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Ideals of Science: Persons Behind the SIOP Awards

Laura L. Koppes
Tri-State University

The Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP), Inc., APA-Division 14, currently administers seven awards named in honor of specific individuals who made significant contributions to the discipline of Industrial and Organizational (I-O) Psychology. The awards (as listed in the SIOP Administrative Manual) include:

Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions

William A. Owens Scholarly Achievement Award

M. Scott Myers Award for Applied Research in the Workplace

Edwin E. Ghiselli Award for Research Design

S. Rains Wallace Dissertation Research Award

John C. Flanagan Award for Best Student Contribution at the SIOP Conference

Robert J. Wherry Award for Best Paper at the IO-OB Graduate Student Conference

With the passage of time and the evolution of new generations of I-O psychologists, the memories of these men may become extinct. The purpose of this article is to renew our memory of these seven scholars of I-O psychology by providing brief backgrounds and highlighting a few contributions so that we may continue to recognize their accomplishments and to appreciate the efforts of past and current award recipients. I first contacted SIOP past-president and I-O history advocate, Paul Thayer, to begin data collection on these individuals. I think you will agree with Thayer's comments:

As I review these names I am struck by the fact that all these men were very special people. Every one of them had a very strong impact on people and were loved—literally—by those around them. They were/are men of integrity who were on the leading edges of the field at one time or another, and who fought for high standards and fair treatment. First class people!
(P. W. Thayer, personal communication, October 12, 1998).

Ernest J. McCormick Award for
Distinguished Early Career Contributions

The Ernest J. McCormick Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions was established "to recognize an individual who had made the most distinguished contributions to the science and/or practice of industrial and organizational psychology within 7 years of receiving the Ph.D. degree" (SIOP Administrative Manual).

Ernest J. McCormick (1911_1990) was born in Indiana and grew up in Ohio where he received a B.A. from Ohio Wesleyan University in 1933. After working for 2 years with the Cotton Garment Code Authority in New York City, McCormick went to Washington, DC as Chief of the Planning Unit, Job Analysis and Information Section, U.S. Employment Service. A primary responsibility was to develop a nationwide job analysis program and create a job classification and coding system for federal agencies. This system evolved into the first edition of the Dictionary of Occupational Titles. In 1939, McCormick went to the Bureau of the Census and then to the Occupational Statistics Section of the Selective Service System in 1941. He was commissioned by the Navy in 1943 and was assigned as Chief of the Classification Analysis Unit, Enlisted Classification Section, Bureau of Naval Personnel. McCormick was stricken with polio in August, 1945, and subsequently, was given convalescent leave in 1946 (Naylor, 1991). He then pursued graduate work in industrial psychology at Purdue University. He received an M.S. degree in 1947. When he completed his Ph.D. in 1948, McCormick was offered a position at Purdue as an assistant professor where he pursued a distinguished academic career until his retirement in 1977. McCormick also cofounded and served as President of PAQ Services, Inc. (Jeanneret, 1990).

McCormick wrote more than 200 major articles and book chapters on the topics of job analysis, evaluation, and classification. Two major books included Industrial Psychology and Job Analysis: Methods and Applications. A notable contribution was the codevelopment and copublication of the Position Analysis Questionnaire in 1969. According to Neal Schmitt and Frank Landy (1993), "the PAQ has proved to be applicable to a wide variety of different jobs, and the availability of the PAQ database has proved to be a rich source of data about the world of work" (p. 290). McCormick also pursued an interest in human factors. He taught Purdue's first engineering psychology course, which led to the publication of Human Engineering in 1957. The sixth edition of this book is currently entitled Human Factors in Engineering and Design and is available in three additional languages (Naylor, 1991). McCormick received numerous accolades for his achievements such as the 1986 Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award from SIOP.

McCormick was respected as a mentor and teacher. He advised over 119 graduate students. Some advisees include Angelo DeNisi, Robert Dipboye, John Hinrichs, and Richard Jeanneret. According to Jeanneret, "[McCormick] gave both his time and ideas to his students so they would experience enjoyment and success in the field of I-O psychology. He was an extremely dedicated and thorough researcher, and his insights regarding the conduct of job analysis from a behavioral perspective will continue to have a major impact on how we study the world of work well into the next millenium" (P. R. Jeanneret, personal communication, December 1, 1998).

