one of the
most successful applied psychology programs (Clemans, 1997). Flanagan developed a two-step
selection procedure to identify enlisted servicemen who could become successful pilots,
copilots, navigators, and bombardiers. The first step was a screening based on a general
qualifying test. Over 1.25 million cadets were tested in this first step. The second step
involved assessing cadets with 20 tests of aptitude, proficiency and temperament. Using
multiple regression, candidates for each position were categorized into nine groups, which
was the birth of stanine scores (Clemans, 1997).
When Flanagan created AIR, he established a 20-year research program to
focus on several areas. One such area was the identification of critical requirements for
key jobs and activities. According to Irv Goldstein, "Flanagan is a famous
personhe was the inventor/creator of the critical incident technique" (I. L.
Goldstein, personal communication, December 5, 1998), which was presented in his 1954
publication. While at AIR, Flanagan directed a plethora of research studies that
eventually contributed to reforming education. He also developed the "Flanagan
Aptitude Classification Test" and the "Flanagan Industrial Tests."
Flanagan's publication list includes 339 entries on "significant methodological
contributions, including his definitive discussion of units, scores, and norms in the
American Council on Education's classic book Educational Measurement in 1951"
(p. 1376, Clemans, 1997). Flanagan received numerous awards including the APA
Distinguished Professional Contribution Award in 1976 and the 1982 Professional Practice
Award of APA_Division 14.
Robert J. Wherry Award for
Best Paper at the IO-OB Graduate Student Conference
The Robert J. Wherry Award was established to recognize the best paper
at the IO-OB Graduate Student Conference (Yammarino, 1998).
Robert J. Wherry (1904-1981) was born and raised in Ohio. He received
his B.A. in Education at The Ohio State University in 1925 and taught high school history
and economics before returning in 1926 to get his M.A. By then, Herbert A. Toops had
developed his OSPE (intelligence) test and required all incoming students to sit for the
exam. Toops was so impressed with Wherry's exceedingly high scores that he offered Wherry
a graduate assistantship. Wherry accepted, found he loved statistics, changed his major to
psychology, received his M.A. in 1927, and became Toops' first (or second) Ph.D. in 1929
(R. J. Wherry, Jr., personal communication, February 1, 1999). Wherry began a
distinguished academic career at Cumberland University in 1929 and in 1937, joined the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC). Wherry had several leaves of absence
from UNC during World War II for various positions of high responsibility for research
administration and development of personnel research methods and performance test
batteries for the Navy, Army, and the War Department (R. J. Wherry, Jr., personal
communication, February 1, 1999). In 1948, Wherry left UNC and returned to OSU; he served
as department chair from 1960 until 1970. He retired in 1974.
Wherry's contributions to I-O psychology were primarily quantitative in
nature. He published numerous articles on quantitative methods and statistics such as the
Wherry-Doolittle method and the Wherry-Winer method in factor analysis. According to James
[Wherry's] statistical contributions included shrinkage and multiple
regression formulas, item and hierarchical factor analysis algorithms, generation of
multivariate distributions, and clustering of rater decision weights (c.f. Wherry, 1984).
Concerning the latter, Wherry helped develop the forced choice rating method during WWII
and willingly provided critical commentary on criterion measurement over the years. More
importantly, he proposed a theory of ratings that merged cognitive and psychometric
insights in a series of Army Technical Reports (Wherry & Bartlett, 1982) (p. 56).
Wherry authored over 100 journal articles and professional papers.
After his retirement from OSU, he wrote the book Contributions to Correlational
Analysis, which discusses many techniques he and his students developed during his
career (R. J. Wherry, Jr., personal communication, February 1, 1999).
Wherry was considered to be an effective teacher and was highly
regarded by students and colleagues. According to Richard Klimoski:
[Wherry] was recognized as a very competent quantitative psychologist
[and] as a good one-on-one teacher. He once sat with me and did a factor rotation `by
hand' to see if we could capture more variance (R. J. Klimoski, personal communication,
December 2, 1998).