The William A. Owens Scholarly Achievement Award

The William A. Owens Scholarly Achievement Award was established "in recognition of the best publication (appearing in a refereed journal) in the field of I-O Psychology during the past full year" (SIOP Administrative Manual).

William A. Owens (1914_ ) was born and raised in Minnesota. He completed a B.A. degree with a major in mathematics and a minor in biological sciences from Winona State University. He earned a M.S.-equivalent degree in experimental psychology from the University of Chicago in 1936, and a Ph.D. in psychology from the University of Minnesota in 1940. Owens began a long and successful academic career at Iowa State University in 1940 where he became Head of the Department of Psychology in 1946. (From 1942_1946, he served in the United States Naval Reserves). He moved to Purdue University in 1959 as a professor in the psychology department. In 1968, he joined the University of Georgia as the Director of the Psychometrics Laboratory, and became the Director of the Institute for Behavioral Research at Georgia in 1970. He retired in 1984.

Owens published over 88 articles, book chapters, and books. An early unknown accomplishment was the completion of the first longitudinal study on intelligence (M. D. Mumford, personal communication, December 3, 1998). Owens conducted the basic research on background data, which he examined from a development perspective. He also completed initial work on typological models and explored life history patterns. As a result of this research, Owens coauthored with Michael Mumford and Garnett Stokes a major book, Patterns of Life Adaptation: The Ecology of Human Individuality. He served as a coeditor for the Biodata Handbook: Theory, Research and Use of Biographical Information in Selection and Performance Prediction (1994) and coauthored with Mary Tenopyr the second edition of the Principles for the Validation and Use of Personnel Selection Procedures in 1980. Owens also developed and published several tests or inventories such as the "Personal Inventory" and the "Veterinary Aptitude Test." Owens' I-O colleagues acknowledged his accomplishments by awarding him the APA-Division 14 (now known as SIOP) Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award in 1983.

"Owens was terribly gifted in the development and teaching of research scientists" (M. D. Mumford, personal communication, December 3, 1998). According to Mumford, "Doc" effectively communicated why research should be conducted and the value of becoming a research scientist. Owens could convince his students to pursue the career of a research scientist while simultaneously describing the realities and difficulties of the profession. Stokes commented "…Doc was [also] gifted in the application of psychology….He mentored many graduate students in their first organizational consulting experiences. He was an exemplar of the scientist-practitioner" (G. S. Stokes, personal communication, February 5, 1999). Some of his students include Richard Klimoski, Paul Muchinsky, Michael Mumford, Garnett Stokes, and Lyle Schoenfeldt. The University of Georgia Applied Psychology Program named its program library in honor of William A. Owens for his contribution to the program and to the psychology department. Owens was the 25th president of APA_Division 14 (1969_1970).

M. Scott Myers Award for Applied Research in the Workplace

The M. Scott Myers Award for Applied Research in the Workplace was established "in recognition of a project or product representing an outstanding example of the practice of Industrial and Organizational Psychology in the workplace" (SIOP Administrative Manual).

M. Scott Myers (1922_1996) was born and raised on Orcas Island, a remote island in the state of Washington's Puget Sound. He received a B.S. degree in psychology from Purdue University in 1948. He continued at Purdue to complete a M.S. degree in industrial psychology in 1949 and a Ph.D. in industrial psychology in 1951. Myers held many diverse positions throughout his successful career. He began his profession as supervisor of personnel planning for Hughes Aircraft in Culver City, California, and taught courses in personnel management at Los Angeles State College. He accepted a 3 year assignment from the University of Southern California to work in Iran as a visiting professor at the University of Tehran, where he taught classes and directed the Personnel Management and Research Center (PMRC). He extended his stay in Iran as a training advisor for the Government Affairs Institute in Washington, DC. Myers then obtained a position as a management research consultant for Texas Instruments, Inc. He also held the position of visiting professor of organizational psychology and management at MIT's Sloan School of Management from 1969_1971. In 1973, along with his wife, Susan, Myers established an international consulting practice.

Primarily a practitioner, Myers was probably better known by managers and executives than by I-O psychologists. According to Lance Seberhagen (1996), "Myers pioneered major advances in cross-cultural testing, organization development, job enrichment, employee empowerment, self-directed work teams, job posting, attitude surveys, total quality management, the human side of just-in-time manufacturing, employee profit-sharing, collaborative union-management relations, and many other areas" (p. 98). P. E. Haggerty, then President of Texas Instruments, wrote in his book Management Philosophies and Practices of Texas Instruments Incorporated (1965):

Written or not, if the attitudes which have made TI are allowed to deteriorate, TI can quickly regress to the status of just another average company…. I would be derelict not to comment on Scott Myers' outstanding work to help us improve motivation and TI climate. I urge every TI manager to collaborate with him to measure, identify, and apply ways to motivate ourselves as managers and, more importantly, those with whom we work (p. 37).

During his time at PMRC in Iran, Myers collaborated with a local I-O psychologist "to train staff in psychometrics, develop psychological tests for the Persian culture, conduct validation studies, provide employment testing services, and publish papers on personnel management in the Persian language" (p. 99, Seberhagen, 1996). As a result of this work, Myers was awarded, by the Shah of Iran, the Gold Medal of Cooperation for developing education in Iran.

"Ahead of his time in believing in the untapped talents of all members of the workforce and a defier of conventional thinking" (Susan Myers, personal communication, January 12, 1999), Myers bridged the scientist-practitioner gap by publishing in various sources that were read by practitioners. For example, he described innovative applications of psychology implemented at Texas Instruments in his first Harvard Business Review best seller, "Who are your Motivated Workers." He wrote numerous articles and books for managers and executives about I-O applications including Every Employee a Manager, Managing with Unions, and Managing Without Unions. According to Seberhagen "Scott provides a wonderful role-model for all I-O psychologists. His work was innovative, scholarly, and practical; his style reflected great modesty, integrity, and belief in the goodness of humanity." (L. W. Seberhagen, personal communication, December 15, 1998).

Edwin E. Ghiselli Award for Research Design

The Edwin E. Ghiselli Award for Research Design is given "in recognition of the research proposal that best shows the use of scientific methods in the study of a phenomenon that is relevant to the field of industrial and organizational psychology" (SIOP Administrative Manual). This award was originally established by APA_Division 14 in 1964 as the James McKeen Cattell Award for Research Design.

Edwin E. Ghiselli (1907_1980) was born and raised in San Francisco. He earned an A.B. degree with a major in Italian from the University of California_Berkeley. After working briefly in the banking industry, Ghiselli returned to Berkeley where he earned his doctorate in psychology in 1936. Ghiselli began a prolific academic career as a National Research Council Fellow at Harvard University. He then was a teaching fellow at Cornell University. He moved to the University of Maryland as an instructor so he could continue to work with applied psychologist Jack Jenkins. Jenkins, Ghiselli, and Roger Bellows collaborated to develop a comprehensive program in applied psychology at Maryland (Beach, 1981). In 1939, Ghiselli returned to Berkeley as an assistant professor to establish a program of teaching and research in applied psychology, which eventually gained international recognition. His innovative program included both a quality curriculum and a plan for giving students applied research experience in business and industry (S. Zedeck, personal communication, December 8, 1998). Ghiselli left in 1942 to serve in the U.S. Air Force and then returned to Berkeley until his retirement in 1973.