Ray Katzell noted:
[Wherry's] graduate classes in statistics were always packed and other
faculty came to them. He was the type of unselfish faculty that had students lined up at
his door, down the hall, outside his office. Everyone wanted him on his or her committee.
He was a master at cutting through some vague conceptualization of a problem to
operationalizing it in terms that could be dealt with by the appropriate (or an
innovative) experimental design and statistical analysis (R. Katzell, personal
communication, January 26, 1999).
Paul Thayer recalled "If [Wherry] served on your dissertation
committee, he was most helpful in the statistical analyses. And his presence at the oral
guaranteed that none of the other faculty would ask statistical questions of the
candidate. He was the EXPERT." (P. W. Thayer, personal communication, January 12,
1999). Throughout his academic career, Wherry trained 81 Ph.D.s. Some students include
Richard Gaylord, B. J. Winer, Donald Grant, Dugan, Jack Bartlett, and Robert
I hope you enjoyed recalling or learning about these I-O luminaries. It
seems appropriate that the SIOP awards are named in honor of individuals whose lives and
careers depict the scientist-practitioner paradigm that characterizes the I-O psychology
profession. These men contributed immensely to the discipline by maintaining a
science_practice interface without compromising integrity and quality. As I talked with
colleagues, it became apparent that these eminent scholars were/are well-liked and revered
by many for their warmth, sincerity, and intellect.
A challenge in conducting historical research is locating pertinent
information. I thank the following individuals for providing information and/or reviewing
earlier drafts: Jim Austin, Kim Bryan, David Devonis, Irv Goldstein, Bob Guion, Lee Hakel,
Milt Hakel, Dick Jeanneret, Ray Katzell, Rich Klimoski, Frank Landy, Wynne Lewis (daughter
of Ernest J. McCormick), Susan Myers, Mike Mumford, Lance Seberhagen, Garnett Stokes, Paul
Thayer, Keith Tidman of AIR, Robert Wherry, Jr., Fran Yammarino, and Shelly Zedeck.
Correspondence regarding this article or SIOP history may be sent to
Laura L. Koppes, Chair, Dr. Ralph W. Ketner School of Business, Tri-State University, 1
University Ave., Angola, IN 46703 or to KOPPESL@alpha.tristate.edu
Austin, J. T. (1992, April). History of industrial-organizational psychology at Ohio
State The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 29(4), 51_58
Bartlett, C. J. (1982). Robert J. Wherry, Sr. 1904_1981. Personnel Psychology, 35
Beach, F. A. (1981). Edwin E. Ghiselli (1907_1980). American Psychologist, 36(7),
Clemans, W. V. (1997, December). John Clemans Flanagan (1906_1996). American
Psychologist, 52(12), 1375_1376
Flanagan, J. C. (1954). The critical incident technique. Psychological Bulletin,
Ghiselli, E. E. (1964). Theory of psychological measurement. New York: McGraw-Hill
Haggerty, P. E. (1965). Management philosophies and practices of Texas Instruments
Incorporated. Dallas, TX: Texas Instruments Inc.
Jeanneret, P. R. (1990, July). In memory of Ernest J. McCormick (1911_1990). The
Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 28(1), 53_54
Myers, M. S. (1964). Who are your motivated workers? Harvard Business Review, 42
Myers, M. S. (1991). Every employee a manager (3rd ed.) San Diego: Pfieffer & Co.
Naylor, J. C. (1991, April). Ernest J. McCormick (1911-1990). American Psychologist,
Schmitt, N. & Landy, F. J. (1993). The concept of validity. In N. Schmitt, W.
Borman, and Associates (Eds.), Personnel Selection in Organizations
Seberhagen, L. W. (1996, October). M. Scott Myers, 1922-1996. The
Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 34(2), 98_100
Weitz, J. (1974). S. Rains Wallace, 1913_1973. Personnel Psychology, 27,
Yammarino, F. J. (1998, July). Call for nominations and entries: 1999 awards of the
society for industrial and organizational psychology. The Industrial-Organizational
Psychologist, 36(1), 77_91
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