Ghiselli was first and foremost a research scientist, authoring 8 books and over 100 research articles. An early book published in 1948 was a basic text in personnel psychology coauthored with C. W. Brown. According to Paul Thayer, "[Ed] wrote a classic industrial psych book with Brown that most of us old-timers cut our teeth on." (P. W. Thayer, personal communication, October 12, 1998). He published the Theory of Psychological Measurement (later revised by Campbell and Zedeck) in 1964. Ghiselli conducted a series of studies on personnel selection and managerial skills. According to Frank Landy, "He clearly understood the importance of aggregation of single studies. In collecting and publishing the Validity of Occupational Tests he anticipated meta-analysis and provided his colleagues with generalizability data that is still being referenced today" (F. J. Landy, personal communication, November 30, 1998). Ghiselli also conducted pioneering research on managerial styles or patterns in several different countries with Mason Haire and Lyman Porter. The resulting publication was Managerial Thinking: An International Study in 1966.

Ghiselli's research was highly regarded by contemporaries. Sheldon Zedeck recalled, "…Bob Guion told all of us grad students in the BGSU program at the time (1965_1969) that there are two people whose works we must read (everything they published): 1) Ed Ghiselli and 2) Pat Smith" (S. Zedeck, personal communication, December 7, 1998). Ghiselli was awarded on several occasions for his scientific achievements including the APA Distinguished Scientific Contributions Award in 1972. He was also a gifted teacher and a mentor who was respected and admired by his students. Some of his students include Mike Gordon, Dan Kahneman, and Karlene Roberts. Ghiselli served as the 10th President of APA_Division 14 (1954_1955).

S. Rains Wallace Dissertation Research Award

The S. Rains Wallace Dissertation Research Award was established to recognize "the best doctoral dissertation research in the field of industrial and organizational psychology. The winning dissertation research should demonstrate the use of research methods that are both rigorous and creative" (SIOP Administrative Manual).

S. Rains Wallace (1913_1973) earned an undergraduate degree with a major in English from the University of Virginia and later completed his Ph.D. in psychology there in 1937. After completing his doctorate, Wallace went to Tulane University until 1942 when he joined the Army Air Force and conducted research on the selection and training of air crews. He returned to Tulane University in 1946 as chair of the psychology department. Shortly thereafter, in 1947, Wallace became vice-president of research at the Life Agency Insurance Management Association (LIAMA) in Hartford, Connecticut. He left LIAMA on a 2-year leave to serve as chief of the behavioral and social sciences section, Department of Defense. In 1967, Wallace became president and CEO of the American Institute of Research. He returned to academia in 1970 by accepting a position as professor and chair of the psychology department at The Ohio State University (OSU).

Wallace made innumerable contributions to I-O psychology. When he worked for LIAMA, Wallace planned and organized studies in selection, evaluation, and training of life insurance agents and managers. Paul Thayer stated:

[Wallace's] ability to communicate research findings and their implications to marketing executives in the over-500 member companies created a relationship with them leading to enhanced cooperative efforts to support and participate in research. Executives came to understand the need for large samples, control groups, rigorous data collection procedures, and statistical analyses. He was in constant demand as a speaker, and usually spoke on research and the importance of it. In addition, he broadened the research program to include other disciplines and many aspects of psychology: consumer research, training research, personnel growth and attrition studies, interview research, management development, and so forth (P. W. Thayer, personal communication, January 12, 1999).

According to Bill McGehee as quoted in Joe Weitz' article (1974), "[Wallace's] major contribution to psychology was keeping his colleagues honest in the science and practice of psychology. Many research reports and books are better because he asked penetrating questions. Rains as a psychologist was first a scientist. His tolerance for practice without scientific basis was nil" (p. 395). Thayer commented, "His `Criteria for What' paper is probably a citation classic, and his Annual Review chapter with Joe Weitz is also widely cited" (P. W. Thayer, personal communication, October, 12, 1998). Furthermore, Milt Hakel noted "Rains created excitement and energy wherever he went. When he returned to OSU in 1970, he provided the right amounts of structure and consideration for the I-O program to grow. His brief editorship of Personnel Psychology proved to be the turning point in its development" (M. D. Hakel, personal communication, November 30, 1998). Wallace served as the 19th president of APA_Division 14 (1963_1964).

The John C. Flanagan Award for
Best Student Presentation at
the SIOP Conference

The John C. Flanagan Award was established to recognize the best student contribution at the SIOP Conference (Yammarino, 1998). John C. Flanagan (1906_1996) was born in South Dakota and raised in Washington. After obtaining his B.S. in physics in 1929 at the University of Washington, Flanagan coached football and taught high school mathematics for 3 years. In 1932, he received a M.A. degree in education from the University of Washington. During this period, Flanagan attended a summer seminar at Yale University where several leaders in education (Truman L. Kelley of Harvard, Edward L. Thorndike of Columbia Teacher's College, Boyd H. Bode of OSU) made presentations. Soon after the seminar, Truman Kelly offered Flanagan a fellowship to study at Harvard. In 1934, he was granted a Ph.D. in mental measurement at Harvard University after only 2 years in residence (Clemans, 1997). Flanagan began a flourishing career in 1935 at the Cooperative Test Service, which was linked to the American Council on Education. In 1941, he joined the Army Air Corps where he established the Aviation Psychology Program of the U.S. Army Air Corps. Shortly after leaving the Air Corps in 1946, Flanagan created the American Institute of Research (AIR, now known as American Institutes for Research) as a not-for-profit organization to "contribute to the science of human behavior and the fuller development and utilization of mankind's capacities and potential" (p. 1375, Clemans, 1997). He retired in 1988.

Flanagan facilitated the development of applied psychology through several innovative and ambitious programs. For example, the Aviation Psychology Program has been considered a milestone in the history of psychology because it was one of the most successful applied psychology programs (Clemans, 1997). Flanagan developed a two-step selection procedure to identify enlisted servicemen who could become successful pilots, copilots, navigators, and bombardiers. The first step was a screening based on a general qualifying test. Over 1.25 million cadets were tested in this first step. The second step involved assessing cadets with 20 tests of aptitude, proficiency and temperament. Using multiple regression, candidates for each position were categorized into nine groups, which was the birth of stanine scores (Clemans, 1997).

When Flanagan created AIR, he established a 20-year research program to focus on several areas. One such area was the identification of critical requirements for key jobs and activities. According to Irv Goldstein, "Flanagan is a famous person—he was the inventor/creator of the critical incident technique" (I. L. Goldstein, personal communication, December 5, 1998), which was presented in his 1954 publication. While at AIR, Flanagan directed a plethora of research studies that eventually contributed to reforming education. He also developed the "Flanagan Aptitude Classification Test" and the "Flanagan Industrial Tests." Flanagan's publication list includes 339 entries on "significant methodological contributions, including his definitive discussion of units, scores, and norms in the American Council on Education's classic book Educational Measurement in 1951" (p. 1376, Clemans, 1997). Flanagan received numerous awards including the APA Distinguished Professional Contribution Award in 1976 and the 1982 Professional Practice Award of APA_Division 14.

Robert J. Wherry Award for
Best Paper at the IO-OB Graduate Student Conference

The Robert J. Wherry Award was established to recognize the best paper at the IO-OB Graduate Student Conference (Yammarino, 1998).

Robert J. Wherry (1904-1981) was born and raised in Ohio. He received his B.A. in Education at The Ohio State University in 1925 and taught high school history and economics before returning in 1926 to get his M.A. By then, Herbert A. Toops had developed his OSPE (intelligence) test and required all incoming students to sit for the exam. Toops was so impressed with Wherry's exceedingly high scores that he offered Wherry a graduate assistantship. Wherry accepted, found he loved statistics, changed his major to psychology, received his M.A. in 1927, and became Toops' first (or second) Ph.D. in 1929 (R. J. Wherry, Jr., personal communication, February 1, 1999). Wherry began a distinguished academic career at Cumberland University in 1929 and in 1937, joined the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC). Wherry had several leaves of absence from UNC during World War II for various positions of high responsibility for research administration and development of personnel research methods and performance test batteries for the Navy, Army, and the War Department (R. J. Wherry, Jr., personal communication, February 1, 1999). In 1948, Wherry left UNC and returned to OSU; he served as department chair from 1960 until 1970. He retired in 1974.

Wherry's contributions to I-O psychology were primarily quantitative in nature. He published numerous articles on quantitative methods and statistics such as the Wherry-Doolittle method and the Wherry-Winer method in factor analysis. According to James Austin (1992):

[Wherry's] statistical contributions included shrinkage and multiple regression formulas, item and hierarchical factor analysis algorithms, generation of multivariate distributions, and clustering of rater decision weights (c.f. Wherry, 1984). Concerning the latter, Wherry helped develop the forced choice rating method during WWII and willingly provided critical commentary on criterion measurement over the years. More importantly, he proposed a theory of ratings that merged cognitive and psychometric insights in a series of Army Technical Reports (Wherry & Bartlett, 1982) (p. 56).

Wherry authored over 100 journal articles and professional papers. After his retirement from OSU, he wrote the book Contributions to Correlational Analysis, which discusses many techniques he and his students developed during his career (R. J. Wherry, Jr., personal communication, February 1, 1999).

Wherry was considered to be an effective teacher and was highly regarded by students and colleagues. According to Richard Klimoski:

[Wherry] was recognized as a very competent quantitative psychologist [and] as a good one-on-one teacher. He once sat with me and did a factor rotation `by hand' to see if we could capture more variance (R. J. Klimoski, personal communication, December 2, 1998).

Ray Katzell noted:

[Wherry's] graduate classes in statistics were always packed and other faculty came to them. He was the type of unselfish faculty that had students lined up at his door, down the hall, outside his office. Everyone wanted him on his or her committee. He was a master at cutting through some vague conceptualization of a problem to operationalizing it in terms that could be dealt with by the appropriate (or an innovative) experimental design and statistical analysis (R. Katzell, personal communication, January 26, 1999).

Paul Thayer recalled "If [Wherry] served on your dissertation committee, he was most helpful in the statistical analyses. And his presence at the oral guaranteed that none of the other faculty would ask statistical questions of the candidate. He was the EXPERT." (P. W. Thayer, personal communication, January 12, 1999). Throughout his academic career, Wherry trained 81 Ph.D.s. Some students include Richard Gaylord, B. J. Winer, Donald Grant, Dugan, Jack Bartlett, and Robert Wherry, Jr.


I hope you enjoyed recalling or learning about these I-O luminaries. It seems appropriate that the SIOP awards are named in honor of individuals whose lives and careers depict the scientist-practitioner paradigm that characterizes the I-O psychology profession. These men contributed immensely to the discipline by maintaining a science_practice interface without compromising integrity and quality. As I talked with colleagues, it became apparent that these eminent scholars were/are well-liked and revered by many for their warmth, sincerity, and intellect.

A challenge in conducting historical research is locating pertinent information. I thank the following individuals for providing information and/or reviewing earlier drafts: Jim Austin, Kim Bryan, David Devonis, Irv Goldstein, Bob Guion, Lee Hakel, Milt Hakel, Dick Jeanneret, Ray Katzell, Rich Klimoski, Frank Landy, Wynne Lewis (daughter of Ernest J. McCormick), Susan Myers, Mike Mumford, Lance Seberhagen, Garnett Stokes, Paul Thayer, Keith Tidman of AIR, Robert Wherry, Jr., Fran Yammarino, and Shelly Zedeck.

Correspondence regarding this article or SIOP history may be sent to Laura L. Koppes, Chair, Dr. Ralph W. Ketner School of Business, Tri-State University, 1 University Ave., Angola, IN 46703 or to KOPPESL@alpha.tristate.edu     


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Naylor, J. C. (1991, April). Ernest J. McCormick (1911-1990). American Psychologist, 6(4), 438

Schmitt, N. & Landy, F. J. (1993). The concept of validity. In N. Schmitt, W. Borman, and Associates (Eds.), Personnel Selection in Organizations

Seberhagen, L. W. (1996, October). M. Scott Myers, 1922-1996. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 34(2), 98_100

Weitz, J. (1974). S. Rains Wallace, 1913_1973. Personnel Psychology, 27, 393_396

Yammarino, F. J. (1998, July). Call for nominations and entries: 1999 awards of the society for industrial and organizational psychology. The Industrial-Organizational Psychologist, 36(1), 77_91

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